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Engineering management of Underground Storage Tank upgrades and installations

Description: Remediation of Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) is estimated to cost more than $41 billion in the United States. As of May 1992, 1.5 million Underground Storage Tanks were registered in USA. By September 1992, 184,000 confirmed releases (leaks) were reported in USA. Due to such a vast impact on the environment due to leaking USTS, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published final UST regulations in the Federal Register on September 23,1988 (40CFR Part 280) which affected almost every commercial underground storage tank (UST). In a rush to comply with UST regulations, it is important that sufficient attention has been paid to engineering aspects of the work. Due to wide array of UST leak prevention and detection products available, selection of appropriate instrumentation can be time consuming. Most states have taken federal government standards on USTs and incorporated them as state regulations with their state specific modifications depending on their local geological conditions and environmental priorities. However, it is important to find out that state`s UST program has been approved by USEPA. This paper consists of discussion of issues based on the author`s UST project related experience from current and previous employment. Following are the major UST related regulatory topics discussed in this paper: Specifications;Hiring a contractor; Piping Selection and Installation; UST Selection and Installation; Leak Detection System Environmental Sampling.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Patel, P. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary characterization of the 100 area at Argonne National Laboratory

Description: This characterization report is based on the results of sampling and an initial environmental assessment of the 100 Area of Argonne National Laboratory. It addresses the current status, projected data requirements, and recommended actions for five study areas within the 100 Area: the Lime Sludge Pond, the Building 108 Liquid Retention Pond, the Coal Yard, the East Area Burn Pit, and the Eastern Perimeter Area. Two of these areas are solid waste management units under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (the Lime Sludge Pond and the Building 108 Liquid Retention Pond); however, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has determined that no further action is necessary for the Lime Sludge Pond. Operational records for some of the activities were not available, and one study area (the East Area Burn Pit) could not be precisely located. Recommendations for further investigation include sample collection to obtain the following information: (1) mineralogy of major minerals and clays within the soils and underlying aquifer, (2) pH of the soils, (3) total clay fraction of the soils, (4) cation exchange capacity of the soils and aquifer materials, and (5) exchangeable cations of the soils and aquifer material. Various other actions are recommended for the 100 Area, including an electromagnetic survey, sampling of several study areas to determine the extent of contamination and potential migration pathways, and sampling to determine the presence of any radionuclides. For some of the study areas, additional actions are contingent on the results of the initial recommendations.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Biang, C.; Biang, R. & Patel, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CP-5 Reactor yard characterization study

Description: This paper presents the results of a characterization study of the yard of the CP-5 Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. Low-level radiological contamination is suspected to have occurred at the yard primarily because of leaks from the cooling tower located in the yard. The CP-5 Reactor was a 5-MW research reactor that operated from 1954 until its shutdown in 1979. The CP-5 yard also stored a number of pieces of scientific equipment that exhibited measurable amounts of radioactivity. The reactor and associated yard area are in the process of being decommissioned. As a preliminary step in this direction, a single exploratory monitoring well was installed in the yard. Levels of hydrogen-3 (tritium) ranged from 6.5 to 15.9 nCi/L, and the level of strontium-90 in groundwater ranged from 1.23 to 3.32 pCi/L. Preliminary characterization included drilling two additional monitoring wells and several soil borings in order to collect sufficient soil and groundwater samples. Samples were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Low analytical sensitivity for tritium was emphasized for this project. The RESRAD code was used to convert the radiological results of soil samples into human dosage equivalents.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Patel, P. B. & Swale, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes]

Description: This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A. & Patel, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

Description: The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J & Taylor, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature molten carbonate fuel cells

Description: Progress is reported on four tasks: (1) component development, (2) cell testing, (3) stack design and development, and (4) modeling and systems analysis. A hydrogen sintering furnace capable of producing 0.5 sq meter electrodes was installed and operating procedures are being established. To develop stabilized anode structures, a fine particle nickel-cobalt alloy powder was prepared from their hydroxide mixture through the steps of co-precipitation, spray-drying and reduction. Electrodes have been produced for small cell tests using this high surface area alloy powder. The in situ method of electrolyte preparation was studied in detail to establish the effect of various thermal treatments and to optimize the reagent processing and mixing techniques. DTA and TGA analysis were performed for the reaction mixture. Procedures were developed for the separate controlled syntheses of ..cap alpha..-..beta..-..gamma..-lithium aluminates. Metal fiber reinforced tiles were fabricated with fibers of different diameters, lengths and loadings. Equipment has been assembled to conduct potentiostatic corrosion tests on candidate materials for the cell frame and current collector. Efforts were directed towards improving anode and cathode structures, corrosion protection, wet seal efficiency, cell hardware design and thermal cycling capabilities. A steady performance has been achieved for 1300 hours, with the test continuing. (WHK)
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Baker, B.; Burns, D.; Dharia, D.; Herscovici, C.; Kinnibrugh, D.; Paetsch, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot Electron Measurement and Modeling for Short-Pulse Laser Plasma Interactions

Description: We measured the hot electron production from short pulse laser plasma interactions using a fiber-array-based compact electron spectrometer that uses permanent magnets for electron energy dispersion and over 100 scintillating fibers coupled to a 1024 x 1024 pixel CCD as the detection system. This spectrometer has electron energy coverage from 10 keV to 60 MeV. The whole spectrometer is compact with dimensions of 8 inch x 7 inch x 4 inch. We performed systematic measurements of electron production on the ultra short pulse laser JanUSP (with pulse width less than 100 fs) at intensity range interest to Fast Ignition scheme from 10{sup 17} Wcm{sup -2} up to 10{sup 19} Wcm{sup -2} at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. The electron distributions were obtained at various laser energies for different solid target materials and observation angles. We determined characteristic temperature of the escaped hot electrons at various incident laser intensity which is confirmed by theoretical simulations using the ZOHAL Particle-in-cell (PIC) code.
Date: September 8, 2003
Creator: Chen, H; McLean, S; Patel, P K & Wilks, S C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Utilizing the ultraintense JanUSP laser at LLNL]. 99-ERD-049 Final LDRD Report

Description: Recent advances in laser and optical technologies have now enabled the current generation of high intensity, ultrashort-pulse lasers to achieve focal intensities of 10{sup 20}-10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} in pulse durations of 100-500fs. These ultraintense laser pulses are capable of producing highly relativistic plasma states with densities, temperatures, and pressures rivaling those found in the interiors of stars and nuclear weapons. Utilizing the ultraintense 100TW JanUSP laser at LLNL we have explored the possibility of ion shock heating small micron-sized plasmas to extremely high energy densities approaching 1GJ/g on timescales of a few hundred femtoseconds. The JanUSP laser delivers 10 Joules of energy in a 100fs pulse in a near diffraction-limited beam, producing intensities on target of up to 10{sup 21}W/cm{sup 2}. The electric field of the laser at this intensity ionizes and accelerates electrons to relativistic MeV energies. The sudden ejection of electrons from the focal region produces tremendous electrostatic forces which in turn accelerate heavier ions to MeV energies. The predicted ion flux of 1 MJ/cm{sup 2} is sufficient to achieve thermal equilibrium conditions at high temperature in solid density targets. Our initial experiments were carried out at the available laser contrast of 10{sup -7} (i.e. the contrast of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), and of the pre-pules produced in the regenerative amplifier). We used the nuclear photoactivation of Au-197 samples to measure the gamma production above 12MeV-corresponding to the threshold for the Au-197(y,n) reaction. Since the predominant mechanism for gamma production is through the bremsstrahlung emission of energetic electrons as they pass through the solid target we were able to infer a conversion yield of several percent of the incident laser energy into electrons with energies >12MeV. This result is consistent with the interaction of the main pulse with a large pre-formed plasma. The contrast of the ...
Date: April 17, 2002
Creator: Patel, P K; Price, D F; Mackinnon, A J & Springer, P T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct Experimental Evidence of Back-Surface Acceleration from Laser-Irradiated Foils

Description: Au foils were irradiated with a 100-TW, 100-fs laser at intensities greater than 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} producing proton beams with a total yield of {approx} 10{sup 11} and maximum proton energy of > 9 MeV. Removing contamination from the back surface of Au foils with an Ar-ion sputter gun reduced the total yield of accelerated protons to less than 1% of the yield observed without removing contamination. Removing contamination the front surface (laser-interaction side) of the target had no observable effect on the proton beam. We present a one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation that models the experiment. Both experimental and simulation results are consistent with the back-surface acceleration mechanism described in the text.
Date: March 29, 2004
Creator: Allen, M; Patel, P; Mackinnon, A; Price, D; Wilks, S & Morse, E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Computer Model for Direct Carbonate Fuel Cells

Description: A 3-D computer model, describing fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, and chemical and electrochemical reaction processes, has been developed for guiding the direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) stack design. This model is able to analyze the direct internal reforming (DIR) as well as the integrated IIR (indirect internal reforming)-DIR designs. Reasonable agreements between computed and fuel cell tested results, such as flow variations, temperature distributions, cell potentials, and exhaust gas compositions as well as methane conversions, were obtained. Details of the model and comparisons of the modeling results with experimental DFC stack data are presented in the paper.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Ding, J.; Patel, P.S.; Farooque, M. & Maru, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous Hot Gas Desulfurization and Improved Filtration

Description: This research suggests the use of waste metal oxide materials for the removal of sulfur in hot gas streams as an alternative to either traditional calcium based sorbents, or regenerable metal oxide sorbents. When classified to a desired particle size and injected into a high temperature coal utilization process, such a ``once-through`` sorbent can effectively remove sulfur and simultaneously increase the permeability of dust collected at a downstream ceramic filter station in a highly cost effective manner. There is considerable technical and economic promise in the use of waste metal oxides for the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas streams containing these components, based upon results from tests under controlled laboratory conditions. Several waste metal oxides, including the oxides of iron, tin, and zinc, have been evaluated both individually and in combination to assess their capacity for sulfur capture in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Additionally, inert materials such as silica sand as well as more traditional materials such as dolomite and limestone, were evaluated as sorbents under identical test conditions to serve as reference data. Efforts also explored the overall domestic availability of the best performing waste metal oxide sorbents, taking into account their geographic distributions, intrinsic value, etc. to provide the groundwork for commercial implementation of a low cost, highly effective sulfur sorbent for eventual use in both coal combustion and coal gasification processes. Recent elevated temperature thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) testing of these samples, performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), has further confirmed the trends in sulfur affinity which were observed in the preliminary testing.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Eggerstedt, P.M.; Zievers, J.F.; Patel, P.C. & Zievers, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature molten-carbonate fuel cells. Technical progress report, July-September 1978

Description: Progress on the design, fabrication, and testing of nickel and nickel-cobalt electrodes, LiAlO/sub 2/ electrolyte powder, and electrolyte tiles is reported. Results of cell performance testing and systems analysis are presented and discussed. (WHK)
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Baker, B.; Burns, D.; Dharia, D.; Herscovici, C.; Leonida, A.; Paetsch, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Repetition Rate Grazing Incidence Pumped X-ray Laser operating at 18.9 nm

Description: We have demonstrated a 10 Hz Ni-like Mo X-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm with 150 mJ total pump energy by employing a novel pumping scheme. The grazing incidence scheme is described, where a picosecond pulse is incident at a grazing angle to a Mo plasma column produced by a slab target irradiated by a 200 ps laser pulse. This scheme uses refraction of the short pulse at a pre-determined electron density to increase absorption to pump a specific gain region. The high efficiency inherent to this scheme allows a reduction in the pump energy where 70 mJ long pulse energy and 80 mJ short pulse energy are sufficient to produce lasing at a 10 Hz repetition rate. Under these conditions and by optimizing the delay between the pulses, we achieve strong amplification and saturation for 4 mm long targets.
Date: May 11, 2004
Creator: Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Smith, R F & Shlyaptsev, V N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grazing Incidence Pumping for Efficient X-ray Lasers

Description: We report progress in developing efficient pumping of laser-driven x-ray lasers that opens new possibilities for both high average power x-ray lasers as well as producing progressively shorter wavelength lasers. The new scheme of grazing incidence pumping (GRIP) is described. In essence, a chosen electron density region of a pre-formed plasma column, produced by a longer pulse at normal incidence onto a slab target, is selectively pumped by focusing the short pulse {approx}ps laser at a determined grazing incidence angle to the target. The controlled use of refraction of the pumping laser in the plasma results in several benefits: The pump laser path length is longer and there is an increase in the laser absorption in the gain region for creating a collisional Ni-like ion x-ray laser. There is also an inherent traveling wave, close to c, that increases the overall pumping efficiency. The scheme requires careful tailoring of the pump and plasma conditions to the specific x-ray laser under investigation but the main advantage is a 3 - 30 times reduction in the laser pump energy for mid-Z materials. We report several examples of this new x-ray laser on two different laser systems. The first demonstrates a 10 Hz x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm pumped with a total of 150 mJ of 800 nm wavelength from a Ti:Sapphire laser. The second case is shown where the COMET laser is used both at 527 nm and 1054 nm wavelength to pump higher Z materials with the goal of extending the wavelength regime of tabletop x-ray lasers below 10 nm.
Date: September 30, 2004
Creator: Dunn, J; Keenan, R; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Smith, R F & Shlyaptsev, V N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reaching Isochoric States of Matter by Ultrashort-Pulse Proton Heating

Description: The aim of this LDRD is to develop two completely new methods for creating and probing warm dense states of matter (plasmas at several eV at solid density), which will enable the direct measurement of fundamental material properties such as the opacity and equation of state (EOS). There is in this warm dense regime an almost complete lack of quantitative experimental data--primarily because of the difficulty in creating uniform, single temperature/density plasmas on which to make measurements. In an ideal case one would volumetrically heat a target with a very short burst of energy--simultaneously making measurements prior to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion of the target. However, no mechanism for such rapid, uniform heating of a material currently exists. We propose to develop a completely new technique that has the potential for creating large uniform plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at warm dense conditions. This technique is based on volumetric heating of solid density targets with a high energy, high-flux, short-pulse, laser-produced proton beam. We also propose to use this beam of protons to probe high-Z, solid density matter with both 2-dimensional spatial resolution and picosecond temporal resolution. The combination of these two techniques will enable us to make the very first quantitative measurements of the equation of state and opacity of an isochorically heated state of matter.
Date: February 28, 2005
Creator: Patel, P. K.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Allen, M.; Foord, M. E.; Shepherd, R. & Price, D. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY06 LDRD Final Report "The Creation of a Neutron Star Atmosphere"

Description: We have taken the initiative to examine whether experiments on HED facilities, present and future, could achieve the extreme scaled conditions relevant to accreting neutron star atmospheres and accretion disks around black holes. The preliminary conclusion from this detailed scaling assessment is that if an exact scaled version of the photon bubble instability physics is desired, this will require experiments with (simultaneously) spatial scales of order {approx}1 mm, temperatures of order {approx}5 keV, magnetic fields of order a hundred megaGauss, and time scales of order several hundred psec. Aspects (subsets) of this physics can be studied under less demanding conditions. To achieve the temperatures required in targets of order several optical depths, we come to the preliminary conclusion that we would require an energy source that delivers of order of a megajoule of energy into a high Z target. A conceptual design for such an experiment could be to use the energy from a high gain ignition NIF capsule as our principle source of heating and acceleration whereby the target is in close proximity to the ignition capsule and then use external petawatt lasers to develop the magnetic fields required.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Klein, R I; Remington, B; Moon, S; MacKinnon, A; Patel, P; Ruytov, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A High Efficiency Grazing Incidence Pumped X-ray Laser

Description: The main objective of the project is to demonstrate a proof-of-principle, new type of high efficiency, short wavelength x-ray laser source that will operate at unprecedented high repetition rates (10Hz) that could be scaled to 1kHz or higher. The development of a high average power, tabletop x-ray laser would serve to complement the wavelength range of 3rd and future 4th generation light sources, e.g. the LCLS, being developed by DOE-Basic Energy Sciences. The latter are large, expensive, central, synchrotron-based facilities while the tabletop x-ray laser is compact, high-power laser-driven, and relatively inexpensive. The demonstration of such a unique, ultra-fast source would allow us to attract funding from DOE-BES, NSF and other agencies to pursue probing of diverse materials undergoing ultrafast changes. Secondly, this capability would have a profound impact on the semiconductor industry since a coherent x-ray laser source would be ideal for ''at wavelength'' {approx}13 nm metrology and microscopy of optics and masks used in EUV lithography. The project has major technical challenges. We will perform grazing-incidence pumped laser-plasma experiments in flat or groove targets which are required to improve the pumping efficiency by ten times. Plasma density characterization using our existing unique picosecond x-ray laser interferometry of laser-irradiated targets is necessary. Simulations of optical laser propagation as well as x-ray laser production and propagation through freely expanding and confined plasma geometries are essential. The research would be conducted using the Physics Directorate Callisto and COMET high power lasers. At the end of the project, we expect to have a high-efficiency x-ray laser scheme operating below 20 nm at 10Hz with a pulse duration of {approx}2 ps. This will represent the state-of-the-art in x-ray lasers and would be a major step forward from our present picosecond laser-driven x-ray lasers. There is an added bonus of creating the shortest wavelength ...
Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Dunn, J; Keenan, R; Price, D F; Patel, P K; Smith, R F & Shlyaptsev, V N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A 10 Hz Grazing Incidence pumped Ni-like Mo laser at 18.9 nm with 150 mJ pump energy

Description: The first demonstration of the grazing incidence pumping (GRIP) scheme for laser-driven x-ray lasers (XRLs) is described utilizing 2-pulse pumping. A long pulse is incident normal to the target to produce a plasma with a particular density profile. Then a short pulse is incident at a grazing angle, chosen to optimally couple the short pulse laser energy into the specific density region where the inversion process will occur. The short pulse is simultaneously absorbed and refracted at a maximum electron density specified by the chosen pump angle then turns back into the gain region. The increased path length gives improved absorption allowing a reduction in the drive energy required for lasing. A Ni-like Mo XRL at 18.9 nm has been demonstrated with only 150 mJ total pump energy and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We report high gains of 60 cm{sup -1} and the achievement of gain saturation for targets of 4 mm length.
Date: September 30, 2004
Creator: Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Smith, R F & Shlyaptsev, V N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficient Pumping Schemes for High Average Brightness Collisional X-ray Lasers

Description: Advances in transient collisional x-ray lasers have been demonstrated over the last 5 years as a technique for achieving tabletop soft x-ray lasers using 2-10 J of laser pump energy. The high peak brightness of these sources operating in the high output saturation regime, in the range of 10{sup 24}-10{sup 25} ph. mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} s-1 (0.1% BW){sup -1}, is ideal for many applications requiring high photon fluence in a single short burst. However, the pump energy required for these x-ray lasers is still relatively high and limits the x-ray laser repetition rate to 1 shot every few minutes. Higher repetition rate collisional schemes have been reported and show some promise for high output in the future. We report a novel technique for enhancing the coupling efficiency of the laser pump into the gain medium that could lead to enhanced x-ray inversion with a factor of ten reduction in the drive energy. This has been applied to the collisional excitation scheme for Ni-like Mo at 18.9 nm and x-ray laser output has been demonstrated. Preliminary results show lasing on a single shot of the optical laser operating at 10 Hz and with 70 mJ in the short pulse. Such a proposed source would have higher average brightness, {approx}10{sup 14} ph. mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} s{sup -1} (0.1% BW){sup -1}, than present bending magnet 3rd generation synchrotron sources operating at the same spectral range.
Date: October 7, 2003
Creator: Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Shlyaptsev, V N; Smith, R F; Patel, P K & Price, D F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous hot desulfurization and improved filtration

Description: Coal reserves in the United States as well as abroad will remain unusable until technology is developed to meet both Clean Air Act mandates and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for particulate, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}, emissions effectively and economically. Recent breakthroughs in particulate control, specifically ceramic filtration technology, have shown that NSPS limits on particulates can be achieved at high process temperatures, thereby minimizing thermal losses and system complexity. While both calcium based and regenerable metal oxide sorbents are currently utilized for sulfur mitigation, problems such as sintering, temperature limitations, physical attrition, and cost have limited their success. This research suggests the use of waste metal oxide materials for the removal of sulfur in hot gas streams as an alternative to either traditional calcium based sorbents, or regenerable metal oxide sorbents. When classified to a desired particle size and injected into a high temperature coal utilization process, such a `once-through` sorbent can effectively remove sulfur and simultaneously increase the permeability of dust collected at a downstream ceramic filter station in a highly cost effective manner. Several waste metal oxides, including the oxides of iron, tin, and zinc, have been evaluated both individually and in combination to assess their capacity for sulfur capture in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Additionally, inert materials such as silica sand as well as more traditional materials such as dolomite and limestone, were evaluated as sorbents under identical test conditions to serve as reference data.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Eggerstedt, P.M.; Zievers, J.F.; Patel, P.C. & Zievers, E.C., Industrial Fiber & Pump Mfg. Co.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department