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FY06 LDRD Final Report "The Creation of a Neutron Star Atmosphere"

Description: We have taken the initiative to examine whether experiments on HED facilities, present and future, could achieve the extreme scaled conditions relevant to accreting neutron star atmospheres and accretion disks around black holes. The preliminary conclusion from this detailed scaling assessment is that if an exact scaled version of the photon bubble instability physics is desired, this will require experiments with (simultaneously) spatial scales of order {approx}1 mm, temperatures of order {approx}5 keV, magnetic fields of order a hundred megaGauss, and time scales of order several hundred psec. Aspects (subsets) of this physics can be studied under less demanding conditions. To achieve the temperatures required in targets of order several optical depths, we come to the preliminary conclusion that we would require an energy source that delivers of order of a megajoule of energy into a high Z target. A conceptual design for such an experiment could be to use the energy from a high gain ignition NIF capsule as our principle source of heating and acceleration whereby the target is in close proximity to the ignition capsule and then use external petawatt lasers to develop the magnetic fields required.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Klein, R I; Remington, B; Moon, S; MacKinnon, A; Patel, P; Ruytov, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray Radiography and Scattering Diagnosis of Dense Shock-Compressed Matter

Description: Highly coupled Boron plasma has been probed by spectrally resolving an x-ray source scattered by the plasma. Electron density was inferred from the inelastic feature in the collective scattering regime. In addition, the mass density inferred from the non-collective X-ray Thomson scattering has been tested with independent characterization using X-ray radiography in the same drive condition. High-intensity laser produced K-alpha radiation was used as a backlighter for these dynamically compressed plasma experiments providing a high temporal resolution of the measurements. Mass density measurements from both methods are in good agreement. The measurements yield a compression of 1.3 in agreement with detailed radiation-hydrodynamic modeling. From the charge state measured in the non-collective regime and the electron density measured in the collective regime the mass density can then be constrained to 3.15 {+-} 0.16.
Date: November 23, 2009
Creator: Pape, S L; Neumayer, P; Fortmann, C; Doeppner, T; Davis, P; Krichter, A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

Description: Ultra intense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In additions to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel, spatially imaging proton spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution, but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and non-imaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.
Date: May 11, 2010
Creator: Chen, H; Hazi, A; van Maren, R; Chen, S; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasmons in strongly coupled shock-compressed matter

Description: We present the first measurements of the plasmon dispersion and damping in laser shock-compressed solid matter. Petawatt laser produced K-{alpha} radiation scatters on boron targets compressed by a 10 ns-long 400 J laser pulse. In the vicinity of the Fermi momentum, the scattering spectra show dispersionless, collisionally damped plasmons, indicating a strongly coupled electron liquid. These observations agree with x-ray scattering calculations that include both the Born-Mermin approximation to account for electron-ion collisional damping and local field corrections reflecting electron-electron correlations.
Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Neumayer, P.; Fortmann, C.; Doppner, T.; Davis, P.; Falcone, R. W.; Kritcher, A. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Epithermal Neutron Source for Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy (NRS) using High Intensity, Short Pulse Lasers

Description: A neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) has been developed using high intensity, short pulse lasers. This measurement technique will allow for robust measurements of interior ion temperature of laser-shocked materials and provide insight into equation of state (EOS) measurements. The neutron generation technique uses protons accelerated by lasers off of Cu foils to create neutrons in LiF, through (p,n) reactions with {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F. The distribution of the incident proton beam has been diagnosed using radiochromic film (RCF). This distribution is used as the input for a (p,n) neturon prediction code which is compared to experimentally measured neutron yields. From this calculation, a total fluence of 1.8 x 10{sup 9} neutrons is infered, which is shown to be a reasonable amount for NRS temperature measurement.
Date: April 22, 2010
Creator: Higginson, D P; McNaney, J M; Swift, D C; Bartal, T; Hey, D S; Pape, S L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nail-like targets for laser plasma interaction experiments

Description: The interaction of ultra-high power picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is of interest both for benchmarking the results of hybrid particle in cell (PIC) codes and also for applications to re-entrant cone guided fast ignition. We describe the construction of novel targets in which copper/titanium wires are formed into 'nail-like' objects by a process of melting and micromachining, so that energy can be reliably coupled to a 24 {micro}m diameter wire. An extreme-ultraviolet image of the interaction of the Titan laser with such a target is shown.
Date: December 18, 2007
Creator: Pasley, J; Wei, M; Shipton, E; Chen, S; Ma, T; Beg, F N et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High resolution 17 keV to 75 keV backlighters for High Energy Density experiments

Description: We have developed 17 keV to 75 keV 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional high-resolution (< 10 {micro}m) radiography using high-intensity short pulse lasers. High energy K-{alpha} sources are created by fluorescence from hot electrons interacting in the target material after irradiation by lasers with intensity I{sub L} > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. We have achieved high resolution point projection 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional radiography using micro-foil and micro-wire targets attached to low-Z substrate materials. The micro-wire size was 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m on a 300 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m x 5 {micro}m CH substrate. The radiography performance was demonstrated using the Titan laser at LLNL. We observed that the resolution is dominated by the micro-wire target size and there is very little degradation from the plasma plume, implying that the high energy x-ray photons are generated mostly within the micro-wire volume. We also observe that there are enough K{alpha} photons created with a 300 J, 1-{omega}, 40 ps pulse laser from these small volume targets, and that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high, for single shot radiography experiments. This unique technique will be used on future high energy density (HED) experiments at the new Omega-EP, ZR and NIF facilities.
Date: February 25, 2008
Creator: Park, H; Maddox, B R; Giraldez, E; Hatchett, S P; Hudson, L; Izumi, N et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limitation on Pre-pulse Level for Cone-Guided Fast-Ignition ICF

Description: The viability of fast-ignition (FI) inertial confinement fusion hinges on the efficient transfer of laser energy to the compressed fuel via multi-MeV electrons. Pre-formed plasma due to laser pre-pulse strongly influences ultra-intense laser plasma interactions and hot electron generation in the hollow cone of an FI target. We induced a prepulse and consequent preplasma in copper cone targets and measured the energy deposition zone of the main pulse by imaging the emitted K{sub {alpha}} radiation. An integrated simulation of radiation hydrodynamics for the pre-plasma and particle in cell for the main pulse interactions agree well with the measured deposition zones and provide an insight into the enrgy deposition mechanism and electron distribution. It was demonstrated that a under these conditions a 100mJ pre-pulse completely eliminates the forward going component of {approx}2-4MeV electrons. Consequences for cone-guided fast-ignition are discussed.
Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: MacPhee, A G; Akli, K U; Beg, F N; Chen, C D; Chen, H; Divol, L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of the first neutron image data collected at the National Ignition Facility

Description: A summary of data and results from the first neutron images produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA are presented. An overview of the neutron imaging technique is presented, as well as a synopsis of the data collected and measurements made to date. Data form directly driven, DT filled microballoons, as well as, indirectly driven, cryogenically layered ignition experiments are presented. The data presented show that the primary cores from directly driven implosions are approximately twice as large, 64 {+-} 3 {mu}m, as indirect cores 25 {+-} 4 and 29 {+-} 4 {mu}m and more asymmetric, P2/P0 = 47% vs. -14% and 7%. Further, comparison with the size and shape of X-ray image data on the same implosions show good agreement, indicating X-ray emission is dominated by the hot regions of the implosion.
Date: November 1, 2011
Creator: Grim, G P; Archuleta, T N; Aragonez, R J; Atkinson, D P; Batha, S H; Barrios, M A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock timing on the National Ignition Facility: First Experiments

Description: An experimental campaign to tune the initial shock compression sequence of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was initiated in late 2010. The experiments use a NIF ignition-scale hohlraum and capsule that employs a reentrant cone to provide optical access to the shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of the shock sequence is diagnosed with velocity interferometry that provides target performance data used to set the pulse shape for ignition capsule implosions that follow. From the start, these measurements yielded significant new information on target performance, leading to improvements in the target design. We describe the results and interpretation of the initial tuning experiments.
Date: October 24, 2011
Creator: Celliers, P M; Robey, H F; Boehly, T R; Alger, E; Azevedo, S; Berzins, L V et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department