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Energy Conferences and Symposia; (USA)

Description: Energy Conferences and Symposia, a monthly publication, was instituted to keep scientists, engineers, managers, and related energy professionals abreast of meetings sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by other technical associations. Announcements cover conference, symposia, workshops, congresses, and other formal meetings pertaining to DOE programmatic interests. Complete meeting information, including title, sponsor, and contact, is presented in the main section, which is arranged alphabetically by subject area. Within a subject, citations are sorted by beginning data of the meeting. New listings are indicated by a bullet after the conference number and DOE-sponsored conferences are indicated by a star. Two indexes are provided for cross referencing conference information. The Chronological Index lists conference titles by dates and gives the subject area where complete information they may be found. The Location Index is alphabetically sorted by the city where the conference will be held.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Osborne, J.H. & Simpson, W.F. Jr. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma rotation and the radial electric field during off-axis NBI in the DIII-D tokamak

Description: Experiments have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak to investigate whether off-axis NBI can: (a) drive significant perpendicular flow to lead to increased suppression of turbulence and improved confinement, and (b) be used to control the radial electric field profile. Measurements of both impurity ion poloidal and toroidal rotation profiles were made using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. These experiments used a low current, low elongation (I{sub p} = 0.5 MA, {kappa} = 1.2) plasma whose magnetic axis was shifted 36 cm vertically upward from the vessel midplane and then shifted downward to be centered on the midplane later in the discharge. 10.7 MW of beam power was applied to maximize NBI effect while operating at low target densities and high temperature to minimize poloidal damping. Results from these experiments show a slight increase in impurity ion poloidal rotation velocity during the vertical shifted phase of off-axis NBI discharge. The toroidal rotation profile is more peaked during off-axis NBI. Both these effects lead to a change in the V x B contribution to the radial electric field during off-axis NBI.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H. & Hassam, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Divertor heat and particle flux due to ELMs in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade

Description: The authors characterize the divertor target plate heat and particle fluxes that occur due to Edge-Localized-Modes (ELMs) during H-mode in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade. During steady-state ELMing H-mode the fraction of main plasma stored energy lost with each ELM varies from 6% to 2% as input power increases above the H-mode power threshold. The ELM energy is deposited near the strikepoints on the divertor target plates in a fast time scale of {le} 1 ms. The spatial profile of the ELM heat pulse is flatter and broader, up to about a factor of 2, than that of the heat flux between ELMs. On ASDEX-Upgrade the inboard strike-point receives the greatest fraction, {ge} 75%, of ELM divertor heat flux, while on DIII-D the in/out split is nearly equal. The toroidal asymmetry of the heat pulse has produced a peaking factor on DIII-D of no more than 1.5. The particle flux, as measured by Langmuir probes, has also been found to be localized near the divertor strike-points. The increased particle flux during ELMs is a significant fraction of the total time-integrated divertor plate particle flux.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H. & Suttrop, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

H-mode pedestal characteristics in ITER shape discharges on DIII-D

Description: Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal are studied in Type 1 ELM discharges with ITER cross-sectional shape and aspect ratio. The scaling of the width of the edge step gradient region, {delta}, which is most consistent with the data is with the normalized edge pressure, ({beta}{sub POL}{sup PED}){sup 0.4}. Fits of {delta} to a function of temperature, such as {rho}{sub POL}, are ruled out in divertor pumping experiments. The edge pressure gradient is found to scale as would be expected from infinite n ballooning mode theory; however, the value of the pressure gradient exceeds the calculated first stable limit by more than a factor of 2 in some discharges. This high edge pressure gradient is consistent with access to the second stable regime for ideal ballooning for surfaces near the edge. In lower q discharges, including discharges at the ITER value of q, edge second stability requires significant edge current density. Transport simulations give edge bootstrap current of sufficient magnitude to open second stable access in these discharges. Ideal kink analysis using current density profiles including edge bootstrap current indicate that before the ELM these discharges may be unstable to low n, edge localized modes.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Osborne, T.H.; Burrell, K.H. & Groebner, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaling studies of the H-mode pedestal

Description: The structure and scaling of the H-mode pedestal are examined for discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. For typical conditions, the pedestal values of the ion and electron temperatures T{sub i} and T{sub e} are comparable. Measurements of main ion and C{sup 6+} profiles indicate that the ion pressure gradient in the barrier is 50%--100% of the electron pressure gradient for deuterium plasmas. The magnitude of the pressure gradient in the barrier often exceeds the predictions of infinite-n ballooning mode theory by a factor of two. Moreover, via the bootstrap current, the finite pressure gradient acts to entirely remove ballooning stability limits for typical discharges. For a large dataset, the width of the pressure barrier {delta} is best described by the dimensionless scaling {delta}/R {proportional_to} ({beta}{sub pol}{sup ped}){sup 0.4} where ({beta}{sub pol}{sup ped}) is the pedestal value of poloidal beta and R is the major radius. Scalings based on the poloidal ion gyroradius or the edge density gradient do not adequately describe overall trends in the data set and the propagation of the pressure barrier observed between edge-localized modes. The width of the T{sub i} barrier is quite variable and is not a good measure of the width of the pressure barrier.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Groebner, R.J. & Osborne, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High performance low and high q discharges in DIII-D

Description: The High performance H-mode regime on DIII-D has been extended to both low q and high q (high {Beta}p) and low q operation. In high current operation, VH-mode discharges were obtained for the first time with I{sub P}(MA)/B{sub T} (T) > 1. These discharges had q{sub 95}= 3.4, H = 2.9, {Beta}{sub N}= 3, and {Beta}{sub T}{Tau}{sub E}=3%-sec. {Beta}{sub T}{Tau}{sub E} was improved by approximately 50% over previous results. These discharges were obtained with neutral beam injection during the plasma current ramp up which maintained the axial q above 1. In low current operation, neutral beam heated discharges with 100% of the plasma current from non-inductive sources were obtained at high q, q{sub 95}=15, with {Beta}{sub N}=3.9, H=3.1, and {Beta}{sub p}=4.9. These discharges represent an extension of the high performance regime to q{sub 95} > 7.2, which was made possible by reduction in the locked mode low density limit, as the result of improvements in the magnetic field error correcting coils. These low current discharges do not exhibit some of the standard signatures of VH-mode, but appear to represent a new regime of improved H-mode confinement. Similar, non-VH-mode, high energy confinement discharges were obtained at low density and moderate q.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Osborne, T.H.; Burrell, K.H. & Chu, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ballooning mode stability for self-consistent pressure and current profiles at the H-mode edge

Description: The edge pressure gradient (H-mode pedestal) for computed equilibria in which the current density profile is consistent with the bootstrap current may not be limited by the first regime ballooning limit. The transition to second stability is easier for: higher elongation, intermediate triangularity, larger ratio, pedestal at larger radius, narrower pedestal width, higher q{sub 95}, and lower collisionality.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Miller, R.L.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Osborne, T.H. & Taylor, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modification of the optical properties of glass by sequential ion implantation

Description: The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a series of samples formed by the sequential implantation of Ti, O and Au are examined. Energies of implantation for each ion were chosen using TRIM calculations to insure overlap of the ion distributions. The Ti was implanted with nominal doses of 1.2 and 2 {times} 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The samples were implanted with oxygen to the same nominal dose as the Ti. Au was then implanted with a nominal dose of 6 {times} 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The samples were subsequently annealed in oxygen at 900 C for two hours. The Ti and O are incorporated into the host network, while the Au forms nanosize colloids. The presence of the Ti in the substrate causes a shift in the surface plasmon resonance frequency of the Au metal colloids as well as an increase in the nonlinear response of the composites. The results are interpreted in terms of effective medium theory.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Magruder, R. H., III; Osborne, D. H., Jr. & Zuhr, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Edge Plasma Perturbation During ELM Control Using One vs Two Toroidal Rows of RMP Coils in ITER Similar Shaped Plasmas on DIII-D

Description: Large Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) were suppressed by n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) from a set of internal coils (I-coil) in plasmas with an ITER similar shape at the ITER pedestal collisionality, {nu}*{sub e} {approx} 0.1 and low edge safety factor (q{sub 95} {approx} 3.6), with either a single toroidal row of the internal RMP coils or two poloidally separated rows of coils. ELM suppression with a single row of internal coils was achieved at approximately the same q{sub 95} surface-averaged perturbation field as with two rows of coils, but required higher current per coil. Maintaining complete suppression of ELMs using n = 3 RMPs from a single toroidal row of internal coils was less robust to variations in input neutral beam injection torque than previous ELM suppression cases using both rows of internal coils. With either configuration of RMP coils, maximum ELM size is correlated with the width of the edge region having good overlap of the magnetic islands from vacuum field calculations.
Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Fenstermacher, M E; Evans, T E; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; deGrassie, J S; Gohil, P et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: An analytic model, derived from coupled continuity equations for the electron and neutral deuterium densities, is consistent with many features of edge electron density profiles in the DIII-D tokamak. For an assumed constant particle diffusion coefficient, the model shows that particle transport and neutral fueling produce electron and neutral density profiles that have the same characteristic scale lengths at the plasma edge. For systematic variations of density in H-mode discharges, the model predicts that the width of the electron density transport barrier decreases and the maximum gradient increases, as observed in the experiments. The widths computed from the model agree quantitatively with the experimental widths for conditions in which the model is valid. These results support models of transport barrier formation in which the H-mode particle barrier is driven by the edge particle flux and the width of the barrier is approximately the neutral penetration length.
Date: November 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of L-H transition measurements with physics models

Description: A technique of fitting a modified hyperbolic tangent to the edge profiles has improved the localization of plasma edge parameters. Non-dimensional edge parameters are broadly consistent with several theories of the L-H transition that use edge gradients in their formulation of a critical threshold parameter. The ion {del}B drift direction has only a small effect on the edge plasma conditions measured near the plasma midplane but a large effect on the divertor plasma. The dramatic change of power threshold with the direction of the ion {del}B drift implies that phenomena in the divertor region may be critical for the L-H transition.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Carlstrom, T. N.; Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H. & Thomas, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impact of ELMs on the ITER divertor

Description: Edge-Localized-Modes (ELMs) are expected to present a significant transient flux of energy and particles to the ITER divertor. The threshold for ablation of the graphite target will be reached if the ELM transient exceeds Q/t{sup 1/2} {approximately} 45 MJ-m{sup {minus}2}-s{sup {minus}1/2} where Q is the ELM deposition energy density and t is the ELM deposition time. The ablation parameter in ITER can be determined by scaling four factors from present experiments: the ELM energy loss from the core plasma, the fraction of ELM energy deposited on the divertor target, the area of the ELM profile onto the target, and finally the time for the ELM deposition. Review of the ELM energy loss of Type 1 ELM data suggests an ITER ELM energy loss of 2--6% of the stored energy or 25--80 MJ. The fraction of heating power crossing the separatrix due to ELMs is nearly constant (20--40%) resulting in an inverse relationship between ELM amplitude and frequency. Measurements on DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade indicate that 50--80% of the ELM energy is deposited on the target. There is currently no evidence for a large fraction of the ELM energy being dissipated through radiation. Profiles of the ELM heat flux are typically 1--2 times the width of steady heat flux between ELMs, with the ELM amplitude usually larger on the inboard target. The ELM deposition time varies from about 0.1 ms in JET to as high as 1.0 ms in ASDEX-Upgrade and DIII-D. The ELM deposition time for ITER will depend upon the level of conductive versus convective transport determined by the ratio of energy to particles released by the ELM. Preliminary analysis suggests that large Type 1 ELMs for low recycling H-mode may exceed the ablation parameter by a factor of 5. Promising regimes with smaller ELMS have been found at other ...
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.; Suttrop, W.; Hermann, A.; Itami, K.; Lingertat, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELM heat flux in the ITER divertor

Description: Edge-Localized-Modes (ELMs) have the potential to produce unacceptable levels of erosion of the ITER divertor. Ablation of the carbon divertor target will occur if the surface temperature rises above about 2,500 C. Because a large number of ELMs, {ge}1000, are expected in each discharge it is important that the surface temperature rise due to an individual ELM remain below this threshold. Calculations that have been carried out for the ITER carbon divertor target indicate ablation will occur for ELM energy {ge}0.5MJ/m{sup 2} if it is deposited in 0.1 ms, or 1.2 MJ/m{sup 2} if the deposition time is 1.0 ms. Since {Delta}T{proportional_to}Q{Delta}t{sup {minus}1/2}, an ablation threshold can be estimated at Q{Delta}t{sup {minus}1/2}{approx}45 MJm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1/2} where Q is the divertor ELM energy density in J-m{sup {minus}2} and {Delta}t is the time in seconds for that deposition. If a significant fraction of ELMs exceed this threshold then an unacceptable level of erosion may take place. The ablation parameter in ITER can be determined by scaling four factors from present experiments: the ELM energy loss from the core plasma, the fraction of ELM energy deposited on the divertor target, the area of the ELM profile onto the target, and the time for the ELM deposition. ELM data from JET, ASDEX-Upgrade, JT-60U, DIII-D and Compass-D have been assembled by the ITER Divertor Modeling and Database expert group into a database for the purpose of predicting these factors for ELMs in the ITER divertor.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.; Hermann, A.; Suttrop, W.; Itami, K.; Lingertat, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State transitions, hysteresis, and control parameters on DIII-D

Description: The theory of turbulence decorrelation by ExB velocity shear is the leading candidate to explain the changes in turbulence and transport that are seen at the plasma edge at the L to H transition. Based on this, a key question is: What are the conditions or control parameters needed to begin the formation of the E{sub r} shear layer and thus trigger the L to H transition? On the DIII-D tokamak, the authors are attacking this question both through direct tests of the various theories and by trying to gain insight into the fundamental physics by investigating the control parameters which have a major effect on the power threshold. In this paper the authors describe results of studies on oscillating discharges where the plasma transitions continuously between L and H states. By following the dynamics of the plasma state through the forward and back transitions, they can represent the evolution of various control parameter candidates as a trajectory in various parametric spaces. The shape of these control curves can illustrate the specific nonlinearities governing the L-H transition problem, and under the proper conditions may be interpreted in the context of various phase-transition based models. In particular, the hysteresis exhibited in the various curves may help to clarify causality (what are the critical parameters) and may serve as tests of the models, given sufficient experimental accuracy. At present they are looking at T{sub e}, E{sub r} and ballooning/diamagnetic parameters as possible control parameter candidates.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Thomas, D. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Osborne, T. H. & Petrie, T. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Density H-Mode Discharges with Gas Fueling and Good Confinement on DIII-D

Description: H-mode operation at high density is an attractive regime for future reactor-grade tokamaks [1]. High density maximizes fusion power output while the high confinement of H-mode keeps the plasma energy loss below the alpha heating power. One concern though is the energy released due to individual ELMs must be kept small to protect the diverter target from excess ablation. We report on discharges in DIII-D with electron densities as high as 1.45 times the Greenwald density, n{sub GW}(10{sup 20}m{sup -3})=I{sub p}(MA)/[{pi}{sup 2}(m)], with good confinement, H{sub ITER89P}=1.9, and ELMs with energy amplitude small enough to protect the divertor. These results were achieved at low triangularity single-null divertor, {delta}{approx}0.0 with a plasma current of 1.2 MA, q{sub 95} {approx} 3-4, and moderate neutral beam heating power of 2-4 MW. The density was controlled by moderate gas puffing and private flux pumping. A typical discharge is shown in Fig. 1 where upon gas puffing the pedestal density, n{sub e,epd}, quickly rises to {approx}0.8 x n{sub GW}. The confinement initially drops with the gas puff, on a longer timescale the central density rises, peaking the profile and increasing the confinement until an MHD instability terminates the high density and high confinement phase of the discharge. In this report we describe in detail edge pedestal changes and its effect on confinement as the density is increased. We then describe peaking of the density profile that offsets degradation of the pedestal at high density and restores good confinement. Finally we describe the small benign ELMs that result at these high densities.
Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Lasnier, C.J.; Petrie, T.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The back transition and hysteresis effects in DIII-D

Description: The back transition from H-mode to L-mode has been studied on DIII-D as a part of the investigation of the L-H transition power threshold scaling. Based on a density-dependent scaling for the H-mode power threshold, ITER will require substantial hysteresis in this parameter to remain in H-mode as n{sub e} rises. Defining the hysteresis in terms of the ratio of sustaining to threshold power, P{sub HL}/P{sub LH} may need to be as small as 50% for ITER. Operation of DIII-D at injection powers slightly above the H-mode threshold results in an oscillatory behavior with multiple forward-backward transitions in the course of a discharge. These discharges represent a unique system for studying various control parameters that may influence the H{leftrightarrow}L state transition. Careful analysis of the power flow through the edge gives values for the sustaining power which are well below the corresponding threshold powers (P{sub HL}/P{sub LH} = 35--70%), indicating substantial hysteresis can be achieved in this parameter. Studies of other control parameter candidates such as edge temperature during the back transitions are less clear: the amount of hysteresis seen in these parameters, if any, is primarily dependent on the nature (ELMing, ELM-free) of the parent H-state.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Thomas, D.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H. & Carlstrom, T.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fourier Grain-Shape and Mineralogic Analyses of Coastal and Inner Shelf Sand Samples: Dana Point to the United-States-Mexico Border

Description: From introduction: The principal purpose of this report is to determine the local sediment sources of beach sand samples from the Oceanside, Mission Beach, and Silver Strand littoral cells.
Date: October 1989
Creator: Osborne, Robert H.; Ahlschwede, Kelly S.; Broadhead, Sean D.; Cho, Kyung H.; Compton, Eleanor A. & Yeh, Chia-Chen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational Enhancements in DIII-D Quiescent H-Mode Plasmas

Description: In recent DIII-D experiments, we concentrated on extending the operating range and improving the overall performance of quiescent H-mode (QH) plasmas. The QH-mode offers an attractive, high-performance operating mode for burning plasmas due to the absence of pulsed edge-localized-mode-driven losses to the divertor (ELMs). Using counter neutral-beam injection (NBI), we achieve steady plasma conditions with the presence of an edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) replacing the ELMs and providing control of the edge pedestal density. These conditions have been maintained for greater than 4s ({approx}30 energy confinement times, {tau}{sub E}, and 2 current relaxation times, {tau}{sub R} [1]), and often limited only by the duration of auxiliary heating. We discuss results of these recent experiments where we use triangularity ramping to increase the density, neutral beam power ramps to increase the stored energy, injection of rf power at the electron cyclotron (EC) frequency to control density profile peaking in the core, and control of startup conditions to completely eliminate the transient ELMing phase.
Date: June 27, 2005
Creator: Casper, T A; Burrell, K H; Doyle, E J; Gohil, P; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Density and Temperature Profile Modifications with Electron Cyclotron Power Injection in Quiescent Double Barrier Discharges on DIII-D

Description: Quiescent double barrier (QDB) conditions often form when an internal transport barrier is created with high-power neutral-beam injection into a quiescent H-mode (QH) plasma. These QH-modes offer an attractive, high-performance operating scenario for burning plasma experiments due to their quasi-stationarity and lack of edge localized modes (ELMs). Our initial experiments and modeling using ECH/ECCD in QDB shots were designed to control the current profile and, indeed, we have observed a strong dependence on the q-profile when EC-power is used inside the core transport barrier region. While strong electron heating is observed with EC power injection, we also observe a drop in the other core parameters; ion temperature and rotation, electron density and impurity concentration. These dynamically changing conditions provide a rapid evolution of T{sub e} T{sub i} profiles accessible with 0.3 < (T{sub e} T{sub i}){sub axis} < 0.8 observed in QDB discharges. We are exploring the correlation and effects of observed density profile changes with respect to these time-dependent variations in the temperature ratio. Thermal and particle diffusivity calculations over this temperature ratio range indicate a consistency between the rise in temperature ratio and an increase in transport corresponding to the observed change in density.
Date: October 11, 2005
Creator: Casper, T A; Burrell, K H; Doyle, E J; Gohil, P; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Edge Stability and Transport Control with Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in Collisionless Tokamak Plasmas

Description: A critical issue for fusion plasma research is the erosion of the first wall of the experimental device due to impulsive heating from repetitive edge magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities known as 'edge-localized modes' (ELMs). Here, we show that the addition of small resonant magnetic field perturbations completely eliminates ELMs while maintaining a steady-state high-confinement (H-mode) plasma. These perturbations induce a chaotic behavior in the magnetic field lines, which reduces the edge pressure gradient below the ELM instability threshold. The pressure gradient reduction results from a reduction in particle content of the plasma, rather than an increase in the electron thermal transport. This is inconsistent with the predictions of stochastic electron heat transport theory. These results provide a first experimental test of stochastic transport theory in a highly rotating, hot, collisionless plasma and demonstrate a promising solution to the critical issue of controlling edge instabilities in fusion plasma devices.
Date: June 13, 2006
Creator: Evans, T E; Moyer, R A; Burrell, K H; Fenstermacher, M E; Joseph, I; Leonard, A W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department