A Shape Memory Polymer Dialysis Needle Adapter for the Reduction of Hemodynamic Stress within Arteriovenous Grafts
Description: A deployable, shape memory polymer adapter is investigated for reducing the hemodynamic stress caused by a dialysis needle flow within an arteriovenous graft. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of dialysis sessions with and without the adapter demonstrate that the adapter provides a significant decrease in the wall shear stress. In vitro flow visualization measurements are made within a graft model following delivery and actuation of a prototype shape memory polymer adapter. Vascular access complications resulting from arteriovenous (AV) graft failures account for over $1 billion per year in the health care costs of dialysis patients in the U.S. The primary mode of failure of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF's) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts is the development of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and the subsequent formation of stenotic lesions, resulting in a graft flow decline. The hemodynamic stresses arising within AVF's and PTFE grafts play an important role in the pathogenesis of IH. Studies have shown that vascular damage can occur in regions where there is flow separation, oscillation, or extreme values of wall shear stress (WSS). Nevaril et al. show that exposure of red blood cells to WSS's on the order of 1500 dynes/cm2 can result in hemolysis. Hemodynamic stress from dialysis needle flow has recently been investigated for the role it plays in graft failure. Using laser Doppler velocimetry measurements, Unnikrishnan et al. show that turbulence intensities are 5-6 times greater in the AV flow when the needle flow is present and that increased levels of turbulence exist for approximately 7-8cm downstream of the needle. Since the AVF or PTFE graft is exposed to these high levels of hemodynamic stress several hours each week during dialysis sessions, it is quite possible that needle flow is an important contributor to vascular access occlusion. We present a method for reducing the hemodynamic stress in an ...
Date: August 16, 2006
Creator: Ortega, J M; Small, W; Wilson, T S; Benett, W; Loge, J & Maitland, D J
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