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Flash X-ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Injector Voltage-variation Compensation via Beam-induced Gap Voltage

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is evaluating design alternatives to improve the voltage regulation in our injector and accelerator cells of our Flash X-Ray (FXR) machine. The operational peak electron beam current and energy at the x-ray generating target are 3.2 kA and 17 MeV. The goal is to create a more mono-energetic electron beam with variation of less than 1%-root-mean-squared (rms). This would allow the beam to be focused more tightly and create an x-ray source with a smaller spot-size. Our injector appears to have significant voltage-variation, and this report describes a technique to appreciably correct the deviations. When an electron beam crosses the energized gap of an accelerator cell, the energy increases. However, the beam with the associated electromagnetic wave also loses a small amount of energy because of the increased impedance seen across each gap. The phenomenon is sometimes called beam loading. It can also be described as a beam-induced voltage at the gap which is time varying. The polarity of this induced voltage is the opposite of the voltage in the injector. The time varying profiles of the injector and induced gap voltage are related through the beam current. However, while the change in magnitude is similar, they are not exactly the same. With the right choice of cell and pulse-power system impedance, the injector variations can be greatly reduced by cancellation, but not totally eliminated. The FXR injector voltage is estimated to be 2.5 MV-peak. The variation is estimated to be about 3.0%-rms for an interval of 60 ns. A simplified mathematical explanation of voltage compensation is given, and an idealized injector profile is used to quantify the effectiveness in a computer simulation. The result calls for a constant cell and pulse-power system impedance of 12.1 {Omega}. For this impedance, the compensated injector voltage-variation is ...
Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Ong, M M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flash X-Ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Beam-induced Voltage Simulation and TDR Measurements

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is evaluating design alternatives to improve the voltage regulation in our Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator cell and pulse-power system. The goal is to create a more mono-energetic electron beam. When an electron beam crosses the energized gap of an accelerator cell, the electron energy is increased. However, the beam with the associated electromagnetic wave also looses a small amount of energy because of the increased impedance seen across the gap. The beam-induced voltage at the gap is time varying. This creates beam energy variations that we need to understand and control. A high-fidelity computer simulation of the beam and cell interaction has been completed to quantify the time varying induced voltage at the gap. The cell and pulse-power system was characterized using a Time-domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurement technique with a coaxial air-line to drive the cell gap. The beam-induced cell voltage is computed by convoluting the cell impedance with measured beam current. The voltage was checked against other measurements to validate the accuracy.
Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Ong, M M & Vogtlin, G E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

Description: It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.
Date: July 20, 2011
Creator: Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G & Speer, R D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lightning Protection System for HE Facilities at LLNL - Certification Template

Description: This document is meant as a template to assist in the development of your own lighting certification process. Aside from this introduction and the mock representative name of the building (Building A), this document is nearly identical to a lightning certification report issued by the Engineering Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the date of this release, we have certified over 70 HE processing and storage cells at our Site 300 facilities. In Chapters 1 and 2 respectively, we address the need and methods of lightning certification for HE processing and storage facilities at LLNL. We present the preferred method of lightning protection in Chapter 3, as well as the likely building modifications that are needed to comply with this method. In Chapter 4, we present the threat assessment and resulting safe work areas within a cell. After certification, there may be changes to operations during a lightning alert, and this is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 lists the maintenance requirements for the continuation of lighting certification status. Appendices of this document are meant as an aid in developing your own certification process, and they include a bonding list, an inventory of measurement equipment, surge suppressors in use at LLNL, an Integrated Work and Safety form (IWS), and a template certification sign-off sheet. The lightning certification process involves more that what is spelled out in this document. The first steps involve considerable planning, the securing of funds, and management and explosives safety buy-in. Permits must be obtained, measurement equipment must be assembled and tested, and engineers and technicians must be trained in their use. Cursory building inspections are also recommended, and surge suppression for power systems must be addressed. Upon completion of a certification report and its sign-off by management, additional work is required. Training will be needed ...
Date: December 8, 2005
Creator: Clancy, T J; Ong, M M & Brown, C G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lightning Protection Certification for High Explosives Facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: Presented here is an innovation in lighting safety certification, and a description of its implementation for high explosives processing and storage facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Lightning rods have proven useful in the protection of wooden structures; however, modern structures made of rebar, concrete, and the like, require fresh thinking. Our process involves a rigorous and unique approach to lightning safety for modern buildings, where the internal voltages and currents are quantified and the risk assessed. To follow are the main technical aspects of lightning protection for modern structures and these methods comply with the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association, the National Electrical Code, and the Department of Energy [1][2]. At the date of this release, we have certified over 70 HE processing and storage cells at our Site 300 facility.
Date: January 11, 2006
Creator: Clancy, T J; Brown, C G; Ong, M M & Clark, G A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Calculation of the Spectrum of the Severe (1%) Lighting Current and Its First Derivative

Description: Recently, the direct-strike lighting environment for the stockpile-to-target sequence was updated [1]. In [1], the severe (1%) lightning current waveforms for first and subsequent return strokes are defined based on Heidler's waveform. This report presents numerical calculations of the spectra of those 1% lightning current waveforms and their first derivatives. First, the 1% lightning current models are repeated here for convenience. Then, the numerical method for calculating the spectra is presented and tested. The test uses a double-exponential waveform and its first derivative, which we fit to the previous 1% direct-strike lighting environment from [2]. Finally, the resulting spectra are given and are compared with those of the double-exponential waveform and its first derivative.
Date: February 12, 2010
Creator: Brown, C G; Ong, M M; Perkins, M P & Speer, R D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating The Reliability of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Flash X-ray (FXR) Machine

Description: At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), our flash X-ray accelerator (FXR) is used on multi-million dollar hydrodynamic experiments. Because of the importance of the radiographs, FXR must be ultra-reliable. Flash linear accelerators that can generate a 3 kA beam at 18 MeV are very complex. They have thousands, if not millions, of critical components that could prevent the machine from performing correctly. For the last five years, we have quantified and are tracking component failures. From this data, we have determined that the reliability of the high-voltage gas-switches that initiate the pulses, which drive the accelerator cells, dominates the statistics. The failure mode is a single-switch pre-fire that reduces the energy of the beam and degrades the X-ray spot-size. The unfortunate result is a lower resolution radiograph. FXR is a production machine that allows only a modest number of pulses for testing. Therefore, reliability switch testing that requires thousands of shots is performed on our test stand. Study of representative switches has produced pre-fire statistical information and probability distribution curves. This information is applied to FXR to develop test procedures and determine individual switch reliability using a minimal number of accelerator pulses.
Date: June 27, 2007
Creator: Ong, M M; Kihara, R; Zentler, J M; Kreitzer, B R & DeHope, W J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-frequency RF Coupling To Unconventional (Fat Unbalanced) Dipoles

Description: The report explains radio frequency (RF) coupling to unconventional dipole antennas. Normal dipoles have thin equal length arms that operate at maximum efficiency around resonance frequencies. In some applications like high-explosive (HE) safety analysis, structures similar to dipoles with ''fat'' unequal length arms must be evaluated for indirect-lightning effects. An example is shown where a metal drum-shaped container with HE forms one arm and the detonator cable acts as the other. Even if the HE is in a facility converted into a ''Faraday cage'', a lightning strike to the facility could still produce electric fields inside. The detonator cable concentrates the electric field and carries the energy into the detonator, potentially creating a hazard. This electromagnetic (EM) field coupling of lightning energy is the indirect effect of a lightning strike. In practice, ''Faraday cages'' are formed by the rebar of the concrete facilities. The individual rebar rods in the roof, walls and floor are normally electrically connected because of the construction technique of using metal wire to tie the pieces together. There are two additional requirements for a good cage. (1) The roof-wall joint and the wall-floor joint must be electrically attached. (2) All metallic penetrations into the facility must also be electrically connected to the rebar. In this report, it is assumed that these conditions have been met, and there is no arcing in the facility structure. Many types of detonators have metal ''cups'' that contain the explosives and thin electrical initiating wires, called bridge wires mounted between two pins. The pins are connected to the detonator cable. The area of concern is between the pins supporting the bridge wire and the metal cup forming the outside of the detonator. Detonator cables usually have two wires, and in this example, both wires generated the same voltage at the detonator ...
Date: December 7, 2010
Creator: Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Perkins, M P; Speer, R D & Javedani, J B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLASH X-RAY (FXR) LINEAR INDUCTION ACCELERATOR (LIA) OPTIMIZATION Sensor Delay Correction

Description: The radiographic goal of the FXR Optimization Project is to generate an x-ray pulse with peak energy of 19 MeV, spot-size of 1.5 mm, a dose of 500 rad, and duration of 60 ns. The electrical objectives are to generate a 3 kA electron-beam and refine our 16 MV accelerator so that the voltage does not vary more than 1%-rms. In a multi-cell linear induction accelerator, like FXR, the timing of the acceleration pulses relative to the beam is critical. The pulses must be timed optimally so that a cell is at full voltage before the beam arrives and does not drop until the beam passes. In order to stay within the energy-variation budget, the synchronization between the cells and beam arrival must be controlled to a couple of nanoseconds. Therefore, temporal measurements must be accurate to a fraction of a nanosecond. FXR Optimization Project developed a one-giga-sample per second (gs/s) data acquisition system to record beam sensor data. Signal processing algorithms were written to determine cell timing with an uncertainty of a fraction of a nanosecond. However, the uncertainty in the sensor delay was still a few nanoseconds. This error had to be reduced if we are to improve the quality of the electron beam. Two types of sensors are used to align the cell voltage pulse against the beam current. The beam current is measured with resistive-wall sensors. The cell voltages are read with capacitive voltage monitors. Sensor delays can be traced to two mechanisms: (1) the sensors are not co-located at the beam and cell interaction points, and (2) the sensors have different length jumper cables and other components that connect them to the standard-length coaxial cables of the data acquisition system. Using the physical locations and dimensions of the sensor components, and the dielectric constant of ...
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Ong, M M; Houck, T L; Kreitzer, B R; Paris, R D; Vogtlin, G E & Zentler, J M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tuning the Magnetic Transport of an Induction LINAC using Emittance

Description: The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Flash X-Ray (FXR) machine is a linear induction accelerator used to produce a nominal 18 MeV, 3 kA, 65 ns pulse width electron beam for hydrodynamic radiographs. A common figure of merit for this type of radiographic machine is the x-ray dose divided by the spot area on the bremsstrahlung converter where a higher FOM is desired. Several characteristics of the beam affect the minimum attainable x-ray spot size. The most significant are emittance (chaotic transverse energy), chromatic aberration (energy variation), and beam motion (transverse instabilities and corkscrew motion). FXR is in the midst of a multi-year optimization project to reduce the spot size. This paper describes the effort to reduce beam emittance by adjusting the fields of the transport solenoids and position of the cathode. If the magnetic transport is not correct, the beam will be mismatched and undergo envelope oscillations increasing the emittance. We measure the divergence and radius of the beam in a drift section after the accelerator by imaging the optical transition radiation (OTR) and beam envelope on a foil. These measurements are used to determine an emittance. Relative changes in the emittance can be quickly estimated from the foil measurements allowing for an efficient, real-time study. Once an optimized transport field is determined, the final focus can be adjusted and the new x-ray spot measured. A description of the diagnostics and analysis is presented.
Date: August 11, 2006
Creator: Houck, T L; Brown, C G; Ong, M M; Paul, A C; Wargo, P E & Zentler, J M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department