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Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction

Description: The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and the solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will be performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction

Description: The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing. 5 refs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, February 9, 1992--May 8, 1992

Description: An investigation of new methods for the production of iron-pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported iron hydroxyoxide catalysts and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. Previous work in this project showed that a catalyst prepared by adding ferric nitrate and ammonia to an acid-washed clay gave an active catalyst following sulfidation. Further testing of this catalyst with a model compound showed that its hydrocracking activity was considerably lower when used in 10% concentration rather than 50%. In contrast, the mixed iron/alumina pillared clay catalysts were still highly effective at 10% concentration and gave good conversions at one and two hour reaction times. An investigation of preparation methods demonstrated that calcination of both the iron hydroxyoxide-impregnated clay and the mixed iron/alumina pillared clays is essential for activity. High activity was obtained for these catalysts only when they were removed from the aqueous media rapidly, dried, and calcined. The use of ferric sulfate to prepare a clay-supported sulfated iron catalyst was attempted, the resulting catalyst was relatively inactive for hydrocracking. Several new catalysts were synthesized with the idea of decreasing the pillar density and thereby increasing the micropore volume. A zirconia-pillared clay with low pillar density was prepared and intercalated with triiron complex. The hydrocracking activity of this catalyst was somewhat lower than that of the mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalyst. Other new catalysts, that were prepared by first pillaring with an organic ammonium pillaring agent, then introducing a lower number of silica or alumina pillars, and finally the iron component, were also tested. The mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalysts was further tested at low concentration for pyrene hydrogenating and hydrocracking activities.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1992--February 8, 1993

Description: The mixed iron/alumina pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported iron catalysts have been shown in previous reports of this project to significantly improve yields of heptane-soluble products obtained in the liquefaction of both as received and acid-exchanged Wyodak subbituminous coal and Blind Canyon bituminous coal. In this quarter, the soluble product (LSW) obtained from the noncatalytic low-severity liquefaction of Wyodak coal was used as a feed to determine the activity of iron based catalysts for the hydrogenation and depolymerization steps. Comparison data for liquefaction of the soluble LSW with other catalysts were desired, and these data were obtained for a dispersed form of iron sulfide, prepared via iron hydroxyoxide (PETC method). The iron oxyhydroxide catalyst was directly precipitated on LSW product using either water or ethanol as the solvent. An insight into the functioning of the mixed iron/alumina pillared clay in coal liquefaction was investigated by preparing and studying an iron oxoaluminate structure. An investigation of new methods for the production of tetralin soluble iron oxometallate catalysts and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. The hydrogenation activity of iron oxoaluminate was investigated using pyrene and 1-methylnaphthalene as the test compounds, and results were compared with thermal reactions. In order to determine the loss of activity, recovered catalyst was recycled a second time for the hydrotreating of pyrene. Reaction of 1-methylnaphthalene with iron oxoaluminate also gave very high conversion to 1- and 5-methyltetralins and small amount of 2- and 6-methyltetralins. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous and Blind Canyon bituminous coal was investigated using an in situ sulfided soluble iron oxoaluminate catalyst.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, May 9, 1992--August 8, 1992

Description: An investigation of new methods for the production of mixed pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported catalysts and determination of their catalytic activities were continued in this quarter. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the preparative method for high activity iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite catalysts, a new batch of the catalyst was prepared and tested for hydrocracking activity with bibenzyl. This preparation gave conversion and product distribution similar to that reported previously. The mixed iron/alumina-pillared clay was also prepared using a pillaring solution that was aged for longer period of time. To determine the importance of the type of pillaring support in hydrocracking activity, iron/zirconia-pillared montmorillonite was prepared using the same technique as that for iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite. The reaction of bibenzyl with the sulfided iron/zirconia-pillared catalyst gave a lower hydrocracking conversion than the iron/alumina-pillared catalyst. Addition of a second catalytic metal to the clay support was attempted to determine if a synergistic effect could improve liquefaction. Ferric nitrate and stannous chloride were added to the clay, but the resulting catalyst was relatively poor for hydrocracking and hydrogenation compared with ferric nitrate supported on the clay. New disposable iron catalysts with high acidity and surface area are desired for coal liquefaction. Synthetic iron aluminosilicates were prepared by methods similar to those used for the nickel-substituted synthetic mica montmorillonite (NiSMM) catalysts, which are very effective for hydrogenation and reforming of hydrocarbons. The iron aluminosilicate catalysts were tested for hydrocracking and hydrogenation of bibenzyl, naphthalene and pyrene. Pyrene hydrogenation was effectively catalyzed by the sulfided synthetic iron catalyst.
Date: October 1995
Creator: Olson, E. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1991--February 8, 1992

Description: The investigation of methods for the production and testing of iron-pillared clay catalysts was continued in this quarter. The surface area of the mixed alumina/iron pillared clay catalyst decreased to 51 m{sup 2}/g on sulfidation. Thus the stability of the alumina pillars during the sulfidation and thermal treatments prevented the total collapse that occurred in the case of the iron-pillared clays. Previously the mixed alumina/iron pillared clays were tested for hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl. This testing was extended to a determination of activity with a second model compound substrate (pyrene), representative of the polynuclear aromatic systems present in coal. Testing of the mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalysts with 1-methylnaphthalene gave interesting results that demonstrate shape selectivity. The clay-supported iron hydroxyoxide catalysts prepared by impregnation of iron species on acidic clays were further investigated. Sulfidation of these catalysts using the carbon disulfide in situ method gave hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl that were somewhat less than those obtained by presulfidation with H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S mixtures. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal was very successful with the iron impregnated clay catalyst, giving a highly soluble product. High conversions were also obtained with the mixed alumina/iron-pillared clay catalyst, but the yield of oil-solubles was considerably lower. Several new catalysts were synthesized with the idea of decreasing the pillar density and thereby increasing the micropore volume. These catalysts were prepared by first pillaring with an organic ammonium pillaring agent, then introducing a lower number of silica or alumina pillars. Finally the iron component was added either before or after thermal removal of organic pillars.
Date: October 1995
Creator: Olson, E. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, May 8, 1993--August 8, 1993

Description: High hydrocracking and liquefaction activity can be achieved with 10 wt.% of sulfided clay-supported iron catalysts. Further tests and demonstrations of this activity were required. Iron hydroxyoxide was generated on acid-treated montmorillonite. The new batch of catalyst exhibited high hydrocracking activity, Three hour tests with the solubilized intermediate from low-severity treatment of Wyodak coal (LSW) gave a high conversion (45%) of the heptane-insoluble LSW intermediate to heptane-soluble products. An investigation of new methods for the production of catalysts from tetralin-soluble iron oxometallates and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. Iron oxotitanate and iron oxoaluminate gave very high conversions of LSW to heptane solubles (61% and 54%, respectively). The high yields of heptane soluble products obtained with these catalysts offers a potential for use in liquefaction stages with solubilized coal, or at least serve as a model for producing active catalysts via mixed metal oxides. Methods for successfully testing dispersed iron catalysts with the low-severity intermediate were also devised. Catalyst recovered from the dispersed iron hydroxyoxide-catalyzed reaction of ion-exchanged Wyodak gave a high conversion (47%) of LSW to heptane solubles.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final technical report

Description: In an effort to develop new disposable catalysts for direct coal liquefaction, several types of clay-supported pyrrhotite catalysts were prepared and tested. These included iron-pillared montmorillonite, mixed iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite, iron-impregnated montmorillonite, and iron oxometallate-impregnated montmorillonite.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, February 9, 1993--May 8, 1993

Description: An investigation of new methods for the production and utilization of tetralin-soluble iron oxometallate precursors for coal liquefaction catalysts was continued in this quarter. Further descriptions of the catalytic activities of the sulfided forms were obtained. The hydrogenation activities of catalysts derived from iron oxotitanate and cobalt oxoaluminate were investigated using pyrene as a the test compound, and results were compared with thermal reactions. The hydrogenation activity of iron oxotitanate was superior to other catalysts including iron oxoaluminate. The hydrogenation activity of cobalt oxoaluminate was similar to that of iron oxoaluminate reported in previous quarterly report. The liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal was investigated using in situ sulfided iron oxotitanate catalyst. In order to improve the usefulness of iron oxoaluminate as a liquefaction catalyst, iron oxoaluminate was supported on acid-treated montmorillonite (K-10). Supporting the iron oxoaluminate on an acidic support significantly improved the hydrogenation activity of iron oxoaluminate. The hydrocracking activity was increased by a large factor. Thus the aluminate and titanate structures surrounding the pyrrhotite that forms during sulfidation have a beneficial effect in preventing deactivation of the iron sites, and the presence of the acidic sites in the clay results in effective catalytic synergism between catalyst and support. These clay-supported iron oxometallates are highly promising catalysts for coal liquefaction. Iron oxyhydroxide and triiron supported on acid-treated montmorillonite (K-10) were tested for the liquefaction of ion-exchanged Wyodak (IEW) to minimize effects of the coal mineral matter. Both sulfided catalysts gave very high conversions of coal to THF-soluble and heptane-soluble (oils) products.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 2.0 -- Air quality assessment, control, and analytical methods: Subtask 2.11 -- Lactic acid FGD additives from sugar beet wastewater. Final report

Description: Organic buffers maintain the pH of the scrubber slurry in flue gas desulfurization as the SO{sub 2} dissolves at the air-liquid interface. Inexpensive acids with an appropriate pKa are required for this application. The pKa of lactic acid (3.86) is between that of the interface and the recirculating slurry and will make soluble calcium ions available in large amounts. Currently lactic acid is somewhat expensive for this, but the project work will lead to development of a new source of inexpensive lactate. Microbial action during the storage and processing of sugar beets forms lactic acid in concentrations as high as 14 g/L in the processing water. The concentrations are lower than those occurring in conventional fermentation production of lactic acids, but since a considerable amount of water is involved in the processing of sugar beets in the Red River Valley, a substantial amount of lactic acid or calcium lactate could be recovered as a byproduct for use in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and other applications. The feasibility of two novel lactate recovery schemes applicable to dilute streams was evaluated in the project.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 4.7 - diesel fuel desulfurization. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: Reductions in the maximum permissible sulfur content of diesel fuel to less than 0.05 wt% will require deep desulfurization to meet these standards. In some refineries, a new hydrogenation catalyst may be required for diesel fuel production. The work very briefly described in this document is on the use of hydrotalcite-supported molybdenum sulfide in the catalysis of ethanol. The catalyst reaction was highly selective for 1-butanol, providing a very clean reaction. Since the catalysis contains the MoS{sub 2} needed for the dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps, the reaction can be performed at lower temperatures and higher selectivity. The catalyst was very stable and not destroyed by the water produced in the reaction.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 4.7 -- Diesel fuel desulfurization. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

Description: Reductions in the maximum permissible sulfur content of diesel fuel to less than 0.05 wt% will require deep desulfurization technologies to meet these standards. In some refineries, a new hydrogenation catalyst may be required for diesel fuel production. Some of the major components of diesel fuel are dibenzothiophenes and its alkyl derivatives. These components are desulfurized by the Rhodococcus rhodocrous IGTS8 enzymes. But when they are highly diluted with other hydrocarbons in the diesel fuel, will there be enough specificity for their absorption and degradation by the enzyme systems? The extent to which a diesel fuel or middle distillate feed can be desulfurized by desulfurization enzymes will be determined. In addition, the effectiveness of molybdenum sulfide catalysts in removing sulfur from the middle distillate cut will be determined. The catalyst preparation involves creation of the molybdenum sulfide in a highly dispersed form essentially between the layers of a hydrotalcite material, which is then dissolved away to expose the active sites.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 1.10 -- Biodesulfurization, Year 2. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

Description: The main focus in this task is the application of desulfurization enzymes to remove sulfur from crude oil, diesel fuel, or resid precursors for needle cokes. The most important question to be answered is how to utilize the Rhodococcus desulfurization complex in a nonaqueous solvent or medium, such as the oil itself. Successful application of nonaqueous enzymology to this problem will involve finding ways to stabilize the active conformations of the enzymes and provide for easy recovery of the enzymes, perhaps in an immobilized-enzyme packed-bed reactor. A second objective is to explore biological systems that can catalyze the cleavage or organometallics in fossil fuels, such as metal porphyrins. A biodemetallation function could greatly aid in the refining of high-metal, high-sulfur crudes and bitumens. During this period, work was initiated to develop new rapid and highly quantitative assays for specific desulfurization activities in isolated and separated enzyme fractions. The preparation of water-soluble chlorophyllin was carried out for use in assaying for demetallation activity in microorganisms. Cleavage of the dark green porphyrin system in the chlorophyllin will be an indicator of activity that may be useful for cleavage of other metal porphyrins in crudes and bitumens.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 4.6 -- Biodesulfurization. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

Description: The main focus in this task is the application of desulfurization enzymes to remove sulfur from crude oil, diesel fuel, or resid precursors for needle cokes. The most important question to be answered is how to utilize the Rhodococcus desulfurization complex in a nonaqueous solvent or medium, such as the oil itself. Successful application of nonaqueous enzymology to this problem will involve finding ways to stabilize the active conformations of the enzymes and provide for easy recovery of the enzymes, perhaps in an immobilized-enzyme packed-bed reactor. Understanding the desulfurization activity will require that they determine the regulatory and mechanistic properties of the enzymes. In the previous period, methods were developed for recovering larger amounts of the metabolic intermediates that would at the same time preserve all the labeling from oxygen isotopes by preventing exchange and avoiding displacement during derivatization for the gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis. In this period, methods were investigated for conversion of the sulfonate and the sulfite trapped on the resin to alkyl derivatives that could by analyzed by GC/MS and GC/Fourier transform infrared to determine the oxygen isotopic labeling. This information is needed to complete the understanding of the last steps occurring in the complex desulfurization system in the bacterium. The methods employed included treatment with diazomethane and trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}, Task 2.6

Description: Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides(NO{sub x}) in flue gas or engine exhaust gas with hydrocarbons as the reductant has great potential for less expense, less pollution, and easier operation than SCR with ammonia. Methane is the preferred reducing gas because of its low cost and low toxicity. Stable, low-cost catalysts for SCR with methane are required to demonstrate this technology for controlling NO{sub x} emissions. Several cobalt and nickel catalysts on synthetic clay and uranium oxide supports were investigated for their activities in reducing NO{sub x} with methane in the presence of air. The efficiency of the synthetic clay-supported nickel and cobalt catalysts for nitric oxide (NO) reduction with methane as the reducing gas was poor. The nickel oxide-uranium oxide catalyst, which was chosen for its high stability, was also ineffective. Results from the two-step experiments conducted at two-temperatures produced some interesting information on the reactions of methane with the catalysts and the reactivity of the carbonaceous intermediate. The carbonaceous material formed from methane dissociation at 450{degrees}C not only reduces NO to N{sub 2}O at lower temperatures, but also prevents oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. Unfortunately, the carbonaceous forms that reduce the NO are not available for reactions at 400{degrees}C in the presence of oxygen. A two-step process employing this chemistry would be difficult because the catalyst would have to be cycled between the two temperatures. Also the desired reduction to nitrogen is not very efficient.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Olson, E.S. & Sharma, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical vapor deposition: Stable carbons from low-rank coals

Description: CVD was used to increase the oxidative stability of activated carbons. Activated carbons prepared from Gascoyne lignite (North Dakota) by thermal or KOH activation were subjected to BCl{sub 3} in He at 727 C with or without benzene for alimited period of time followed by annealing in He at 900 C for 3 days. Untreated and acid-washed coal samples were used to assess the effect of minral matter in the coal on the boron coating. The oxidative stability of the boron-modified carbons was determined from the decomposition curves obtained from TGA. Modification of the as-received, KOH-treated carbon yielded oxidatively stable carbons up to an initial temperature of 520 , compared to 350 C for the starting material. Similar results were obtained for the carbonized Gascoyne lignite. Sulfurous acid washing of the Gascoyne significantly enhanced the thermal stability (600 C) of the boron-modified carbon.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Sharma, R.K.; Kulas, R.W. & Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

Description: The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group VIII metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite-supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted ruthenium catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Olson, E.S. & Sharma, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 5.4 -- Stable and supercritical chars. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

Description: The use of chars and carbons as absorbents and catalyst supports could be expanded if their stability to reactive gases were improved. The purpose of this task is to develop methods for applying surface coatings of boron carbide, silicon carbide, and titanium carbide on the char. Formation of these composites will increase stability and improve structural strength and, consequently, resistance to abrasion. The first objective of this task is to develop methods for coating low-rank coal (LRC) chars and carbons by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to produce high surface area composites that are inert to reactive atmospheres. The proposed coating layers will be formed from elements known to form extremely hard and stable carbide materials. The second objective is to determine the feasibility of using supercritical extraction to prepare an activated carbon with a very high surface area. During this report period supercritical solvent extraction was investigated as a means of producing very large microporous structures in chars. Wyodak subbituminous coal, Gascoyne lignite, and Velva lignite were used for the supercritical extractions.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Olson, E.S. & Sharma, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas

Description: The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. The conversion of coal gasification products to commercially valuable alcohols will provide an important new market for current and future gasification plants. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. The support for the active metal sulfide is a layered mixed oxide (hydrotalcite) capable of interaction with the metal sites for catalysis of carbon monoxide reductions. These catalysts have a high surface area, are highly porous, and have basic and acidic functionality. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group 8 metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted Ru catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, ...
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Olson, E.S. & Sharma, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 5.10 -- Value-added coproducts. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

Description: Research focused on end-use products is needed to integrate value-added coproducts with power generation and to reduce escalating waste disposal costs by developing profit centers from recycling. Substantial public benefits can be derived from by-products utilization through conservation of energy and resources, reduction in gaseous emissions, and prevention of solid waste pollution. Continued research on carbon products under the base Cooperative Agreement addresses the central question of whether uniquely cost-effective activated carbons can be produced by taking advantage of the inherently porous and reactive structure of low-rank coals (LRCs). Carbon products will be evaluated in reference to their potential use in air toxics control and other applications. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) designated value-added carbon as a product line, with the goal of developing superior carbon products at competitive prices for a range of applications, including SOx/NOx/air toxics adsorption, wastewater treatment, molecular sieves, catalyst supports, metallurgical and foundry carbons, and clean-burning solid fuels using EERC processes previously developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mild Gasification program. The approach to be used in meeting specifications for marketable activated carbon products is to develop a fundamental understanding of the extent and quality of the porous surface needed to achieve rapid, high-capacity adsorption of pollutant gases or toxic metals and the processing conditions needed to transform coal and other raw materials into products possessing these superior properties.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Olson, E.S. & Aulich, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

Description: Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with, or even replace, petroleum and other fossil fuels in the near future. It is a primary domestic, sustainable, renewable energy resource that can supply liquid transportation fuels, chemicals, and energy that are currently produced ...
Date: July 28, 2008
Creator: Zygarlicke, C. J.; Schmidt, D. D.; Olson, E. S.; Leroux, K. M.; Wocken, C. A.; Aulich, T. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department