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AO Group Annual Report

Description: The Adaptive Optics (AO) Group in I Division develops and tests a broad range of advanced wavefront control technologies. Current applications focus on: Remote sensing, High power lasers, Astronomy, and Human vision. In the area of remote sensing, the AO Group leads a collaborative effort with LLNL's Nonproliferation, Arms Control & International Security (NAI) Directorate on Enhanced Surveillance Imaging. The ability to detect and identify individual people or vehicles from long-range is an important requirement for proliferation detection and homeland security. High-resolution imaging along horizontal paths through the atmosphere is limited by turbulence, which blurs and distorts the image. For ranges over {approx}one km, visible image resolution can be reduced by over an order of magnitude. We have developed an approach based on speckle imaging that can correct the turbulence-induced blurring and provide high resolution imagery. The system records a series of short exposure images which freeze the atmospheric effects. We can then estimate the image magnitude and phase using a bispectral estimation algorithm which cancels the atmospheric effects while maintaining object information at the diffraction limit of the imaging system.
Date: October 4, 2005
Creator: Olivier, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Security Solution for IEEE 802.11's Ad-hoc Mode:Password-Authentication and Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

Description: The IEEE 802 standards ease the deployment of networkinginfrastructures and enable employers to accesscorporate networks whiletraveling. These standards provide two modes of communication calledinfrastructure and ad-hoc modes. A security solution for the IEEE802.11's infrastructure mode took several years to reach maturity andfirmware are still been upgraded, yet a solution for the ad-hoc modeneeds to be specified. The present paper is a first attempt in thisdirection. It leverages the latest developments in the area ofpassword-based authentication and (group) Diffie-Hellman key exchange todevelop a provably-secure key-exchange protocol for IEEE 802.11's ad-hocmode. The protocol allows users to securely join and leave the wirelessgroup at time, accommodates either a single-shared password orpairwise-shared passwords among the group members, or at least with acentral server; achieves security against dictionary attacks in theideal-hash model (i.e. random-oracles). This is, to the best of ourknowledge, the first such protocol to appear in the cryptographicliterature.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Emmanuel, Bresson; Olivier, Chevassut & David, Pointcheval
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design issues in the semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks.

Description: The asynchronous task model serves as a useful vehicle for shared memory parallel programming, particularly on multicore and manycore processors. As adoption of model among programmers has increased, support has emerged for the integration of task parallel language constructs into mainstream programming languages, e.g., C and C++. This paper examines some of the design decisions in Cilk and OpenMP concerning semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks with the aim of informing the efforts of committees considering language integration, as well as developers of new task parallel languages and libraries.
Date: July 1, 2013
Creator: Olivier, Stephen L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Provably-Secure Authenticated Group Diffie-Hellman KeyExchange

Description: Authenticated key exchange protocols allow two participantsA and B, communicating over a public network and each holding anauthentication means, to exchange a shared secret value. Methods designedto deal with this cryptographic problem ensure A (resp. B) that no otherparticipants aside from B (resp. A) can learn any information about theagreed value, and often also ensure A and B that their respective partnerhas actually computed this value. A natural extension to thiscryptographic method is to consider a pool of participants exchanging ashared secret value and to provide a formal treatment for it. Startingfrom the famous 2-party Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol, andfrom its authenticated variants, security experts have extended it to themulti-party setting for over a decade and completed a formal analysis inthe framework of modern cryptography in the past few years. The presentpaper synthesizes this body of work on the provably-secure authenticatedgroup DH key exchange.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier & Pointcheval, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-Stroke Self-Aligned Vertical Comb Drive Actuators for Adaptive Optics Applications

Description: A high-stroke micro-actuator array was designed, modeled, fabricated and tested. Each pixel in the 4x4 array consists of a self-aligned vertical comb drive actuator. This micro-actuator array was designed to become the foundation of a micro-mirror array that will be used as a deformable mirror for adaptive optics applications. Analytical models combined with CoventorWare{reg_sign} simulations were used to design actuators that would move up to 10{micro}m in piston motion with 100V applied. Devices were fabricated according to this design and testing of these devices demonstrated an actuator displacement of 1.4{micro}m with 200V applied. Further investigation revealed that fabrication process inaccuracy led to significantly stiffer mechanical springs in the fabricated devices. The increased stiffness of the springs was shown to account for the reduced displacement of the actuators relative to the design.
Date: October 27, 2005
Creator: Carr, E J; Olivier, S S & Solgaard, O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance predictions for the Keck telescope adaptive optics system

Description: The second Keck ten meter telescope (Keck-11) is slated to have an infrared-optimized adaptive optics system in the 1997--1998 time frame. This system will provide diffraction-limited images in the 1--3 micron region and the ability to use a diffraction-limited spectroscopy slit. The AO system is currently in the preliminary design phase and considerable analysis has been performed in order to predict its performance under various seeing conditions. In particular we have investigated the point-spread function, energy through a spectroscopy slit, crowded field contrast, object limiting magnitude, field of view, and sky coverage with natural and laser guide stars.
Date: August 7, 1995
Creator: Gavel, D.T. & Olivier, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation and analysis of laser guide star adaptive optics systems for the eight to ten meter class telescopes

Description: This paper discusses the design and analysis of laser-guided adaptive optic systems for the large, 8--10 meter class telescopes. We describe a technique for calculating the expected modulation transfer function and the point spread function for a closed loop adaptive optics system, parameterized by the degree of correction and the seeing conditions. The results agree closely with simulations and experimental data, and validate well known scaling law models even at low order correction. Scaling law.model analysis of a proposed adaptive optics system at the Keck telescope leads to the conclusion that a single laser guide star beacon will be adequate for diffraction limited imaging at wavelengths between 1 and 3 am with reasonable coverage of the sky. Cone anisoplanatism will dominate wavefront correction error at the visible wavelengths unless multiple laser guide stars are used.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Gavel, D. T. & Olivier, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser guide star adaptive optics: Present and future

Description: Feasibility demonstrations using one to two meter telescopes have confirmed the utility of laser beacons as wavefront references for adaptive optics systems. Laser beacon architectures suitable for the new generation of eight and ten meter telescopes are presently under study. This paper reviews the concept of laser guide star adaptive optics and the progress that has been made by groups around the world implementing such systems. A description of the laser guide star program at LLNL and some experimental results is also presented.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Olivier, S. S. & Max, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Security Proof for Password Authentication in TLS-Verifier-based Three-Party Group Diffie-Hellman

Description: The internet has grown greatly in the past decade, by some numbers exceeding 47 million active web sites and a total aggregate exceeding100 million web sites. What is common practice today on the Internet is that servers have public keys, but clients are largely authenticated via short passwords. Protecting these passwords by not storing them in the clear on institutions's servers has become a priority. This paper develops password-based ciphersuites for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol that are: (1) resistant to server compromise; (2) provably secure; (3) believed to be free from patent and licensing restrictions based on an analysis of relevant patents in the area.
Date: April 21, 2008
Creator: Chevassut, Olivier; Milner, Joseph & Pointcheval, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligent Sensor Tasking for Space Collision Mitigation

Description: Orbital collisions pose a hazard to space operations. Using a high performance computer modeling and simulation environment for space situational awareness, we explore a new paradigm for improving satellite conjunction analysis by obtaining more precise orbital information only for those objects that pose a collision risk greater than a defined threshold to a specific set of satellites during a specified time interval. In particular, we assess the improvement in the quality of the conjunction analysis that can be achieved using a distributed network of ground-based telescopes.
Date: April 1, 2010
Creator: Olivier, S S; Pertica, A J & Henderson, J R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of an AO-OCT system

Description: Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-volumetric-resolution, images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has been under development for 2 years and has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging [1]. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction [2] and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction [3]. We are beginning to investigate the potential for increasing the image contrast in this system using higher-order wavefront correction. The first step in this analysis is to quantify the residual wavefront error (WFE) in the current system. Developing an error budget is a common tool for improved performance and system design in astronomical AO systems [4, 5]. The process for vision science systems is also discussed in several texts e.g. [6], but results from this type of analysis have rarely been included in journal articles on AO for vision science. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of a future high-contrast system. In general, an AO system error budget must include an analysis of three categories of residual WFE: errors in measuring the phase, errors caused by limitations of the DM(s), and errors introduced by temporal variation. Understanding the mechanisms and relative size of these errors is critical to improving system performance. In this paper we discuss the techniques for characterizing these error sources in the AO-OCT system. It is useful to first calculate an error budget for the simpler case using a model eye, and then add the additional errors introduced for the case of a human subject. Measurement error includes calibration error, wavefront sensor (WFS) CCD noise, and sampling errors. Calibration errors must be ...
Date: July 26, 2007
Creator: Evans, J W; Zawadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S & Werner, J S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive optics ophthalmologic systems using dual deformable mirrors

Description: Adaptive Optics (AO) have been increasingly combined with a variety of ophthalmic instruments over the last decade to provide cellular-level, in-vivo images of the eye. The use of MEMS deformable mirrors in these instruments has recently been demonstrated to reduce system size and cost while improving performance. However, currently available MEMS mirrors lack the required range of motion for correcting large ocular aberrations, such as defocus and astigmatism. In order to address this problem, we have developed an AO system architecture that uses two deformable mirrors, in a woofer/tweeter arrangement, with a bimorph mirror as the woofer and a MEMS mirror as the tweeter. This setup provides several advantages, including extended aberration correction range, due to the large stroke of the bimorph mirror, high order aberration correction using the MEMS mirror, and additionally, the ability to ''focus'' through the retina. This AO system architecture is currently being used in four instruments, including an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system and a retinal flood-illuminated imaging system at the UC Davis Medical Center, a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) at the Doheny Eye Institute, and an OCT system at Indiana University. The design, operation and evaluation of this type of AO system architecture will be presented.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Jones, S; Olivier, S; Chen, D; Sadda, S; Joeres, S; Zawadzki, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LSST Camera Optics

Description: The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a unique, three-mirror, modified Paul-Baker design with an 8.4m primary, a 3.4m secondary, and a 5.0m tertiary feeding a camera system that includes corrector optics to produce a 3.5 degree field of view with excellent image quality (<0.3 arcsecond 80% encircled diffracted energy) over the entire field from blue to near infra-red wavelengths. We describe the design of the LSST camera optics, consisting of three refractive lenses with diameters of 1.6m, 1.0m and 0.7m, along with a set of interchangeable, broad-band, interference filters with diameters of 0.75m. We also describe current plans for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing these lenses and filters.
Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Olivier, S S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, K; Hale, L & Whistler, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large Scale Nanolaminate Deformable Mirror

Description: This work concerns the development of a technology that uses Nanolaminate foils to form light-weight, deformable mirrors that are scalable over a wide range of mirror sizes. While MEMS-based deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators have considerably reduced the cost and increased the capabilities of adaptive optic systems, there has not been a way to utilize the advantages of lithography and batch-fabrication to produce large-scale deformable mirrors. This technology is made scalable by using fabrication techniques and lithography that are not limited to the sizes of conventional MEMS devices. Like many MEMS devices, these mirrors use parallel plate electrostatic actuators. This technology replicates that functionality by suspending a horizontal piece of nanolaminate foil over an electrode by electroplated nickel posts. This actuator is attached, with another post, to another nanolaminate foil that acts as the mirror surface. Most MEMS devices are produced with integrated circuit lithography techniques that are capable of very small line widths, but are not scalable to large sizes. This technology is very tolerant of lithography errors and can use coarser, printed circuit board lithography techniques that can be scaled to very large sizes. These mirrors use small, lithographically defined actuators and thin nanolaminate foils allowing them to produce deformations over a large area while minimizing weight. This paper will describe a staged program to develop this technology. First-principles models were developed to determine design parameters. Three stages of fabrication will be described starting with a 3 x 3 device using conventional metal foils and epoxy to a 10-across all-metal device with nanolaminate mirror surfaces.
Date: November 30, 2005
Creator: Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Miles, R & Chang, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function

Description: To relate in-vivo microscopic retinal changes to visual function assessed with clinical tests in patients with various forms of retinal dystrophies. The UC Davis Adaptive Optics (AO) Fundus Camera was used to acquire in-vivo retinal images at the cellular level. Visual function tests, consisting of visual field analysis, multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), contrast sensitivity and color vision measures, were performed on all subjects. Five patients with different forms of retinal dystrophies and three control subjects were recruited. Cone densities were quantified for all retinal images. In all images of diseased retinas, there were extensive areas of dark space between groups of photoreceptors, where no cone photoreceptors were evident. These irregular features were not seen in healthy retinas, but were characteristic features in fundi with retinal dystrophies. There was a correlation between functional vision loss and the extent to which the irregularities occurred in retinal images. Cone densities were found to decrease with an associated decrease in retinal function. AO fundus photography is a reliable technique for assessing and quantifying the changes in the photoreceptor layer as disease progresses. Furthermore, this technique can be useful in cases where visual function tests give borderline or ambiguous results, as it allows visualization of individual photoreceptors.
Date: October 26, 2005
Creator: Choi, S; Doble, N; Hardy, J; Jones, S; Keltner, J; Olivier, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEMS Actuated Deformable Mirror

Description: This ongoing work concerns the creation of a deformable mirror by the integration of MEMS actuators with Nanolaminate foils through metal compression boning. These mirrors will use the advantages of these disparate technologies to achieve dense actuation of a high-quality, continuous mirror surface. They will enable advanced adaptive optics systems in large terrestrial telescopes. While MEMS actuators provide very dense actuation with high precision they can not provide large forces typically necessary to deform conventional mirror surfaces. Nanolaminate foils can be fabricated with very high surface quality while their extraordinary mechanical properties enable very thin, flexible foils to survive the rigors of fabrication. Precise metal compression bonding allows the attachment of the fragile MEMS actuators to the thin nanolaminate foils without creating distortions at the bond sites. This paper will describe work in four major areas: (1) modeling and design, (2) bonding development, (3) nanolaminate foil development, (4) producing a prototype. A first-principles analytical model was created and used to determine the design parameters. A method of bonding was determined that is both strong, and minimizes the localized deformation or print through. Work has also been done to produce nanolaminate foils that are sufficiently thin, flexible and flat to be deformed by the MEMS actuators. Finally a prototype was produced by bonding thin, flexible nanolaminate foils to commercially available MEMS actuators.
Date: November 10, 2005
Creator: Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Walton, C & Cohn, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a MEMS-base Adaptive Optics Optical Coherency Tomography System

Description: We have demonstrated that a microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror can be flattened to < 1 nm RMS within controllable spatial frequencies over a 9.2-mm aperture making it a viable option for high-contrast adaptive optics systems (also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics). The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) measures wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy for metrology and wavefront control. Consistent flattening, required testing and characterization of the individual actuator response, including the effects of dead and low-response actuators. Stability and repeatability of the MEMS devices was also tested. An error budget for MEMS closed loop performance will summarize MEMS characterization.
Date: January 16, 2008
Creator: Evans, J; Zadwadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Opkpodu, S & Werner, J S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CKow -- A More Transparent and Reliable Model for Chemical Transfer to Meat and Milk

Description: The objective of this study is to increase the understanding and transparency of chemical biotransfer modeling into meat and milk and explicitly confront the uncertainties in exposure assessments of chemicals that require such estimates. In cumulative exposure assessments that include food pathways, much of the overall uncertainty is attributable to the estimation of transfer into biota and through food webs. Currently, the most commonly used meat and milk-biotransfer models date back two decades and, in spite of their widespread use in multimedia exposure models few attempts have been made to advance or improve the outdated and highly uncertain Kow regressions used in these models. Furthermore, in the range of Kow where meat and milk become the dominant human exposure pathways, these models often provide unrealistic rates and do not reflect properly the transfer dynamics. To address these issues, we developed a dynamic three-compartment cow model (called CKow), distinguishing lactating and non-lactating cows. For chemicals without available overall removal rates in the cow, a correlation is derived from measured values reported in the literature to predict this parameter from Kow. Results on carry over rates (COR) and biotransfer factors (BTF) demonstrate that a steady-state ratio between animal intake and meat concentrations is almost never reached. For meat, empirical data collected on short term experiments need to be adjusted to provide estimates of average longer term behaviors. The performance of the new model in matching measurements is improved relative to existing models--thus reducing uncertainty. The CKow model is straight forward to apply at steady state for milk and dynamically for realistic exposure durations for meat COR.
Date: March 1, 2009
Creator: Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; McKone, Thomas E. & Jolliet, Olivier
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tomographic wavefront correction for the LSST

Description: The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a three mirror modified Paul-Baker design with an 8.4m primary, a 3.4m secondary, and a 5.0m tertiary followed by a 3-element refractive corrector producing a 3.5 degree field of view. This design produces image diameters of <0.3 arcsecond 80% encircled energy over its full field of view. The image quality of this design is sufficient to ensure that the final images produced by the telescope will be limited by the atmospheric seeing at an excellent astronomical site. In order to maintain this image quality, the deformations and rigid body motions of the three large mirrors must be actively controlled to minimize optical aberrations. By measuring the optical wavefront produced by the telescope at multiple points in the field, mirror deformations and rigid body motions that produce a good optical wavefront across the entire field may be determined. We will describe the details of the techniques for obtaining these solutions. We will show that, for the expected mirror deformations and rigid body misalignments, the solutions that are found using these techniques produce an image quality over the field that is close to optimal. We will discuss how many wavefront sensors are needed and the tradeoffs between the number of wavefront sensors, their layout and noise sensitivity.
Date: May 3, 2006
Creator: Phillion, D W; Olivier, S S; Baker, K; Seppala, L & Hvisc, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Resolution Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope with Dual Deformable Mirrors

Description: Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO SLO) has demonstrated superior optical quality of non-invasive view of the living retina, but with limited capability of aberration compensation. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina. We used a bimorph mirror to correct large-stroke, low-order aberrations and a MEMS mirror to correct low-stroke, high-order aberration. The measured ocular RMS wavefront error of a test subject was 240 nm without AO compensation. We were able to reduce the RMS wavefront error to 90 nm in clinical settings using one deformable mirror for the phase compensation and further reduced the wavefront error to 48 nm using two deformable mirrors. Compared with that of a single-deformable-mirror SLO system, dual AO SLO offers much improved dynamic range and better correction of the wavefront aberrations. The use of large-stroke deformable mirrors provided the system with the capability of axial sectioning different layers of the retina. We have achieved diffraction-limited in-vivo retinal images of targeted retinal layers such as photoreceptor layer, blood vessel layer and nerve fiber layers with the combined phase compensation of the two deformable mirrors in the AO SLO.
Date: August 11, 2006
Creator: Chen, D C; Jones, S M; Silva, D A & Olivier, S S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors for large aberration correction

Description: Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes with adaptive optics (AOSLO) have been shown previously to provide a noninvasive, cellular-scale view of the living human retina. However, the clinical utility of these systems has been limited by the available deformable mirror technology. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina, making the AOSLO system a viable, non-invasive, high-resolution imaging tool for clinical diagnostics. We used a bimorph deformable mirror to correct low-order aberrations with relatively large amplitudes. The bimorph mirror is manufactured by Aoptix, Inc. with 37 elements and 18 {micro}m stroke in a 10 mm aperture. We used a MEMS deformable mirror to correct high-order aberrations with lower amplitudes. The MEMS mirror is manufactured by Boston Micromachine, Inc with 144 elements and 1.5 {micro}m stroke in a 3 mm aperture. We have achieved near diffraction-limited retina images using the dual deformable mirrors to correct large aberrations up to {+-} 3D of defocus and {+-} 3D of cylindrical aberrations with test subjects. This increases the range of spectacle corrections by the AO systems by a factor of 10, which is crucial for use in the clinical environment. This ability for large phase compensation can eliminate accurate refractive error fitting for the patients, which greatly improves the system ease of use and efficiency in the clinical environment.
Date: January 25, 2007
Creator: Chen, D; Jones, S M; Silva, D A & Olivier, S S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correction of Distributed Optical Aberrations

Description: The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of multiple distributed deformable mirrors (DMs) to improve the performance of optical systems with distributed aberrations. This concept is expected to provide dramatic improvement in the optical performance of systems in applications where the aberrations are distributed along the optical path or within the instrument itself. Our approach used multiple actuated DMs distributed to match the aberration distribution. The project developed the algorithms necessary to determine the required corrections and simulate the performance of these multiple DM systems.
Date: February 12, 2006
Creator: Baker, K; Olivier, S; Carrano, C & Phillion, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department