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Attenuation in Water of Radiation from the Bulk Shielding Reactor: Measurements of the Gamma-Ray Dose Rate, Fast Neutron Dose Rate, and Thermal-Neutron Flux

Description: Report issued by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory displaying a single chart showing measurements of the gamma-ray, fast-neutron, and thermal-neutron dose rates.
Date: July 8, 1958
Creator: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

Description: Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Warren, Tracy A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

Description: The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.
Date: November 1, 2011
Creator: Jager, Yetta
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Population Evacuations

Description: Emergency evacuation is one of the most important protective action alternatives when facing a natural or a man-made disaster. The planning and implementation of a large-scale emergency evacuation is a difficult and complex problem that requires the interactions of many agencies and involves a large amount of information. This article focuses on the latter and discusses the models that are normally used in the planning phase to evaluate this type of protective action alternatives and the information requirements for their implementation. Although many advances have been achieved in this area, especially during the last few years, a considerable amount of work still remains incomplete. Some of the important areas that need attention, such as improvements in the demographic models, integration of traffic simulation and threat evolution models, and real-time information for the deployment phase, are also discussed in this paper.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Franzese, Oscar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analysis of Inter-Vehicle Communication Using Network Simulator

Description: Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) could be an important component of next-generation Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). It provides wireless connectivity among traveling vehicles to exchange real-time road condition and traffic information to support safe driving and traffic management. IVC system can be considered as a special form of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). The MANET and IVC are both hot issues for researches. However, there are few domestic literatures combining the two topics. Most of them are discussed separately. Thus, the studies on architecture and protocols of mobile ad-hoc network have great value for establishing vehicular networks. The simulating method is an available way to assess the performance of networks. This paper has a specific description about the network simulator NS-2 . Under the basic of simulating practices, the design method and procedure for MANET simulation are summarized in detail. In this report, two simple IVC scenarios are implemented on NS-2. The quantitative metrics like network throughput, delay and packet-loss are used to assess the performance of MANET for IVC under different vehicular speeds, transport layer protocols and routing protocols. The results indicate that MANET can be used for IVC well. The different speeds and protocols should be chosen based on specific IVC scenarios.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Lu, Wei
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A Comprehensive Program for Measurement of Military Aircraft Emissions

Description: Emissions of gases and particulate matter by military aircraft were characterized inplume by 'extractive' and 'optical remote-sensing (ORS)' technologies. Non-volatile particle size distribution, number and mass concentrations were measured with good precision and reproducibly. Time-integrated particulate filter samples were collected and analyzed for smoke number, elemental composition, carbon contents, and sulfate. Observed at EEP the geometric mean diameter (as measured by the mobility diameter) generally increased as the engine power setting increased, which is consistent with downstream observations. The modal diameters at the downstream locations are larger than that at EEP at the same engine power level. The results indicate that engine particles were processed by condensation, for example, leading to particle growth in-plume. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present in the exhaust, while most of the exhaust materials in the particulate phase were carbon and sulfate (in the JP-8 fuel). CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, HCHO, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were measured. The last five species were most noticeable under engine idle condition. The levels of hydrocarbons emitted at high engine power level were generally below the detection limits. ORS techniques yielded real-time gaseous measurement, but the same techniques could not be extended directly to ultrafine particles found in all engine exhausts. The results validated sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile particulate aircraft emissions, which also highlighted the needs for further research on sampling and measurement for volatile particulate matter and semi-volatile species in the engine exhaust especially at the low engine power setting.
Date: November 1, 2009
Creator: Cheng, Mengdawn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The ORNL DOT Specification 6M - Special Form Package

Description: The ORNL DOT Specification 6M - Special Form Package was fabricated at the Oak Ridge Nation al Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of Type B solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed by the Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, on the DOT-6M container and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of Type B quantities in special form of non-fissile radioactive materials.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Shipping Containers for Radioactive Materials

Description: The types of containers used at ORNL for the transport of radioactive materials are described. Both returnable and non-returnable types are included. Containers for solids, liquids and gases are discussed. Casks for the shipment of uranium, irradiated fuel elements, and non-irradiated fuel elements are also described. Specifications are provided. (DC)
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Conductors for Tokamak Toroidal Field Coils

Description: This paper describes six conductors which are being developed for use in superconducting toroidal field coils of tokamak fusion machines. Included are three pool boiling and three forced flow concepts. Research and development programs on several of the conductors are under way, jointly involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and conductor manufacturers. Conductors will be tested in short lengths and in the form of 3m x 2.5m Large Coil Segment (LCS) tests. The conductor development and testing is closely coordinated with the Large Coil Program (LCP) at ORNL.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Fietz, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conceptual Design of a 250-MGD Desalination Plant

Description: From Introduction: "This report and the study which went into it form a part of the activities sponsored by the Office of Saline Water, U.S. Department of the Interior, in their accelerated program to develop large plants for the economical desalting of seawater."
Date: September 1966
Creator: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Conceptual Design Study of a 250-Million Gallons Per Day Combined Vertical Tube-Flash Evaporator Desalination Plant

Description: Report containing a design study of a 250 million gallons per day desalination plant. Contains a description of the desalination process, information regarding the design's efficiency, estimated capital and production costs
Date: August 1968
Creator: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Special From Encapsulation for Radioactive Material Shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Description: Special Form encapsulation has been used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to ship radioactive solids for the past fifteen years. A family of inexpensive stainless steel containers has been developed and tested to meet the USA Department of Transportation (DOT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations concerning radioactive material shipments as Special Form.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Decontamination of the Curium Source Fabrication Facility

Description: The Curium Source Fabrication Facility (CSFF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was decontaminated to acceptable contamination levels for maintenance activities, using standard decontamination techniques. Solid- and liquid-waste volumes were controlled to minimize discharge to the ORNL Waste Systems. This program required two years of decontamination effort at a total cost of $580K.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Safety-Analysis Report for Packaging: The ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - Special Form Packaging

Description: The ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - Special Form Packaging was fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of large quantities of solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. the package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (formerly Sandia Corporation), on an identical fire and impact shield and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of large quantities of non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. 7 figures.
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Tests on Gas Space Reflective Insulations

Description: Introduction: In August and September of 1960 a test program was carried out by Orenda Engines Limited for Oak Ridge National Laboratory on Reflective Insulations, with the object of determining Heat Transfer data applicable to the design of such insulations in reactor loops.
Date: November 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Recommendations for NEAMS Engagement with the NRC: Preliminary Report

Description: The vision of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program is to bring a new generation of analytic tools to the nuclear engineering community in order to facilitate students, faculty, industry and laboratory researchers in investigating advanced reactor and fuel cycle designs. Although primarily targeting at advance nuclear technologies, it is anticipated that these new capabilities will also become interesting and useful to the nuclear regulator Consequently, the NEAMS program needs to engage with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the software is being developed to ensure that they are familiar with and ready to respond to this novel approach when the need arises. Through discussions between key NEAMS and NRC staff members, we tentatively recommend annual briefings to the Division of Systems Analysis in the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. However the NEAC subcommittee review of the NEAMS program may yield recommendations that would need to be considered before finalizing this plan.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Bernholdt, David E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

Description: The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared annually and presents summary environmental data to (1) characterize environmental performance, (2) summarize environmental occurrences reported during the year, (3) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and (4) highlight significant program activities. The report fulfills the requirement contained in DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2004) that an integrated annual site environmental report be prepared. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2010. This report is not intended to nor does it present the results of all environmental monitoring associated with the ORR. Data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Appendix A to this report identifies corrections to the 2009 report. Appendix B contains a glossary of technical terms that may be useful for understanding the terminology used in this document. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the points of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminant levels, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of direct measurements and collection and analysis of samples taken from the site and its environs exclusive of effluents; these activities provide information on contaminant concentrations in air, water, groundwater, soil, foods, biota, and other media. Environmental surveillance data support determinations regarding environmental compliance …
Date: October 1, 2011
Creator: Thompson, Sharon D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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