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Attenuation in Water of Radiation from the Bulk Shielding Reactor: Measurements of the Gamma-Ray Dose Rate, Fast Neutron Dose Rate, and Thermal-Neutron Flux

Description: Report issued by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory displaying a single chart showing measurements of the gamma-ray, fast-neutron, and thermal-neutron dose rates.
Date: July 8, 1958
Creator: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

Description: The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.
Date: November 1, 2011
Creator: Jager, Yetta
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Population Evacuations

Description: Emergency evacuation is one of the most important protective action alternatives when facing a natural or a man-made disaster. The planning and implementation of a large-scale emergency evacuation is a difficult and complex problem that requires the interactions of many agencies and involves a large amount of information. This article focuses on the latter and discusses the models that are normally used in the planning phase to evaluate this type of protective action alternatives and the information requirements for their implementation. Although many advances have been achieved in this area, especially during the last few years, a considerable amount of work still remains incomplete. Some of the important areas that need attention, such as improvements in the demographic models, integration of traffic simulation and threat evolution models, and real-time information for the deployment phase, are also discussed in this paper.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Franzese, Oscar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A Comprehensive Program for Measurement of Military Aircraft Emissions

Description: Emissions of gases and particulate matter by military aircraft were characterized inplume by 'extractive' and 'optical remote-sensing (ORS)' technologies. Non-volatile particle size distribution, number and mass concentrations were measured with good precision and reproducibly. Time-integrated particulate filter samples were collected and analyzed for smoke number, elemental composition, carbon contents, and sulfate. Observed at EEP the geometric mean diameter (as measured by the mobility diameter) generally increased as the engine power setting increased, which is consistent with downstream observations. The modal diameters at the downstream locations are larger than that at EEP at the same engine power level. The results indicate that engine particles were processed by condensation, for example, leading to particle growth in-plume. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present in the exhaust, while most of the exhaust materials in the particulate phase were carbon and sulfate (in the JP-8 fuel). CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, HCHO, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were measured. The last five species were most noticeable under engine idle condition. The levels of hydrocarbons emitted at high engine power level were generally below the detection limits. ORS techniques yielded real-time gaseous measurement, but the same techniques could not be extended directly to ultrafine particles found in all engine exhausts. The results validated sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile particulate aircraft emissions, which also highlighted the needs for further research on sampling and measurement for volatile particulate matter and semi-volatile species in the engine exhaust especially at the low engine power setting.
Date: November 1, 2009
Creator: Cheng, Mengdawn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

Description: Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Warren, Tracy A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analysis of Inter-Vehicle Communication Using Network Simulator

Description: Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) could be an important component of next-generation Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). It provides wireless connectivity among traveling vehicles to exchange real-time road condition and traffic information to support safe driving and traffic management. IVC system can be considered as a special form of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). The MANET and IVC are both hot issues for researches. However, there are few domestic literatures combining the two topics. Most of them are discussed separately. Thus, the studies on architecture and protocols of mobile ad-hoc network have great value for establishing vehicular networks. The simulating method is an available way to assess the performance of networks. This paper has a specific description about the network simulator NS-2 . Under the basic of simulating practices, the design method and procedure for MANET simulation are summarized in detail. In this report, two simple IVC scenarios are implemented on NS-2. The quantitative metrics like network throughput, delay and packet-loss are used to assess the performance of MANET for IVC under different vehicular speeds, transport layer protocols and routing protocols. The results indicate that MANET can be used for IVC well. The different speeds and protocols should be chosen based on specific IVC scenarios.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Lu, Wei
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The ORNL DOT Specification 6M - Special Form Package

Description: The ORNL DOT Specification 6M - Special Form Package was fabricated at the Oak Ridge Nation al Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of Type B solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed by the Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, on the DOT-6M container and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of Type B quantities in special form of non-fissile radioactive materials.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Oak Ridge National Laboratory Shipping Containers for Radioactive Materials

Description: The types of containers used at ORNL for the transport of radioactive materials are described. Both returnable and non-returnable types are included. Containers for solids, liquids and gases are discussed. Casks for the shipment of uranium, irradiated fuel elements, and non-irradiated fuel elements are also described. Specifications are provided. (DC)
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Conductors for Tokamak Toroidal Field Coils

Description: This paper describes six conductors which are being developed for use in superconducting toroidal field coils of tokamak fusion machines. Included are three pool boiling and three forced flow concepts. Research and development programs on several of the conductors are under way, jointly involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and conductor manufacturers. Conductors will be tested in short lengths and in the form of 3m x 2.5m Large Coil Segment (LCS) tests. The conductor development and testing is closely coordinated with the Large Coil Program (LCP) at ORNL.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Fietz, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Special From Encapsulation for Radioactive Material Shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Description: Special Form encapsulation has been used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to ship radioactive solids for the past fifteen years. A family of inexpensive stainless steel containers has been developed and tested to meet the USA Department of Transportation (DOT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations concerning radioactive material shipments as Special Form.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Safety-Analysis Report for Packaging: The ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - Special Form Packaging

Description: The ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - Special Form Packaging was fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of large quantities of solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. the package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (formerly Sandia Corporation), on an identical fire and impact shield and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of large quantities of non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. 7 figures.
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Decontamination of the Curium Source Fabrication Facility

Description: The Curium Source Fabrication Facility (CSFF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was decontaminated to acceptable contamination levels for maintenance activities, using standard decontamination techniques. Solid- and liquid-waste volumes were controlled to minimize discharge to the ORNL Waste Systems. This program required two years of decontamination effort at a total cost of $580K.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Schaich, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tests on Gas Space Reflective Insulations

Description: Introduction: In August and September of 1960 a test program was carried out by Orenda Engines Limited for Oak Ridge National Laboratory on Reflective Insulations, with the object of determining Heat Transfer data applicable to the design of such insulations in reactor loops.
Date: November 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

Description: This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 …
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Baranski, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

Description: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Oak Ridge Reservation, encompassing 33,639 acres in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee, has long been known for its unfragmented forests and high biodiversity. Many areas on the Reservation have been recognized as important natural areas, but no comprehensive treatment has been performed to evaluate the relative significance and importance of these areas compared to each other. The present study was conducted to develop a set of guidelines for evaluating the natural value of specific areas, to evaluate all the terrestrial areas that are currently delineated, and to rank all areas according to their relative biodiversity importance. All available data, reports and site-specific information relevant to Reservation lands, including Tennessee Division of Natural Areas database information, were evaluated and field work was conducted. Methodologies and criteria for assessment and evaluation of areas were developed; categories of criteria were devised; and a ranking system for evaluation of natural areas was produced. There were 70 areas evaluated during the study. The system is flexible, dynamic and easily revised to reflect updated and new information and interpretations. Eight categories of evaluation factors were established and used to characterize each site. These were the following: size of area, number or status taxa present, number of Endangered and Threatened taxa present, rarity of the Endangered and Threatened taxa on the Reservation, community diversity, site integrity and quality, disturbance and threat levels, and other significant features and factors. Each category generally consisted of a 5-point ranking scale from 0-4, allowing for a possible composite score of 32, with higher ranked, more important, sites attaining higher scores. Highly ranked sites are representative of regional natural diversity; contain outstanding natural features, communities or geology and/or very rare taxa or other elements; are relatively large in size with mature or old-growth community composition; …
Date: November 2009
Creator: Baranski, Micahel J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

Description: The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared annually and presents summary environmental data to (1) characterize environmental performance, (2) summarize environmental occurrences reported during the year, (3) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and (4) highlight significant program activities. The report fulfills the requirement contained in DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2004) that an integrated annual site environmental report be prepared. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2010. This report is not intended to nor does it present the results of all environmental monitoring associated with the ORR. Data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Appendix A to this report identifies corrections to the 2009 report. Appendix B contains a glossary of technical terms that may be useful for understanding the terminology used in this document. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the points of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminant levels, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of direct measurements and collection and analysis of samples taken from the site and its environs exclusive of effluents; these activities provide information on contaminant concentrations in air, water, groundwater, soil, foods, biota, and other media. Environmental surveillance data support determinations regarding environmental compliance …
Date: October 1, 2011
Creator: Thompson, Sharon D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Neutron Diffraction Residual Strain Tensor Measurements Within The Phase IA Weld Mock-up Plate P-5

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has worked with NRC and EPRI to apply neutron and X-ray diffraction methods to characterize the residual stresses in a number of dissimilar metal weld mockups and samples. The design of the Phase IA specimens aimed to enable stress measurements by several methods and computational modeling of the weld residual stresses. The partial groove in the 304L stainless steel plate was filled with weld beads of Alloy 82. A summary of the weld conditions for each plate is provided in Table 1. The plates were constrained along the long edges during and after welding by bolts with spring-loaded washers attached to the 1-inch thick Al backing plate. The purpose was to avoid stress relief due to bending of the welded stainless steel plate. The neutron diffraction method was one of the methods selected by EPRI for non-destructive through thickness strain and stress measurement. Four different plates (P-3 to P-6) were studied by neutron diffraction strain mapping, representing four different welding conditions. Through thickness neutron diffraction strain mappings at NRSF2 for the four plates and associated strain-free d-zero specimens involved measurement along seven lines across the weld and at six to seven depths. The mountings of each plate for neutron diffraction measurements were such that the diffraction vector was parallel to each of the three primary orthogonal directions of the plate: two in-plane directions, longitudinal and transverse, and the direction normal to the plate (shown in left figure within Table 1). From the three orthogonal strains for each location, the residual stresses along the three plate directions were calculated. The principal axes of the strain and stress tensors, however, need not necessarily align with the plate coordinate system. To explore this, plate P-5 was selected for examination of the possibility that the principal axes of strain …
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Hubbard, Camden R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 1: Main Report

Description: A phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process was conducted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design. This design (in the conceptual stage) is a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) that generates both electricity and process heat for hydrogen production. Expert panels identified safety-relevant phenomena, ranked their importance, and assessed the knowledge levels in the areas of accidents and thermal fluids, fission-product transport and dose, high-temperature materials, graphite, and process heat for hydrogen production. This main report summarizes and documents the process and scope of the reviews, noting the major activities and conclusions. The identified phenomena, analyses, rationales, and associated ratings of the phenomena, plus a summary of each panel's findings, are presented. Individual panel reports for these areas are provided as attached volumes to this main report and provide considerably more detail about each panel's deliberations as well as a more complete listing of the phenomena that were evaluated.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Ball, Sydney J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels

Description: This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or range of values generally associated with better dispersability, is provided in the Appendix. …
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Contescu, Cristian I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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