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Research issues and supporting research of the National Program on Carbon Dioxide, Environment and Society, fiscal year 1980

Description: This report outlines and summarizes the research conducted in the United States under the auspices of the CO/sub 2/ program. The Program encompasses six primary categories which, in turn, are divided into 18 research subcategories and 51 research issues. The research program was designed to describe the research which should be conducted regardless of institutional or even national sponsorship. Project descriptions have been collected and classified according to the research issue to which they most directly apply and have been inserted immediately following the applicable issue description. This provides, for the first time, a detailed view of the nation's effort in addressing the carbon dioxide question in FY 1980.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategy analysis for energy conservation. Task 1: economic studies

Description: Development and implementation of an analytical methodology to evaluate alternative research, development, and demonstration projects to allocate Federal funds in a manner consistent with overall DOE and National Energy Plan goals are presented. Documentation of the first step toward addressing these goals is presented. Historical consumption and efficiency of energy usage in the US are traced. Based on a variety of sources and assumptions, a set of no action projections of energy consumption through 2000 was developed. These projections were then compared to national goals derived from the NEP and other sources to identify specific requirements for energy conservation through efficiency improvements and fuel switching. These requirements will form the basis for development and implementation of the analytical methodology as part of Tasks 2 and 3. The methodology concept is discussed in detail.
Date: February 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 5. Progress report, June 1981

Description: Updated information is presented on activities and progress in the areas of electric power plants, direct heat applications, deep well drilling, leasing of federal lands, legislative and regulatory actions, research and development, and others. Special attention is given in this report to 1980 highlights, particularly in the areas of electric and direct heat uses, drilling, and the Federal lands leasing program. This report also includes a summary of the DOE FY 1982 geothermal budget request to Congress.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the effect of break nozzle configuration in loss-of-coolant accident analysis

Description: The Semiscale Mod-1 test program has utilized two different break nozzle configurations in a test facility with identical initial and boundary conditions. An evaluation has been made to determine the effect these break nozzle configurations have on system thermal-hydraulic response during a 200% double-ended cold leg break loss-of-coolant accident simulation. The first nozzle had a convergent-divergent design; the second nozzle had a convergent design with an elongated constant area throat followed by a rapid expansion. Analysis of data from tests conducted with the two nozzles shows that the critical flow characteristics at the break plane were affected by the break nozzle geometry. Differences in break flow caused differences in the core inlet flow which in turn affected core heater rod thermal response. The results of this investigation show that the break flow behavior and the resulting core thermal response in the Semiscale experimental facility can be directly correlated.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hanson, R G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reforestation of borrow pits by use of specific mycorrhizal fungi, soil amendments, and site preparation. [A borrow pit is an excavation from which materials (earth) are removed to be used as fill at another location]

Description: Second-year results are presented from three separate studies concerned with reclamation of borrow pits using specific mycorrhizal fungi and various soil amendments. Study I demonstrates that container grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedlings inoculated with certain ectomycorrhizal fungi respond to soil amended with sewage sludge, but not to inorganic fertilizer applied at a rate of 500 lbs/acre of 10-10-10. In Study II, the average volume of nursery produced loblolly pine seedlings is greater on plots amended with sewage sludge than plots amended with fertilizer and lime. Other amendments, i.e., bark, flys ash, and various combinations of these materials, had no effect. Up to 1/2 inch of ash did not slow tree growth, however, indicating the possibility of utilizing this waste product as a soil amendment. Study III indicates that endomycorrhizae inoculated sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) seedlings will continue to grow on plots amended with more than 1/4 inch of sewage sludge. On all study plots, biomass yield of fescue grass was significantly greater on sludge amended plots. Third-year field data will be collected during December 1978.
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Berry, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory scale glass melter for testing defense waste glass

Description: A one-liter joule heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of continuous melting to simulated high-level calcined defense waste. Inconel 690 electrodes and K-3 refractory brick were chosen for their corrosion resistance to fluoride glass. The melter maintained a full melt at 1100/sup 0/C using 3 kW. After approximately 2 months of operation, the melter was dismantled for metallurgical examination. The Inconel 690 electrodes were heavily corroded. A second melter is now in operation to verify the findings of the first melter run.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Gombert, D II
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 1. Technical report

Description: This project was Phase I of a multiphased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprised the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The development and evaluation of conceptual designs have been separated into two broad categories: the A designs which represent the present state-of-the-art and which are demonstrable by 1985 with minimum technical risk; and the B designs which involve advanced technology and therefore would require significant research and development prior to demonstration and commercialization, but which may ultimately offer advantages in terms of lower cost, better performance, or higher reliability. The majority of the effort in Phase I was devoted to the A designs.
Date: September 15, 1980
Creator: Not Available,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 2. Program plan

Description: A plan for implementing the proposed state-of-the-art design described in Volume I has been developed. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate a large coal-fired Stirling engine and thus shorten the lead time to commercialization. The demonstration engine will be based on the concepts developed in the first phase of this program, as detailed in Volume I of this report. Thus the proposed program plan is based on the U-4 engine concept fired by a fluidized bed combustor with a two-stage gravity-assisted heat pipe. The plan is divided into five phases and an ongoing supporting technology program. Phase I, Conceptual Design, has been completed. The remaining phases are: Preliminary Design; Final Design; Fabrication; and Testing and Demonstration. The primary target is to begin testing the large coal-fired engine by the fifth year (1985) after the start of Preliminary Design.
Date: September 15, 1980
Creator: Not Available,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plant Research '75

Description: Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)
Date: January 1, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exxon catalytic coal-gasification process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979

Description: Work continued on the catalyst recovery screening studies to evaluate the economic impacts of alternative processing approaches and solid-liquid separation techniques. Equipment specifications have been completed for two cases with countercurrent water washing using rotary-drum filters for the solid-liquid separations. Material and energy balances have been completed for an alternative methane recovery process configuration using low pressure stripping which requires 26% less horsepower than the Study Design system. A study has been initiated to identify trace components which might be present in the CCG gas loop and to assess their potential impacts on the CCG process. This information will be used to assist in planning an appropriate series of analyses for the PDU gasifier effluent. A study has been initiated to evaluate the use of a small conventional steam reformer operating in parallel with a preheat furnace for heat input to the catalytic gasifier which avoids the potential problem of carbon laydown. Preliminary replies from ten manufacturers are being evaluated as part of a study to determine the types and performance of coal crushing equipment appropriate for commercial CCG plants. A material and energy balance computer model for the CCG reactor system has been completed. The new model will provide accurate, consistent and cost-efficient material and energy balances for the extensive laboratory guidance and process definition studies planned under the current program. Other activities are described briefly.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Euker, Jr, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

Description: The topics considered in the seven sessions were nuclear methods in atmospheric research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in tracer applications; energy exploration, production, and utilization; nuclear methods in environmental monitoring; nuclear methods in water research; and nuclear methods in biological research. Individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (JSR)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Vogt, J.R. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrafine structure of coal determined by electron microscopy

Description: The shape and size of pores in two high volatile bituminous coals of differing lithotypes have been directly observed by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM). The distribution of the porosity with respect to their maceral associations were ascertained as were the sizes and distributions of the micro minerals. The use of stereo pairs reveals the interconnectivity of the pores in micro volumes of the macerals indicating a high degree of permeability within those regions. The finest porosity was observed in vitrinite fragments of both coals and ranged in size from under 2 nm to 20 nm in diameter, with the majority in the smaller end of the size range. On the other hand, inertinite appears to be the most porous maceral and typically contains a broad range of pores from 5 through 30 nm. Much of the inertinite is granular material varying from fine to coarse grained particles with the former corresponding to micrinite. Finally, the least porous maceral is exinite which generally appears as a featureless material except for the presence of irregular and tubular pores thought to be initiated by the catalytic action of minerals. The intimate relationship between exinite and inertinite such as exists in durains, where the inertinite contains large amounts of fine mineral matter, may therefore promote the generation of porosity in exinites.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Harris, L A & Yust, C S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of solar energy to the supply of hot water for textile dyeing. Final report, CDRL/PA 10

Description: The design plan for a solar process hot water system for a textile dye beck at Riegel Textile Corporation's LaFrance, South Carolina, facilities is presented. The solar system consists of 396 GE model TC 100 evacuated tube collector modules arranged in a ground mounted array with a total collector area of 6680 square feet. The system includes an 8000-gallon hot water storage tank. Systems analyses, specification sheets, performance data, and an economic evaluation of the proposed system are presented. (WHK)
Date: September 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

Description: This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Ellis, P.F. II & Conover, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress analysis for the design of liquid metal piping in the Fast Flux Test Facility

Description: The fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400 MWt nuclear facility designed for the exclusive purpose of testing equipment, materials and processes for liquid metal fast breeder reactor power plants. High temperature, low pressure, and severe thermal transient effects are the distinguishing features of the FFTF piping load history. Consequently, a large proportion of the Class 1 piping was designed to comply with ASME Code Case 1331-5 rules for elevated temperature, supplemented by Appendix T of Code Case 1592-3 and RDT-F9-4 for ratchet behavior. This paper outlines the procedures whereby elastic methods for stress analysis were first integrated with the piping design process and then subsequently used to evaluate compliance with Code criteria for extended service at elevated temperature.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Sampson, R. C. & Jagels, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal reservoir engineering, second workshop summaries, December 1-3, 1976

Description: Workshop proceedings included the following: (1) During the Overview Session some papers, among others, discussed 'Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Research' and 'Geothermal Reservoir Engineering in Industry'; (2) Session I, Reservoir Physics, included papers on 'Steam Zone Temperature Gradients at the Geysers' and 'Water Influx in a Steam Producing Well'; (3) Session II, Well Testing, included papers on 'Borehole Geophysics in Geothermal Wells--Problems and Progress' and 'Herber-Pressure Interference Study'; (4) Session III, Field Development, included papers on 'A Reservoir Engineering Study of the East Mesa KGRA' and 'Determining the Optimal Rate of Geothermal Energy Extraction'; (5) Session IV, Well Stimulation, included papers on 'Fluid Flow Through a Large Vertical Crack in the Earth's Crust' and 'Explosive Stimulation of Geothermal Wells'; and (6) Session V, Modeling, included papers on 'Steam Transport in Porous Media' and 'Large-Scale Geothermal Field Parameters and Convection Theory.'
Date: December 1, 1976
Creator: Kruger, P. & Ramey, H.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties of transient-tested irradiated fast-reactor cladding. [811/sup 0/ to 1644/sup 0/K; 5. 8 x 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/]

Description: Results are presented for three high burnup PNL-11 fuel pins irradiated to goal FFTF exposure levels in testing cladding stress and strain on fast reactor fuel pins subjected to simulated power transient conditions. The mixed oxide fuel with Type 316 SS clad were tested at heating rates of 5.5 k/s and 200 k/s with internal gas pressures of 17.2 to 98.6 MPa. Mechanical property data were obtained. Under short-term transient heating, neutron volumetric swelling does not change. Cladding strength does not exhibit a continuous degradation with increased neutron fluence, but does show saturation behavior or slight increase at higher fluences. (FS)
Date: August 9, 1978
Creator: Johnson, G. D. & Hunter, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vitrification of ICPP high-level zirconia calcine

Description: High-level radioactive calcined defense waste (approx. 50 wt % CaF/sub 2/) is vitrified using a frit containing 66% SiO/sub 2/, 24% Na/sub 2/O, 8% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 2% CuO. Effects of Na, B, Li, Zn, Cu, and P on viscosity and acid leach resistance were measured. The glass contains up to 9% fluoride. Glass properties were measured.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Berreth, J R; Gombert, D II & Cole, H S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of solutions to benchmark piping problems

Description: Benchmark problems and their solutions are presented. The problems consist in calculating the static and dynamic response of selected piping structures subjected to a variety of loading conditions. The structures range from simple pipe geometries to a representative full scale primary nuclear piping system, which includes the various components and their supports. These structures are assumed to behave in a linear elastic fashion only, i.e., they experience small deformations and small displacements with no existing gaps, and remain elastic through their entire response. The solutions were obtained by using the program EPIPE, which is a modification of the widely available program SAP IV. A brief outline of the theoretical background of this program and its verification is also included.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Reich, M; Chang, T Y; Prachuktam, S & Hartzman, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

Description: The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Crume, E. C. & Arnurius, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactive programs for low-flow frequency analyses for use in regional studies

Description: Seven-day ten-year low-flow values have been used as indices of water availability for regional energy facility siting. This paper describes an automated system for generating low-flow frequency distributions for United States Geological Survey streamflow gaging sites. Since no single frequency distribution will match the low flow frequencies at all stream gaging stations, it is necessary to examine several possible distributions for each station to determine the most useful one. Four representative low flow frequency distributions, Gumbel's limited distribution of the smallest value, the Pearson Type III, the Log-Pearson III, and the Log-Normal distributions, have been chosen for inclusion in an interactive set of programs, named LOFL02. LOFL02 forms one analysis module of the ORNL Water Analysis System (WAS), and when used in conjunction with other WAS programs makes frequency analysis viable on a regional scale by facilitating the handling of large amounts of data for large numbers of stations.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Hyndman, J. R. & Huff, D. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal reservoir simulation. Final report (Year 3)

Description: Several reservoir model improvements incorporated into the UTA model are described. The most significant modification to the model was the inclusion of semiimplicit treatment of transmissibilities so as to better handle two-phase flow problems associated with flow near the wellbore. A description of the reservoir mechanics presumed operative in geopressured-geothermal reservoirs is included. A mathematical model describing two-dimensional flow in compacting porous media is developed from the Lagrangian point of view. A description of the way the differential equations are approximated by finite differences and subsequently solved by means of numerical procedures is presented. Various sensitivity studies made with the reservoir model are described. Particular emphasis was given to the study of potential shale dewatering effects on reservoir depletion and the effects of compaction on fluid recovery. To study shale dewatering, the shale thickness and the shale vertical permeability were treated as variables in several simulation experiments. The effects of compaction were modeled with optimistic and pessimistic values for the uniaxial compaction coefficient in an attempt to define a region of expected reservoir performance. Laboratory analysis of core samples obtained from the geopressured-geothermal test well was completed by the end of year 3. These data indicate that the uniaxial compaction coefficient is of the same order of magnitude as the pessimistic value used on the sensitivity studies. Because of this the expected fluid recovery from geopressured reservoirs has been reduced to a nominal 5% of the in-place volumes rather than the previously reported 10%.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: MacDonald, R.C.; Ohkuma, H.; Sepehrnoori, K. & Chang, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department