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Flavorful supersymmetry

Description: Weak scale supersymmetry provides elegant solutions to many of the problems of the standard model, but it also generically gives rise to excessive flavor and CP violation. We show that, if the mechanism that suppresses the Yukawa couplings also suppresses flavor changing interactions in the supersymmetry breaking parameters, essentially all the low energy flavor and CP constraints can be satisfied. The standard assumption of flavor universality in the supersymmetry breaking sector is not necessary. We study signatures of this framework at the LHC. The mass splitting among different generations of squarks and sleptons can be much larger than in conventional scenarios, and even the mass ordering can be changed. We find that there is a plausible scenario in which the next-to-lightest superparticle is a long-lived right-handed selectron or smuon which decays into the lightest superparticle, a gravitino. This leads to the spectacularsignature of monochromatic electrons or muons in a stopper detector, providing strong evidence for the framework.
Date: December 13, 2007
Creator: Nomura, Yasunori; Nomura, Yasunori; Papucci, Michele & Stolarski, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supersymmetry with Small mu: Connections between Naturalness, DarkMatter, and (Possibly) Flavor

Description: Weak scale supersymmetric theories often suffer from several naturalness problems: the problems of reproducing the correct scale for electroweak symmetry breaking, the correct abundance for dark matter, and small rates for flavor violating processes. We argue that the first two problems point to particular regions of parameter space in models with weak scale supersymmetry: those with a small {mu} term. This has an interesting implication on direct dark matter detection experiments. We find that, if the signs of the three gaugino mass parameters are all equal, we can obtain a solid lower bound on the spin-independent neutralino-nucleon cross section, {sigma}{sub SI}. In the case that the gaugino masses satisfy the unified mass relations, we obtain {sigma}{sub SI} {approx}> 4 x 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2} (1 x 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2}) for fine-tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking no worse than 10% (5%). We also discuss a possibility that the three problems listed above are all connected to the hierarchy of fermion masses. This occurs if supersymmetry breaking and electroweak symmetry breaking (the Higgs fields) are coupled to matter fields with similar hierarchical structures. The discovery of {mu} {yields} e transition processes in near future experiments is predicted in such a framework.
Date: June 11, 2006
Creator: Kitano, Ryuichiro Kitano & Nomura, Yasunori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A simple and realistic model of supersymmetry breaking

Description: We present a simple and realistic model of supersymmetry breaking. In addition to the minimal supersymmetric standard model, we only introduce a hidden sector gauge group SU(5) and three fields X, F and \bar{F}. Supersymmetry is broken at a local minimum of the potential, and its effects are transmitted to the supersymmetric standard model sector through both standard model gauge loops and local operators suppressed by the cutoff scale, which is taken to be the unification scale. The form of the local operators is controlled by a U(1) symmetry. The generated supersymmetry breaking and mu parameters are comparable in size, and no flavor or CP violating terms arise. The spectrum of the first two generation superparticles is that of minimal gauge mediation with the number of messengers N_mess = 5 and the messenger scale 1011 GeV< M_mess< 1013 GeV. The spectrum of the Higgs bosons and third generation superparticles, however, can deviate from it. The lightest supersymmetric particle is the gravitino with a mass of order (1-10) GeV.
Date: September 25, 2007
Creator: Nomura, Yasunori & Papucci, Michele
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Matter Unification in Warped Supersymmetric SO(10)

Description: We construct models of warped unification with a bulk SO(10) gauge symmetry and boundary conditions that preserve the SU(4)_C x SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R Pati-Salam gauge group (422). In the dual 4D description, these models are 422 gauge theories in which the apparent unification of gauge couplings in the minimal supersymmetric standard model is explained as a consequence of strong coupling in the ultraviolet. The weakness of the gauge couplings at low energies is ensured in this 4D picture by asymptotically non-free contributions from the conformal sector, which are universal due to an approximate SO(10) global symmetry. The 422 gauge symmetry is broken to the standard model group by a simple set of Higgs fields. An advantage of this setup relative to SU(5) models of warped unification is that matter is automatically required to fill out representations of 422, providing an elegant understanding of the quantum numbers of the standard-model quarks and leptons. The models also naturally incorporate the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses and bottom-tau unification. Finally, they predict a rich spectrum of exotic particles near the TeV scale, including states with different quantum numbers than those that appear in SU(5) models.
Date: March 16, 2004
Creator: Nomura, Yasunori & Tucker-Smith, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grand Unification in Higher Dimensions

Description: We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory --- SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin^2theta_w = 0.2313 \pm 0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M_c \simeq 5 x 10^14 GeV and M_s \simeq 1 x 10^17 GeV, respectively. Proton decay with a lifetime of order 10^{34} years is expected with a variety of final states such as e^+pi^0, and several aspects of flavor, including large neutrino mixing angles, are understood by the geometrical locations of the matter fields. When combined with a particular supersymmetry breaking mechanism, the theory predicts large lepton flavor violating mu -> e and tau -> mu transitions, with all superpartner masses determined by only two free parameters. The predicted value of the bottom quark mass from Yukawa unification agrees well with the data. This paper is mainly a review of the work presented in hep-ph/0103125, hep-ph/0111068 and hep-ph/0205067.
Date: December 10, 2002
Creator: Hall, Lawrence J. & Nomura, Yasunori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

More visible effects of the hidden sector

Description: There is a growing appreciation that hidden sector dynamics may affect the supersymmetry breaking parameters in the visible sector (supersymmetric standard model), especially when the dynamics is strong and superconformal. We point out that there are effects that have not been previously discussed in the literature. For example, the gaugino masses are suppressed relative to the gravitino mass. We discuss their implications in the context of various mediation mechanisms. The issues discussed include anomaly mediation with singlets, the mu (B mu) problem in gauge and gaugino mediation, and distinct mass spectra for the superparticles that have not been previously considered.
Date: September 6, 2007
Creator: Murayama, Hitoshi; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nomura, Yasunori & Poland, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolving Dark Energy with w =/ -1

Description: Theories of evolving quintessence are constructed that generically lead to deviations from the w = -1 prediction of non-evolving dark energy. The small mass scale that governs evolution, m_\phi \approx 10^-33 eV, is radiatively stable, and the"Why Now?'' problem is solved. These results rest crucially on seesaw cosmology: in broad outline, fundamental physics and cosmology can be understood from only two mass scales, the weak scale, v, and the Planck scale, M. Requiring a scale of dark energy \rho_DE^1/4 governed by v^2/M, and a radiatively stable evolution rate m_\phi given by v^4/M^3, leads to a distinctive form for the equation of state w(z) that follows from a cosine quintessence potential. An explicit hidden axion model is constructed. Dark energy resides in the potential of the axion field which is generated by a new QCD-like force that gets strong at the scale \Lambda \approx v^2/M \approx \rho_DE^1/4. The evolution rate is given by a second seesaw that leads to the axion mass, m_\phi \approx \Lambda^2/f, with f \approx M.
Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori & Oliver, Steven J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Constrained Standard Model: Effects of Fayet-Iliopoulos Terms

Description: In [1]the one Higgs doublet standard model was obtained by an orbifold projection of a 5D supersymmetric theory in an essentially unique way, resulting in a prediction for the Higgs mass m_H = 127 +- 8 GeV and for the compactification scale 1/R = 370 +- 70 GeV. The dominant one loop contribution to the Higgs potential was found to be finite, while the above uncertainties arose from quadratically divergent brane Z factors and from other higher loop contributions. In [3], a quadratically divergent Fayet-Iliopoulos term was found at one loop in this theory. We show that the resulting uncertainties in the predictions for the Higgs boson mass and the compactification scale are small, about 25percent of the uncertainties quoted above, and hence do not affect the original predictions. However, a tree level brane Fayet-Iliopoulos term could, if large enough, modify these predictions, especially for 1/R.
Date: October 7, 2001
Creator: Barbieri, Riccardo; Hall, Lawrence J. & Nomura, Yasunori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Warped Supersymmetric Unification with Non-Unified Superparticle Spectrum

Description: We present a new supersymmetric extension of the standard model. The model is constructed in warped space, with a unified bulk symmetry broken by boundary conditions on both the Planck and TeV branes. In the supersymmetric limit, the massless spectrum contains exotic colored particles along with the particle content of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). Nevertheless, the model still reproduces the MSSM prediction for gauge coupling unification and does not suffer from a proton decay problem. The exotic states acquire masses from supersymmetry breaking, making the model completely viable, but thereis still the possibility that these states will be detected at the LHC. The lightest of these states is most likely A_5^XY, the fifth component of the gauge field associated with the broken unified symmetry. Because supersymmetry is broken on the SU(5)-violating TeV brane, the gaugino masses generated at the TeV scale are completely independent of one another. We explore some of the unusual features that the superparticle spectrum might have as a consequence.
Date: March 16, 2004
Creator: Nomura, Yasunori; Tucker-Smith, David & Tweedie, Brock
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Models of Scherk-Schwarz Symmetry Breaking in 5D: Classification and Calculability

Description: The form of the most general orbifold breaking of gauge, global and supersymmetries with a single extra dimension is given. In certain theories the Higgs boson mass is ultraviolet finite due to an unbroken local supersymmetry, which is explicitly exhibited. We construct: a 1 parameter SU(3) \times SU(2) \times U(1) theory with 1 bulk Higgs hypermultiplet, a 2 parameter SU(3) \times SU(2) \times U(1) theory with 2 bulk Higgs hypermultiplets, and a 2 parameter SU(5) \to SU(3) \times SU(2) \times U(1) theory with 2 bulk Higgs hypermultiplets, and demonstrate that these theories are unique. We compute the Higgs mass and compactification scale in the SU(3) \times SU(2) \times U(1) theory with 1 bulk Higgs hypermultiplet.
Date: July 1, 2001
Creator: Barbieri, Riccardo; Hall, Lawrence J. & Nomura, Yasunori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supersymmetry, Naturalness, and Signatures at the LHC

Description: Weak scale supersymmetry is often said to be fine-tuned, especially if the matter content is minimal. This is not true if there is a large {Alpha} term for the top squarks. We present a systematic study on fine-tuning in minimal supersymmetric theories and identify low energy spectra that do not lead to severe .ne-tuning. Characteristic features of these spectra are: a large {Alpha} term for the top squarks, small top squark masses, moderately large tan {beta}, and a small {mu} parameter. There are classes of theories leading to these features, which are discussed. In one class, which allows a complete elimination of fine-tuning, the Higgsinos are the lightest among all the superpartners of the standard model particles, leading to three nearly degenerate neutralino/chargino states. This gives interesting signals at the LHC--the dilepton invariant mass distribution has a very small endpoint and shows a particular shape determined by the Higgsino nature of the two lightest neutralinos. We demonstrate that these signals are indeed useful in realistic analyses by performing Monte Carlo simulations, including detector simulations and background estimations. We also present a method that allows the determination of all the relevant superparticle masses without using input from particular models, despite the limited kinematical information due to short cascades. This allows us to test various possible models, which is demonstrated in the case of a model with mixed moduli-anomaly mediation. We also give a simple derivation of special renormalization group properties associated with moduli mediated supersymmetry breaking, which are relevant in a model without fine-tuning.
Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: Kitano, Ryuichiro & Nomura, Yasunori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural Little Hierarchy from Partially Goldstone Twin Higgs

Description: We construct a simple theory in which the fine-tuning of the standard model is significantly reduced. Radiative corrections to the quadratic part of the scalar potential are constrained to be symmetric under a global U(4) x U(4){prime} symmetry due to a discrete Z{sub 2} 'twin' parity, while the quartic part does not possess this symmetry. As a consequence, when the global symmetry is broken the Higgs fields emerge as light pseudo-Goldstone bosons, but with sizable quartic self-interactions. This structure allows the cutoff scale, {Lambda}, to be raised to the multi-TeV region without significant fine-tuning. In the minimal version of the theory, the amount of fine-tuning is about 15% for {Lambda} = 5 TeV, while it is about 30% in an extended model. This provides a solution to the little hierarchy problem. In the minimal model, the 'visible' particle content is exactly that of the two Higgs doublet standard model, while the extended model also contains extra vector-like fermions with masses {approx} (1 {approx} 2) TeV. At the LHC, our minimal model may appear exactly as the two Higgs doublet standard model, and new physics responsible for cutting off the divergences of the Higgs mass-squared parameter may not be discovered. Several possible processes that may be used to discriminate our model from the simple two Higgs doublet model are discussed for the LHC and for a linear collider.
Date: October 20, 2005
Creator: Chacko, Z.; Nomura, Yasunori; Papucci, Michele & Perez, Gilad
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supersymmetry, Naturalness, and Signatures at the LHC

Description: Weak scale supersymmetry is often said to be fine-tuned, especially if the matter content is minimal. This is not true if there is a large A term for the top squarks. We present a systematic study on fine-tuning in minimal supersymmetric theories and identify low energy spectra that do not lead to severe fine-tuning. Characteristic features of these spectra are: a large A term for the top squarks, small top squark masses, moderately large tan {beta}, and a small {mu} parameter. There are classes of theories leading to these features, which are discussed. In one class, which allows a complete elimination of fine-tuning, the Higgsinos are the lightest among all the superpartners of the standard model particles, leading to three nearly degenerate neutralino/chargino states. This gives interesting signals at the LHC--the dilepton invariant mass distribution has a very small endpoint and shows a particular shape determined by the Higgsino nature of the two lightest neutralinos. We demonstrate that these signals are indeed useful in realistic analyses by performing Monte Carlo simulations, including detector simulations and background estimations. We also present a method that allows the determination of all the relevant superparticle masses without using input from particular models, despite the limited kinematical information due to short cascades. This allows us to test various possible models, which is demonstrated in the case of a model with mixed moduli-anomaly mediation. We also give a simple derivation of special renormalization group properties associated with moduli mediated supersymmetry breaking, which are relevant in a model without fine-tuning.
Date: February 10, 2006
Creator: Kitano, Ryuichiro & Nomura, Yasunori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supersymmetry without the Desert

Description: Naturalness of electroweak symmetry breaking in weak scale supersymmetric theories may suggest the absence of the conventional supersymmetric desert. We present a simple, realistic framework for supersymmetry in which (most of) the virtues of the supersymmetric desert are naturally reproduced without having a large energy interval above the weak scale. The successful supersymmetric prediction for the low-energy gauge couplings is reproduced due to a gauged R symmetry present in the effective theory at the weak scale. The observable sector superpotential naturally takes the form of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, but without being subject to the Landau pole constraints up to the conventional unification scale. Supersymmetry breaking masses are generated by the F-term and D-term VEVs of singlet and U(1){sub R} gauge fields, as well as by anomaly mediation, at a scale not far above the weak scale. We study the resulting pattern of supersymmetry breaking masses in detail, and find that it can be quite distinct. We construct classes of explicit models within this framework, based on higher dimensional unified theories with TeV-sized extra dimensions. A similar model based on a non-R symmetry is also presented. These models have a rich phenomenology at the TeV scale, and allow for detailed analyses of, e.g., electroweak symmetry breaking.
Date: September 26, 2006
Creator: Nomura, Yasunori & Poland, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Explicit Supersymmetry Breaking on Boundaries of Warped Extra Dimensions

Description: Explicit supersymmetry breaking is studied in higher dimensional theories by having boundaries respect only a subgroup of the bulk symmetry. If the boundary symmetry is the maximal subgroup allowed by the boundary conditions imposed on the fields, then the symmetry can be consistently gauged; otherwise gauging leads to an inconsistent theory. In a warped fifth dimension, an explicit breaking of all bulk supersymmetries by the boundaries is found to be inconsistent with gauging; unlike the case of flat 5D, complete supersymmetry breaking by boundary conditions is not consistent with supergravity. Despite this result, the low energy effective theory resulting from boundary supersymmetry breaking becomes consistent in the limit where gravity decouples, and such models are explored in the hope that some way of successfully incorporating gravity can be found. A warped constrained standard model leads to a theory with one Higgs boson with mass expected close to the experimental limit. A unified theory in a warped fifth dimension is studied with boundary breaking of both SU(5) gauge symmetry and supersymmetry. The usual supersymmetric predictionfor gauge coupling unification holds even though the TeV spectrum is quite unlike the MSSM. Such a theory may unify matter and Higgs in the same SU(5) hypermultiplet.
Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori; Okui, Takemichi & Oliver, Steven J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Solution to the Supersymmetric Fine-Tuning Problem within the MSSM

Description: Weak scale supersymmetry has a generic problem of fine-tuning in reproducing the correct scale for electroweak symmetry breaking. The problem is particularly severe in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM). We present a solution to this problem that does not require an extension of the MSSM at the weak scale. Superparticle masses are generated by a comparable mixture of moduli and anomaly mediated contributions, and the messenger scale of supersymmetry breaking is effectively lowered to the TeV region. Crucial elements for the solution are a large A term for the top squarks and a small B term for the Higgs doublets. Requiring no fine-tuning worse than 20%, we obtain rather sharp predictions on the spectrum. The gaugino masses are almost universal at the weak scale with the mass between 450 and 900 GeV. The squark and slepton masses are also nearly universal at the weak scale with the mass a factor of {radical}2 smaller than that of the gauginos. The only exception is the top squarks whose masses split from the other squark masses by about m{sub t}/{radical}2. The lightest Higgs boson mass is smaller than 120 GeV, while the ratio of the vacuum expectation values for the two Higgs doublets, tan {beta}, is larger than about 5. The lightest superparticle is the neutral Higgsino of the mass below 190 GeV, which can be dark matter of the universe. The mass of the lighter top squark can be smaller than 300 GeV, which may be relevant for Run II at the Tevatron.
Date: September 8, 2005
Creator: Kitano, Ryuichiro; /SLAC; Nomura, Yasunori & /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dark Matter before the LHC in a Natural Supersymmetric Standard Model

Description: We show that the solid lower bound of about 10{sup -44}cm{sup 2} is obtained for the cross section between the supersymmetric dark matter and nucleon in a theory in which the supersymmetric fine-tuning problem is solved without extending the Higgs sector at the weak scale. This bound arises because of relatively small superparticle masses and a fortunate correlation that the two dominant diagrams for the dark matter detection always interfere constructively if the constraint from the b gamma {yields} s gamma measurements is obeyed. It is, therefore, quite promising in the present scenario that the supersymmetric dark matter is discovered before the LHC, assuming that the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle.
Date: September 28, 2005
Creator: Kitano, Ryuichiro; /SLAC; Nomura, Yasunori & /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supersymmetry with Small mu: Connections between Naturalness, Dark Matter, and (Possibly) Flavor

Description: Weak scale supersymmetric theories often suffer from several naturalness problems: the problems of reproducing the correct scale for electroweak symmetry breaking, the correct abundance for dark matter, and small rates for flavor violating processes. We argue that the first two problems point to particular regions of parameter space in models with weak scale supersymmetry: those with a small {mu} term. This has an interesting implication on direct dark matter detection experiments. We find that, if the signs of the three gaugino mass parameters are all equal, we can obtain a solid lower bound on the spin-independent neutralino-nucleon cross section, {sigma}{sub SI}. In the case that the gaugino masses satisfy the unified mass relations, we obtain {sigma}{sub SI} {approx}> 4 x 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2} (1 x 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2}) for fine-tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking no worse than 10% (5%). We also discuss a possibility that the three problems listed above are all connected to the hierarchy of fermion masses. This occurs if supersymmetry breaking and electroweak symmetry breaking (the Higgs fields) are coupled to matter fields with similar hierarchical structures. The discovery of {mu} {yields} e transition processes in near future experiments is predicted in such a framework.
Date: June 28, 2006
Creator: Kitano, Ryuichiro; /SLAC; Nomura, Yasunori & /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GUT breaking on the brane?

Description: We present a five-dimensional supersymmetric SU(5) theory in which the gauge symmetry is broken maximally (i.e. at the 5D Planck scale M{sub *}) on the same 4D brane where chiral matter is localized. Masses of the lightest Kaluza-Klein modes for the colored Higgs and X and Y gauge fields are determined by the compactification scale of the fifth dimension, M{sub C} {approx} 10{sup 15} GeV, rather than by M{sub *}. These fields' wave functions are repelled from the GUT-breaking brane, so that proton decay rates are suppressed below experimental limits. Above the compactification scale, the differences between the standard model gauge couplings evolve logarithmically, so that ordinary logarithmic gauge coupling unification is preserved. The maximal breaking of the grand unified group can also lead to other effects, such as O(1) deviations from SU(5) predictions of Yukawa couplings, even in models utilizing the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism.
Date: April 4, 2001
Creator: Smith, David; Nomura, Yasunori & Weiner, Neal
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Holographic theories of electroweak symmetry breaking without aHiggs Boson

Description: Recently, realistic theories of electroweak symmetry breaking have been constructed in which the electroweak symmetry is broken by boundary conditions imposed at a boundary of higher dimensional spacetime. These theories have equivalent 4D dual descriptions, in which the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken by non-trivial infrared dynamics of some gauge interaction, whose gauge coupling {tilde g} and size N satisfy {tilde g}{sup 2}N {approx}> 16{pi}{sup 2}. Such theories allow one to calculate electroweak radiative corrections, including the oblique parameters S, T and U, as long as {tilde g}{sup 2}N/16{pi}{sup 2} and N are sufficiently larger than unity. We study how the duality between the 4D and 5D theories manifests itself in the computation of various physical quantities. In particular, we calculate the electroweak oblique parameters in a warped 5D theory where the electroweak symmetry is broken by boundary conditions at the infrared brane. We show that the value of S obtained in the minimal theory exceeds the experimental bound if the theory is in a weakly coupled regime. This requires either an extension of the minimal model or departure from weak coupling. A particularly interesting scenario is obtained if the gauge couplings in the 5D theory take the largest possible values--the value suggested by naive dimensional analysis. We argue that such a theory can provide a potentially consistent picture for dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking: corrections to the electroweak observables are sufficiently small while realistic fermion masses are obtained without conflicting with bounds from flavor violation. The theory contains only the standard model quarks, leptons and gauge bosons below {approx_equal}2 TeV, except for a possible light scalar associated with the radius of the extra dimension. At {approx_equal}2 TeV increasingly broad string resonances appear. An analysis of top-quark phenomenology and flavor violation is also presented, which is applicable to both the weakly-coupled ...
Date: December 30, 2003
Creator: Burdman, Gustavo & Nomura, Yasunori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gauge unification in higher dimensions

Description: A complete 5-dimensional SU(5) unified theory is constructed which, on compactification on the orbifold with two different Z{sub 2}'s (Z{sub 2} and Z{sub 2}{prime}), yields the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The orbifold accomplishes SU(5) gauge symmetry breaking, doublet-triplet splitting, and a vanishing of proton decay from operators of dimension 5. Until 4d supersymmetry is broken, all proton decay from dimension 4 and dimension 5 operators is forced to vanish by an exact U(1){sub R} symmetry. Quarks and leptons and their Yukawa interactions are located at the Z{sub 2} orbifold fixed points, where SU(5) is unbroken. A new mechanism for introducing SU(5) breaking into the quark and lepton masses is introduced, which originates from the SU(5) violation in the zero-mode structure of bulk multiplets. Even though SU(5) is absent at the Z{sub 2}{prime} orbifold fixed point, the brane threshold corrections to gauge coupling unification are argued to be negligibly small, while the logarithmic corrections are small and in a direction which improves the agreement with the experimental measurements of the gauge couplings. Furthermore, the X gauge boson mass is lowered, so that p {yields} e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} is expected with a rate within about one order of magnitude of the current limit. Supersymmetry breaking occurs on the Z{sub 2}{prime} orbifold fixed point, and is felt directly by the gauge and Higgs sectors, while squarks and sleptons acquire mass via gaugino mediation, solving the supersymmetric flavor problem.
Date: January 14, 2001
Creator: Hall, Lawrence & Nomura, Yasunori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department