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COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS

Description: OAK A271 COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS. An investigation of the chemical composition and structure of strong glow discharge (GDP) polymer shells made for cryogenic experiments at OMEGA is described. The investigation was carried out using combustion and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The strongest coatings were observed to have the lowest hydrogen content or hydrogen/carbon H/C ratio, whereas the weakest coatings had the highest hydrogen content or H/C ratio. Chemical composition results from combustion were used to complement FTIR analysis to determine the relative hydrogen content of as-fabricated coatings. Good agreement was observed between composition results obtained from combustion and FTIR analysis. FTIR analysis of coating structures showed the strongest coatings to have less terminal methyl groups and a more double bond or olefinic structure. Strong GDP coatings that were aged in air react more with oxygen and moisture than standard GDP coatings. In addition to a more olefinic structure, there may also be more free-radial sites present in strong GDP coatings, which leads to greater oxygen uptake.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER & NIKROO, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA

Description: OAK A271 PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA. Thin walled polymer shells are needed for OMEGA cryogenic laser experiments. These capsules need to be about 900 {micro}m in diameter and as thin as possible (approx 1-2 {micro}m), while having enough strength to be filled with DT as fast as possible to about 1000 atm. The authors have found that by optimizing the coating parameters in the glow discharge polymer (GDP) deposition system, traditionally used for making ICF targets, they can routinely make robust, {approx} 1.5 {micro}m thick, 900 {micro}m diameter GDP shells with buckle strengths of over 0.3 atm. This is twice the strength of shells made prior to the optimization and is comparable to values quoted for polyimide shells. In addition, these shells were found to be approximately three times more permeable and over 20% denser than previously made GDP shells. The combination of higher strength and permeability is ideal for direct drive cryogenic targets at OMEGA. Shells as thin as 0.5 {micro}m have been made. In this paper, the authors discuss the shell fabrication process, effects of modifying various GDP deposition parameters on shell properties and chemical composition.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,DG; CASTILLO,ER & PONTELANDOLFO,JM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FABRICATION OF GAS-FILLED TUNGSTEN-COATED GLASS SHELLS

Description: OAK-B135 Deuterium (D{sub 2}) filled glass shells coated with a high Z element are needed for high energy density (HED) experiments by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. They report here on our initial attempt to produce such shells. Glass shells made using the drop tower technique were coated with gold, palladium or tungsten, or a mixture of two of these elements. It was found that gold and palladium coatings did not stick well to the glass and resulted in poor or delaminated films. Tungsten coatings resulted in films suitable for these targets. Bouncing of shells during coating resulted in uniform tungsten coatings, but the surface of such coatings were filled with small nodules. Proper agitation of shells using a tapping technique resulted in smooth films with minimal particulate contamination. For coating rates of {approx} 0.15 {micro}m/hr coatings with {approx} 2 nm RMS surface finish could be deposited. The surface roughness of coatings at higher rates, 0.7 {micro}m/hr, was considerably worse ({approx} 100 nm RMS). The columnar structure of the coatings allowed permeation filling of the tungsten coated glass shells with deuterium at 300 C.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: NIKROO,A; BAUGH,W & STEINMAN,D.A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PREPARATION OF CU-DOPED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS FOR ICF APPLICATIONS

Description: OAK-B135 Copper doped polymer shells can provide a very useful diagnostic for fast ignition experiments currently being performed at various laboratories around the world. The low concentration copper dopant acts as an efficient x-ray source providing information on the physics of fast ignition. They have developed copper doped glow discharge (GDP) coatings suitable for such purposes. Copper acetylacetonate (CuAcAC), a solid at room temperature, was used in a heated jacket as the dopant source. They used this technique to fabricate thin ({approx} 5-7 {micro}m) GDP shells doped with {approx} 1 at% copper through the depolymerizable mandrel process for fast ignition experiments. The details of the experimental set up and the range and limitations of the technique are discussed.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: NIKROO,A; CASTILLO,E; HILL,D.W & GREENWOOD,A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES

Description: OAK A271 COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES. Targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) need to be about 200 {micro}m thick and 2 mm in diameter. These dimensions are well beyond those currently fabricated on a routine basis. They have investigated fabrication of near NIF scale targets using the depolymerizable mandrel technique. Poly-alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS) mandrels, about 2 mm in diameter, of varying qualities were coated with as much as 125 {micro}m of glow discharge polymer (GDP). The surface finish of the final shells was examined using a variety of techniques. A clear dependence of the modal spectrum of final GDP shell on the quality of the initial PAMS mandrels was observed. isolated features were found to be the greatest cause for a shell not meeting the NIF standard.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: NIKROO,A; PONTELANDOLFO,JM & CASTILLO,ER
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECENT PROGRESS IN FABRICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS BY OPTIMIZATION OF COATING PARAMETERS

Description: OAK A271 RECENT PROGRESS IN FABRICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS BY OPTIMIZATION OF COATING PARAMETERS. In this paper, the authors report the progress they have made in fabrication of high-strength thin-walled glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells for cryogenic experiments at OMEGA. They have investigated a number of different parameters involved in making such shells. Optimization of hydrogen to hydrocarbon precursor flow has been observed to be critical in obtaining strong shells. They can routinely make high-strength shells of OMEGA size (900 {micro}m in diameter) with thicknesses in the range of 1.0 to 1.5 {micro}m. The permeabilities of these shells to various gases have been found to be as much as three times higher than those of lower strength shells. Run to run variability and other batch statistics are discussed.
Date: April 1, 2002
Creator: NIKROO, A; CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER & PONTELANDOLFO, JM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FABRICATION AND ATTACHMENT OF POLYIMIDE FILL TUBES TO PLASTIC NIF CAPSULES

Description: We have developed a technique for drawing commercially available polyimide tubing to the required fill tube dimensions. The tubes are then precisely cut with an Excimer laser to produce a clean, flat tip. We have also demonstrated that one can use the Excimer laser to drill less than a 5 {micro}m diameter through hole in the {approx}150 wall of a NIF dimension GDP shell, and can then create a 10-15 {micro}m diameter, 20-40 {micro}m deep counterbore centered on the through hole with the same laser. Using a home built assembly station the tube is carefully inserted into the counterbore and glued in place with UV-cure epoxy, using a LED UV source to avoid heating the joint. We expect that the same joining technique can be used for Be shells.
Date: December 8, 2006
Creator: Takagi, M; Saito, K; Frederick, C; Nikroo, A & Cook, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication Of Graded Germanium-Doped CH Shells

Description: One of the current capsule designs for achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 2 mm diameter graded Ge-doped CH shell that has a 160 {micro}m thick wall. The Ge doping is not uniform, but rather is in radial steps. This graded Ge-doped design allows rougher surface finish than the original undoped CH design thus has a less stringent new surface standard. We selected quality mandrel mandrels by coating dozens of mandrel batches to {approx}70 {micro}m thickness to amplify sub-micrometer defects on the mandrels and successively removed inferior batches. The Ge-doping layers are made by introducing (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}Ge to the gas stream. The doping concentrations were determined by performing tryout runs and characterized by X-ray fluorescence analyses and quantitative radiograph calculations, with good agreement between the methods being demonstrated. The precise layer thickness and Ge concentrations were determined by a non-destructive quantitative contact radiograph. The as-coated shell has an inner 10 {micro}m undoped CH layer, followed by a 48 {micro}m thick 0.83 at.% Ge-doped CH, 10 {micro}m thick 0.38 at.% Ge-doped CH and then 90 {micro}m of undoped CH. The shell meets nearly all the NIF design thickness specifications and Ge concentrations. The atomic force microscope power spectrum of the shell meets the new NIF standard. The shells has a root-mean-square surface roughness of {approx}24 nm (modes 100-1000). A few surface flaws are isolated domes of 1 {micro}m tall and 20 {micro}m in diameter. Mandrel was successfully removed by pyrolysis at 305 C for 10-20 h. After pyrolysis, the diameter and wall shrink 0.4% and 5.7%, respectively. The shell's inner surface has root-mean-square roughness ranging from 1.1-6.5 nm by WYKO interferometer measurement.
Date: July 7, 2005
Creator: Chen, K C; Huang, H; Nikroo, A; Letts, S A & Cook, R C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROGRESS IN 2 mm GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER MANDREL DEVELOPMENT FOR NIF

Description: OAK-B135 All planned National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule targets except machined beryllium require a glow discharge polymer (GDP) mandrel upon which the albator is applied. This mandrel, {approx} 2 mm in diameter, must at least meet if not exceed the symmetry and surface finish requirements of the final capsule. Such mandrels are currently produced by the three-step depolymerizable mandrel technique. The quality of the final mandrel depends upon precise optimization and execution of each of the three steps. They had shown previously that fabrication of a mandrel which met the symmetry and surface finish requirements was feasible using this technique. In this paper they will discuss recent progress towards converting this process into a high yield, production scale process.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: NIKROO,A; BOUSQUET,J; COOK,R; McQUILLAN,B.W; PAGUIO,R & TAKAGI,M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FABRICATION AND PROPERTIES OF OER COATED RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE SHELLS FOR OMEGA EXPERIMENTS

Description: OAK-B135 New high gain designs for direct drive ignition on NIF require foam shells. Scaled down versions of these designs are needed for near term experiments on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory Laser Energetics (LLE). These shells need to be about 1 mm in diameter and 50-100 {micro}m wall thickness and densities of 100-250 mg/cc. In addition, a full density permeation seal needs to be deposited for retention of the fill gas at room temperature or the ice at cryogenic temperatures. They have fabricated such shells using Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) as the selected foam material due to its transparency in the optical region. Extensive characterization of the wall uniformity of these shells has been performed. The foam shells have {approx} 5%-6% non-concentricities on the average. A full density permeation seal has been deposited on the R/F shells using two different techniques. In the first technique R/F shells are coated directly with plasma polymer to thicknesses of 3-4 {micro}m. In the second technique, R/F shells are coated with polyvinylphenol, using a chemical interfacial polymerization technique. Data on surface finish and gas retention for R/F shells coated by both methods are provided.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; PAGUIO,R; GREENWOOD,A.L & TAKAGI,M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AUTOMATED BATCH CHARACTERIZATION OF ICF SHELLS WITH VISION-ENABLED OPTICAL MICROSCOPE SYSTEM

Description: OAK-B135 Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) shells are mesoscale objects with nano-scale dimensional and nano-surface finish requirements. Currently, the shell dimensions are measured by white-light interferometry and an image analysis method. These two methods complement each other and give a rather complete data set on a single shell. The process is, however, labor intensive. They have developed an automation routine to fully characterize a shell in one shot and perform unattended batch measurements. The method is useful to the ICF program both for production screening and for full characterization. It also has potential for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant where half a million shells need to be processed daily.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: HUANG,H; STEPHENS,R.B; HILL,D.W; LYON,C; NIKROO,A & STEINMAN,D.A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA

Description: OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D{sub 2} and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D{sub 2}. In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; CHEN,K.C; DICKEN,M; MORRIS,C; ANDREWS,R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis Of Plastic Capsule Materials Exposed To Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Gas

Description: Planar samples of varying thicknesses of both CH and CD glow discharge polymer have been measured with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy before and after exposure to deuterium-tritium (DT) gas at elevated temperature and pressure. Planar samples of polyimide films made from both hydrogenated and deuterated precursors have also been examined by FTIR before and after DT exposure. The post-exposure FTIR spectra demonstrated no measurable exchange of hydrogen with deuterium or tritium for either polymer. Evidence for oxidation of the glow discharge polymer due to atmospheric oxygen was the only chemical change indicated by the FTIR data.
Date: June 16, 2005
Creator: Schoonover, J R; Steckle, Jr., W P; Elliot, N; Ebey, P S; Nobile, A; Nikroo, A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exposure Of NIF Relevant Polymeric Samples To Deuterium-Tritium Gas At Elevated Temperature And Pressure

Description: The purpose of the experiments described in this paper was to expose samples of polymeric materials to a mixture of deuterium-tritium (DT) gas at elevated temperature and pressure to investigate the effects (i.e. damage) on the materials. The materials and exposure parameters were chosen with to be relevant to proposed uses of similar materials in inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Two types of samples were exposed and tested. The first type consisted of 10 4-lead ribbon cables of fine manganin wire insulated with polyimide. Wires of this type are proposed for use in thermal shimming of hohlraums and the goal of this experiment was to measure the change in electrical resistance of the insulation due to tritium exposure. The second type of sample consisted of 20 planar polymer samples that may be used as ignition capsule materials. The exposure was at 34.5 GPa (5010 psia) and 70 C for 48 hours. The change in electrical resistance of the wire insulation will be presented. The results for capsule materials will be presented in a separate paper in this issue.
Date: June 24, 2005
Creator: Ebey, P S; Dole, J M; Nobile, A; Schoonover, J R; Burmann, J; Cook, B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence and measurement of mass ablation in ICF implosions

Description: Point design ignition capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently use an x-ray-driven Be(Cu) ablator to compress the DT fuel. Ignition specifications require that the mass of unablated Be(Cu), called residual mass, be known to within 1% of the initial ablator mass when the fuel reaches peak velocity. The specifications also require that the implosion bang time, a surrogate measurement for implosion velocity, be known to +/- 50 ps RMS. These specifications guard against several capsule failure modes associated with low implosion velocity or low residual mass. Experiments designed to measure and to tune experimentally the amount of residual mass are being developed as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). Tuning adjustments of the residual mass and peak velocity can be achieved using capsule and laser parameters. We currently plan to measure the residual mass using streaked radiographic imaging of surrogate tuning capsules. Alternative techniques to measure residual mass using activated Cu debris collection and proton spectrometry have also been developed. These developing techniques, together with bang time measurements, will allow us to tune ignition capsules to meet NIC specs.
Date: September 5, 2007
Creator: Spears, B K; Hicks, D; Velsko, C; Stoyer, M; Robey, H; Munro, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advances in Target Design for Heavy-Ion Fusion

Description: Over the past few years, the emphasis in heavy ion target design has moved from the distributed radiator target to the 'hybrid' target because the hybrid target allows a larger beam focal spot than the distributed radiator ({approx} 5 mm radius rather than {approx} 2 mm radius). The larger spot relaxes some of the requirements on the driver, but introduces some new target physics issues. Most notable is the use of shine shields and shims in the hohlraum to achieve symmetry rather than achieving symmetry by beam placement. The shim is a thin layer of material placed on or near the capsule surface to block a small amount of excess radiation. While we have been developing this technique for the heavy ion hybrid target, the technique can be used in any indirect drive target. We have begun testing the concept of a shim to improve symmetry using a double-ended z-pinch hohlraum on the Sandia Z-machine. Experiments using shimmed thin wall capsules have shown that we can reverse the sign of a P{sub 2} asymmetry and significantly reduce the size of a P{sub 4} asymmetry. These initial experiments demonstrate the concept of a shim as another method for controlling early time asymmetries in ICF capsules.
Date: June 21, 2005
Creator: Callahan, D A; Tabak, M; Bennett, G R; Cuneo, M E; Vesey, R A; Nikroo, A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residual stress measurement and microstructural characterization of thick beryllium films

Description: Beryllium films are synthesized by a magnetron sputtering technique incorporating in-situ residual stress measurement. Monitoring the stress evolution in real time provides quantitative through-thickness information on the effects of various processing parameters, including sputtering gas pressure and substrate biasing. Specimens produced over a wide range of stress states are characterized via transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, in order to correlate the stress data with microstructure. A columnar grain structure is observed for all specimens, and surface morphology is found to be strongly dependent on processing conditions. Analytical models of stress generation are reviewed and discussed in terms of the observed microstructure.
Date: February 11, 2008
Creator: Detor, A; Wang, M; Hodge, A M; Chason, E; Walton, C; Hamza, A V et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication of Beryllium Capsules with Copper-Doped Layers for NIF Targets: A Progress Report

Description: The sputtering of beryllium (Be) has been used at LLNL for nearly 30 years in the fabrication of laser targets. Several years ago the prospect of using sputtering to fabricate spherical Be capsules for National Ignition Facility (NIF) targets began to be explored and a basic strategy was developed that involved sputtering down onto plastic mandrels bouncing in a pan. While this appears to be very straightforward in principle, in practice sputtering has been used almost exclusively to make thin films (< 1 micron) on flat substrates. Thick films pose a significant challenge for sputtering while materials on spherical substrates are essentially unexplored. More recently, based on computational results, the point design for the first NIF ignition target capsule was specified as a Be capsule with Cu-doped layers of specific thickness, each layer with a different concentration of copper. While the work described here was motivated by the need to make the layered capsules, the primary progress on Be capsules has been the development of a more complete metallurgical understanding of the materials that are fabricated and the beginning of the exploration of the relationship between the sputter processing and microstructure of these spherical samples. At least two barriers to growth to full thickness (i.e. 170 microns) have been identified and efforts to overcome these barriers are underway.
Date: August 12, 2005
Creator: McElfresh, M; Gunther, J; Alford, C; Fought, E; Cook, R; Nikroo, A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

Description: Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.
Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition Target Fabrication and Fielding for the National Ignition Facility

Description: Continued advances in the design of ignition targets have stimulating new development paths for target fabrication, with potentially important simplifications for fielding cryogenic ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility. Including graded dopants in ablators as well as optimizing capsule and fuel layer dimensions increase implosion stability. This has led to developments of micron-scale fill tubes to fill and field the targets. Rapid progress has been made in development of the graded dopant layers in capsules as well as their characterization, in fabrication methods for micro-fill-tubes, and in fuel fill control with these fill tubes. Phase-contrast x-ray radiography has allowed characterization of fuel layers in beryllium targets. This target development program includes participation from General Atomics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Date: October 6, 2005
Creator: Bernat, T P; Huang, H; Nikroo, A; Stephens, R; Wilkens, H; Xu, H et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAST IGNITION TARGETS

Description: OAK-B135 Fast ignition is a novel scheme for achieving laser fusion. A class of these targets involves cone mounted CH shells. The authors have been fabricating such targets with shells with a wide variety of diameters and wall thicknesses for several years at General Atomics. In addition, recently such shells were needed for implosion experiments at Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) that for the first time were required to be gas retentive. Fabrication of these targets requires producing appropriate cones and shells, assembling the targets, and characterization of the assembled targets. The cones are produced using micromachining and plating techniques. The shells are fabricated using the depolymerizable mandrel technique followed by micromachining a hole for the cone. The cone and the shell then need to be assembled properly for gas retention and precisely in order to position the cone tip at the desired position within the shell. Both are critical for the fast ignition experiments. The presence of the cone in the shell creates new challenges in characterization of the assembled targets. Finally, for targets requiring a gas fill, the cone-shell assembly needs to be tested for gas retention and proper strength at the glue joint. This paper presents an overview of the developmental efforts and technical issues addressed during the fabrication of fast ignition targets.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: HILL,D.W; CASTILLO,E; CHEN,K.C; GRANT,S.E; GREENWOOD,A.L; KAAE,J.L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department