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Reliable motion detection of small targets in video with low signal-to-clutter ratios

Description: Studies show that vigilance decreases rapidly after several minutes when human operators are required to search live video for infrequent intrusion detections. Therefore, there is a need for systems which can automatically detect targets in live video and reserve the operator`s attention for assessment only. Thus far, automated systems have not simultaneously provided adequate detection sensitivity, false alarm suppression, and ease of setup when used in external, unconstrained environments. This unsatisfactory performance can be exacerbated by poor video imagery with low contrast, high noise, dynamic clutter, image misregistration, and/or the presence of small, slow, or erratically moving targets. This paper describes a highly adaptive video motion detection and tracking algorithm which has been developed as part of Sandia`s Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) program. The AES is a wide-area detection and assessment system for use in unconstrained exterior security applications. The AES detection and tracking algorithm provides good performance under stressing data and environmental conditions. Features of the algorithm include: reliable detection with negligible false alarm rate of variable velocity targets having low signal-to-clutter ratios; reliable tracking of targets that exhibit motion that is non-inertial, i.e., varies in direction and velocity; automatic adaptation to both infrared and visible imagery with variable quality; and suppression of false alarms caused by sensor flaws and/or cutouts.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Nichols, S.A. & Naylor, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELECTRONICS UPGRADE TO THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY COULOMETER FOR PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ASSAY

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the analytical measurement capability to perform high-precision plutonium concentration measurements by controlled-potential coulometry. State-of-the-art controlled-potential coulometers were designed and fabricated by the Savannah River National Laboratory and installed in the Analytical Laboratories process control laboratory. The Analytical Laboratories uses coulometry for routine accountability measurements of and for verification of standard preparations used to calibrate other plutonium measurement systems routinely applied to process control, nuclear safety, and other accountability applications. The SRNL Coulometer has a demonstrated measurement reliability of {approx}0.05% for 10 mg samples. The system has also been applied to the characterization of neptunium standard solutions with a comparable reliability. The SRNL coulometer features: a patented current integration system; continuous electrical calibration versus Faraday's Constants and Ohm's Law; the control-potential adjustment technique for enhanced application of the Nernst Equation; a wide operating room temperature range; and a fully automated instrument control and data acquisition capability. Systems have been supplied to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Russia, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL). The most recent vintage of electronics was based on early 1990's integrated circuits. Many of the components are no longer available. At the request of the IAEA and the Department of State, SRNL has completed an electronics upgrade of their controlled-potential coulometer design. Three systems have built with the new design, one for the IAEA which was installed at SAL in May 2011, one system for Los Alamos National Laboratory, (LANL) and one for the SRS Analytical Laboratory. The LANL and SRS systems are undergoing startup testing with installation scheduled for this summer.
Date: July 8, 2011
Creator: Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Reeves, G.; Nichols, S. & Kruzner, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples

Description: A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.
Date: November 1998
Creator: Maxwell, S. L., III & Nichols, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid Determination of 237 Np and Pu Isotopes in Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Alpha Spectrometry

Description: A new method that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in water samples was developed for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via peak tailing. The method provide enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then moving Pu to DGA resin for additional removal of uranium. The decontamination factor for uranium from Pu is almost 100,000 and the decontamination factor for U from Np is greater than 10,000. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation method. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long and short-lived Pu isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 20 samples (including QC samples) in 4 to 6 hours, and can also be used for emergency response. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.
Date: June 23, 2010
Creator: Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.; Culligan, B.; Nichols, S. & Noyes, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The railplug: Development of a new ignitor for internal combustion engines

Description: The goal of the railplug project is to commercialize this miniaturized railgun as an engine technology as rapidly as possible. To improve the technology transfer process, a board of industrial advisors was established. A list of representatives is included at the end of this annual report. The Railplug External Advisory Board (REAB) met in Austin on March 17--18, 1991 to discuss the project plan. A list of comments from the REAB is included at the end of this progress report, along with our written response to those comments. An alternate first'' meeting with some representatives of the REAB was held on July 9, 1991. This meeting was attended by most of the board members who were unable to attend the first meeting. The second meeting of the REAB was held in Toronto, Canada, on October 10, 1991. A list of the board members comments from this meeting is included at the end of this report, along with our written response to those comments. These meetings have proven to be most useful in assuring that this project is conducted as efficiently as possible. The railplug project is essentially divided into three main tasks: (1) Railplug system development; (2) application of railplugs to engines; and (3) railplug durability. The status of each of these tasks is described below.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Matthew, R.D.; Nichols, S.P. & Weldon, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The railplug: Development of a new ignitor for internal combustion engines. Final report

Description: A three year investigation of a new type of ignitor for internal combustion engines has been performed using funds from the Advanced Energy Projects Program of The Basic Energy Sciences Division of the U.S. Department of Energy and with matching funding from Research Applications, Inc. This project was a spin-off of {open_quotes}Star Wars{close_quotes} defense technology, specifically the railgun. The {open_quotes}railplug{close_quotes} is a miniaturized railgun which produces a high velocity plume of plasma that is injected into the combustion chamber of an engine. Unlike other types of alternative ignitors, such as plasma jet ignitors, electromagnetic forces enhance the acceleration of the plasma generated by a railplug. Thus, for a railplug, the combined effects of electromagnetic and thermodynamic forces drive the plasma into the combustion chamber. Several engine operating conditions or configurations can be identified that traditionally present ignition problems, and might benefit from enhanced ignition systems. One of these is ultra-lean combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines. This concept has the potential for lowering emissions of NOx while simultaneously improving thermal efficiency. Unfortunately, current lean burn engines cannot be operated sufficiently lean before ignition related problems are encountered to offer any benefits. High EGR engines have similar potential for emissions improvement, but also experience similar ignition problems, particularly at idle. Other potential applications include diesel cold start, alcohol and dual fuel engines, and high altitude relight of gas turbines. The railplug may find application for any of the above. This project focused on three of these potential applications: lean burn SI engines, high EGR SI engines, and diesel cold start.
Date: November 29, 1994
Creator: Matthews, R. D.; Nichols, S. P. & Weldon, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The railplug: Development of a new ignitor for internal combustion engines. Annual report, January 16, 1991--January 15, 1992

Description: The goal of the railplug project is to commercialize this miniaturized railgun as an engine technology as rapidly as possible. To improve the technology transfer process, a board of industrial advisors was established. A list of representatives is included at the end of this annual report. The Railplug External Advisory Board (REAB) met in Austin on March 17--18, 1991 to discuss the project plan. A list of comments from the REAB is included at the end of this progress report, along with our written response to those comments. An alternate ``first`` meeting with some representatives of the REAB was held on July 9, 1991. This meeting was attended by most of the board members who were unable to attend the first meeting. The second meeting of the REAB was held in Toronto, Canada, on October 10, 1991. A list of the board members comments from this meeting is included at the end of this report, along with our written response to those comments. These meetings have proven to be most useful in assuring that this project is conducted as efficiently as possible. The railplug project is essentially divided into three main tasks: (1) Railplug system development; (2) application of railplugs to engines; and (3) railplug durability. The status of each of these tasks is described below.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Matthew, R. D.; Nichols, S. P. & Weldon, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department