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Installation of Water Flux Meters to Measure the Temporal Variation in Water Flux Through the Vadose Zone

Description: The Savannah River Site has implemented a comprehensive vadose zone monitoring system at it's low level radioactive waste disposal facility in E-Area. The VSMS consists of nests of advanced tesiometers, water content reflectometers, suction lysimeters.
Date: January 15, 2003
Creator: Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Well Installation Report for Monitoring Wells TCM4, TCM5, and TCM8 and Pilot Hole TGSC-2A

Description: The shallow groundwater and sediments beneath the TNX Area are contaminated with both dissolved and residual chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride and perchloroethylene (PCE)..The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is studying a new technology for remediating CVOCs known as GeoSiphon. The GeoSiphon Cell is a large diameter well uses granular cast iron for filter pack material and is operated by inducing a siphon to draw contaminated groundwater through the iron filter pack. As groundwater flows through the granular cast iron CVOCs are reduced to ethane, ethene, methane, and chloride ions. Previous laboratory and field studies (ETI, 1996, and Phifer et. al., 1997) conducted by SRTC have shown that granular cast iron is capable of remediating contaminated at TNX. SRTC will be conducting a Dual Cell test of the GeoSiphon technology in 1999 to study the hydraulic interaction of multiple cells operating simultaneously.T his report documents the installation of 3 monitoring wells and 1 pilot hole that were installed to support the Dual phase test. The three monitoring wells will be used to study the hydraulic interaction between the 2 GeoSiphon cells. Continuous core was collected from the proposed location for the second GeoSiphon Cell TGSC-2. Depth discrete samples collected from the core were analyzed for CVOCs.
Date: October 26, 1998
Creator: Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Well Installation and Sampling Report for Monitoring Wells TCM6 TCM7, and TNX 28D - 40D and GeoSiphon Cell TGSC-2

Description: The shallow groundwater and sediments beneath the TNX Area are contaminated with both dissolved and residual chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride and perchloroethylene (PCE). The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is studying a new technology for remediating CVOCs known as GeoSiphon.
Date: September 20, 1999
Creator: Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan: New TNX Seepage Basin

Description: The New TNX Seepage Basin is located across River Road east of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the basin is out of service and is awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the New TNX Seepage Basin was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater downgradient of the New TNX Seepage Basin had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by inorganic constituents with no associated health risks. The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituents, such as Mn, Na, and Total PO{sub 4} in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment.
Date: December 5, 1989
Creator: Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Speciation of Groundwater Contaminated with Coal Pile Leachate at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

Description: Modeling the transport of contaminant metals and designing systems for their remediation requires an understanding of the metal`s speciation. Thus, analysis of contaminant speciation and evaluation of the processes that can change the speciation should be done during characterization of the contaminated site. This approach is being used at the Savannah River Site for a metals contaminated site that will serve as a test platform for metals remediation technologies. The site is adjacent to a coal storage pile and the basin that contains the coal pile runoff. A network of well clusters allows definition of the plume, including profiles of contamination with depth. The groundwater is acidic (pH {approx} 2) and contains high concentrations of sulfate (up to 2300 mg/l) and metals, with chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead exceeding drinking water standards. Aluminum and total iron concentrations range up to 1326 mg/l and 7991 mg/l, respectively. Speciation calculations on dissolved contaminants indicate that as much as 65% of the lead, 54% of the cadmium, and 34% of the nickel may be present in sulfate complexes. Chromium occurs predominantly as Cr{sup +3}. There is evidence that some contaminant metals may be associated with colloidal material. Contamination in the groundwater is stratified with concentrations decreasing over a depth range of 3 meters (10 feet). Fluid-rock interactions explain the non-uniform behavior of dissolved components with depth. Mass balance considerations suggest that the interactions are dominated by Kaolinite dissolution coupled with precipitation of phases containing aluminum, ferric iron, silica, and sulfate, as well as co- precipitation of contaminant metals.
Date: May 15, 1995
Creator: Denham, M.E. & Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

Description: The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site.
Date: June 14, 1991
Creator: Nichols, R.L. & Eddy, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of shallow groundwater at TNX

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS), located on 300 square miles along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, is owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The site`s mission is to support the national security through the production of nuclear weapons material. With the recent reduction of the nation`s nuclear stockpile and the stronger focus on the cleanup of sites where nuclear operations activities have left behind soil and groundwater contamination, identifying and remediating all inactive wastes has become a primary goal.The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the western portion of SRS (Figure 1). The area is a pilot-scale test facility for the Savannah River Technology Center. Pilot-scale testing and evaluation of chemical processes at TNX have included support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Separations Area, and fuel and target manufacturing areas. Wastewater generated during tests was discharged to unlined basins through a network of underground process sewers.A discussion of waste disposal activities for the TNX Area is included in this report to identify the major sources of contaminants that have impacted the groundwater.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Program plan for TNX Area groundwater characterization wells

Description: The TNX Area post-Cretaceous hydrogeological section consists of an unconfined aquifer in recent to Pliestocene age sediments and a confined aquifer in tertiary aged sediments. The unconfined aquifer is a local water bearing reservoir and will not be correlated to a specific stratigraphic unit at this time. Depth to the water table ranges from 25 feet at the New TNX Seepage Basin to 50 feet at the Old TNX Seepage Basin. The unconfined aquifer is 45--50 feet thick and outcrops in the swamp to the west of TNX. The hydraulic gradient in the unconfined aquifer decreases westerly across the TNX Area from 0.05 to 0.01. The unconfined aquifer is separated from the underlying confined aquifer by a sandy slit aquitard (A1) which is approximately 5--10 feet thick. Researchers reported an increase in hydraulic head across this unit of approximately 8 feet which results in an upward gradient between the unconfined and confined aquifer. The confined Tertiary aquifer (C1) at TNX is 25--30 feet thick and can generally be found 60 to 90 feet below the surface. The C1 aquifer is part of the aquifer commonly referred to as the Congaree'' which occurs in the Congaree Formation. The C1 aquifer lies on the Lower Tertiary aquitard (A2) which is 45--55 feet thick and is commonly referred to as the Ellenton Formation.'' Currently there is an upward gradient across A2 with a head differential of 28 feet. Regional hydrogeologic models indicate that the C1 aquifer discharges to the Savannah River producing westward groundwater flow in C1. 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: May 19, 1989
Creator: Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Stratasampler{sup {alpha}} Multi-Level Wells to Examine the Hyporheic Zone within a Riparian Wetland

Description: The initial objectives of this research are to establish a baseline and monitor the influences of local scale hydrology and biogeochemical behavior within the hyporheic zone at an unimpacted, uncontaminated site.
Date: February 1998
Creator: Dunn, D. L.; Dixon, K. L.; Nichols, R. L.; Schwartzman, A. & Roseberry, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report

Description: This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: September 5, 1989
Creator: Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B. & Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fractured rock aquifer tests in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia

Description: A series of multi-zone pumping tests was conducted in a contaminated fractured rock aquifer in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia. The tests were conducted adjacent to the Mishelyak River floodplain in fractured Paleozoic porphyrites, tufts, tuff breccia, and lava typical of the Ural mountain complex. Geophysical logs, borehole photography, core samples, and results from previous borehole contamination studies were used to identify the zones to be tested. A network of three uncased wells was tested using a system of inflatable packers, pressure transducers and data loggers. Seven zones were isolated and monitored in two of the uncased wells. A straddle packer assembly was used to isolate individual zones within the pumping well. Eight constant rate pumping tests were conducted. Results of the testing indicate that shallow groundwater migrates primarily in two intervals that are separated by an interval with low lateral conductivity. The water bearing intervals have moderate to high specific capacities (1.3 and 30 L/min/m). Several processes are responsible for fracturing present in the lower interval. The network of compound fractures produced a complex array of fracture intersections yielding a fractured media with hydraulic behavior similar to porous media. Models used for the analysis of pumping tests in porous media provide a good estimation of the hydraulic response of the lower interval to pumping. Future work will include more complex analysis of the data to determine hydraulic conductivity ellipses.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B. & Eddy-Dilek, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Multi-Level Wells in Developing a 3-Dimensional Understanding of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Migration at the Savannah River Site

Description: Understanding the flow of groundwater and contaminants in 3-dimensions, along with hydraulic properties, is instrumental in selection and implementation of successful remediation efforts. Advances in multi-level groundwater monitoring at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are enabling engineers and geologists to collect the needed characterization data in an efficient, cost-effective manner. The SRS has developed a new multi-level groundwater monitoring well, ´┐ŻStrataSampler´┐Ż, which is being deployed for characterization and monitoring at several large groundwater plumes on the SRS. The installation method used allowed collection of data during the drilling process allowing optimization of screen placement within the aquifers and minimization of drilling costs and waste generation. Data generated during the installation of the StrataSamplers along with data collected from the installed wells is being used to understand the 3-dimensional nature of contaminant fate and transport. The L-Area Southern Groundwater Operable Unit is the first full-scale deployment of StrataSampler wells at SRS. Twenty-two StrataSampler wells with a total of 52 sampling zones were installed. The installation, development, hydraulic testing, sampling of the StrataSamplers at this unit and the resulting understanding of the contaminant plumes will be discussed in the paper and presentation.
Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Vangelas, K. M.; Nichols, R. L.; Flach, G. P.; Sappington, F.; Simmons, J. L.; Betivas, C. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of three dimensional pump testing of a fractured rock aquifer in the western Siberian Basin

Description: A group of scientists from the Savannah River Technology Center and Russia successfully completed a 17 day field investigation of a fractured rock aquifer at the MAYAK PA nuclear production facility in Russia. The test site is located in the western Siberian Basin near the floodplain of the Mishelyak river. The fractured rock aquifer is composed of orphyrites, tuff, tuffbreccia and lava and is overlain by 0.5--12 meters of elluvial and alluvial sediments. A network of 3 uncased wells (176, 1/96, and 2/96) was used to conduct the tests. Wells 176 and 2/96 were used as observation wells and the centrally located well 1/96 was used as the pumping well. Six packers were installed and inflated in each of the observation wells at a depth of up to 85 meters. The use of 6 packers in each well resulted in isolating 7 zones for monitoring. The packers were inflated to different pressures to accommodate the increasing hydrostatic pressure. A straddle packer assembly was installed in the pumping well to allow testing of each of the individual zones isolated in the observation wells. A constant rate pumping test was run on each of the 7 zones. The results of the pumping tests are included in Appendix A. The test provided new information about the nature of the fractured rock aquifers in the vicinity of the Mishelyak river and will be key information in understanding the behavior of contaminants originating from process wastes discharged to Lake Karachi. Results from the tests will be analyzed to determine the hydraulic properties of different zones within the fractured rock aquifer and to determine the most cost effective clean-up approach for the site.
Date: October 30, 1996
Creator: Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Drozhko, E.G.; Glalolenko, Y.V.; Mokrov, Y.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department