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HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report

Description: Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use and domestic hot water consumption - Phase 1. Final report

Description: New York State Energy Research & Development Authority has sponsored a project to develop comprehensive operating data on combined domestic hot water (DHW) and heating systems to be used in system design and specifications. The new, more precise DHW flow data (broken down on a per capita basis) result in a better foundation for sizing decisions. Thirty New York City multifamily buildings with combined steam heating and DHW plants were instrumented to monitor apartment, outdoor, boiler and DHW temperatures, and burner on-off times. In nine buildings, which had been upgraded, additional data collected were: stack temperature, DHW flow in 15-minute increments, oil and boiler make-up water flows, and DHW temperature before and after the mixing valve and on the return line. The data set collected for 14 months amounts to a data base of over 110 megabytes. This report presents DHW demand patterns, seasonal variations, weekday vs. weekend consumption, consumption vs. occupancy levels, coincidence of 15-, 60-, 120-, and 180- minute demand periods, and average vs. peak demand levels, as well as figures for energy to generate DHW. The format of guidelines presented in this report differs from those currently in use. The {open_quotes}Low - Medium - High{close_quotes} (LMH) users set of guidelines provide a range, rather than a specific, singular gallonage standard. By providing LMH tables and guidelines for their application the design engineer or contractor can then use these as a tool from which to select the appropriate level that matches the site being served. Values are presented for both New York sizing guidelines (developed from this study), as well as a set of {open_quote}National{close_quote} figures (derived from a compilation of studies conducted in other cities). The LMH approach and {open_quote}National{close_quote} guidelines were adopted for inclusion in the 1995 ASHRAE Handbook revision.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Goldner, F. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen storage on activated carbon. Final report

Description: The project studied factors that influence the ability of carbon to store hydrogen and developed techniques to enhance that ability in naturally occurring and factory-produced commercial carbon materials. During testing of enhanced materials, levels of hydrogen storage were achieved that compare well with conventional forms of energy storage, including lead-acid batteries, gasoline, and diesel fuel. Using the best materials, an electric car with a modern fuel cell to convert the hydrogen directly to electricity would have a range of over 1,000 miles. This assumes that the total allowable weight of the fuel cell and carbon/hydrogen storage system is no greater than the present weight of batteries in an existing electric vehicle. By comparison, gasoline cars generally are limited to about a 450-mile range, and battery-electric cars to 40 to 60 miles. The project also developed a new class of carbon materials, based on polymers and other organic compounds, in which the best hydrogen-storing factors discovered earlier were {open_quotes}molecularly engineered{close_quotes} into the new materials. It is believed that these new molecularly engineered materials are likely to exceed the performance of the naturally occurring and manufactured carbons seen earlier with respect to hydrogen storage.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Schwarz, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLE 1994 annual report, October 1993--September 1994

Description: This is the 1994 annual report for the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The report is presented as a series of research type reports. The titles emphasize the breadth of work carried out. They are: stability analysis of unsteady ablation fronts; characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry; transport and sound waves in plasmas with light and heavy ions; three-halves-harmonic radiation from long-scale-length plasmas revisited; OMEGA upgrade status report; target imaging and backlighting diagnosis; effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; particle-in-cell code simulations of the interaction of gaussian ultrashort laser pulses with targets of varying initial scale lengths; characterization of thick cryogenic fuel layers: compensation for the lens effect using convergent beam interferometry; compact, multijoule-output, Nd:Glass, large-aperture ring amplifier; atomic force microscopy observation of water-induced morphological changes in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} monolayer coatings; observation of longitudinal acceleration of electrons born in a high-intensity laser focus; spatial intensity nonuniformities of an OMEGA beam due to nonlinear beam propagation; calculated X-ray backlighting images of mixed imploded targets; evaluation of cosmic rays for use in the monitoring of the MEDUSA scintillator-photomultiplier diagnostic array; highly efficient second-harmonic generation of ultra-intense Nd:Glass laser pulses multiple cutoff wave numbers of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ultrafast, all-silicon light modulator; angular dependence of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in homogeneous plasma; femtosecond excited-state dynamics of a conjugated ladder polymer.
Date: January 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectral correction of silicon photodiode solar radiation detectors

Description: The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) is a ground- based instrument that uses a silicon photodiode sensor to measure shortwave global and diffuse horizontal irradiance from which direct normal irradiance is calculated. Besides this multiplexing advantage, silicon sensors are rugged, stable and have a fast time response. On the other hand, silicon sensors are both thermally and spectrally sensitive. They, as do all pyranometric sensors, have an imperfect cosine response, especially at high solar-zenith angles. In the MFRSR two of these problems are solved. The MFRSR`s cosine response is measured and corrected. An automatic heater maintains the MFRSR detector at a constant temperature near 40 {degree}C. This paper describes a correction scheme, based on sky conditions, to account for the remaining spectral bias. The data base for these corrections was collected in Albany, New York, during 1993. The MFRSR and WMO firstclass thermopile instruments were sampled every 15 seconds and 5- minute averages were compared. The differences in time response between silicon and thermopile instruments contributes substantially to the remaining root-mean-square error reported.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Zhou, C. & Michalsky, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Confidential data in a competitive utility environment: A regulatory perspective

Description: Historically, the electric utility industry has been regarded as one of the most open industries in the United States in sharing information but their reputation is being challenged by competitive energy providers, the general public, regulators, and other stakeholders. As the prospect of competition among electricity power providers has increased in recent years, many utilities have been requesting that the data they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to have serious and significant policy implications with respect to: (1) consumer education, the pursuit of truth, mutual respect among parties, and social cooperation; (2) the creation of a fair market for competitive energy services; (3) the regulatory balance; (4) regional and national assessments of energy-savings opportunities; (5) research and development; and (6) evaluations of utility programs, plans, and policies. In a telephone survey of all public utility commissions (PUCs) that regulate electric and gas utilities in the U.S., we found that almost all PUCs have received requests from utility companies for data to be filed as confidential, and confidential data filings appear to have increased (both in scope and in frequency) in those states where utility restructuring is being actively discussed. The most common types of data submitted as confidential by utilities dealt with specific customer data, market data, avoided costs, and utility costs.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLE Review: Quarterly report, July--September 1994. Volume 60

Description: This volume contains articles on efficient generation of second-harmonic radiation from short-pulse lasers; calculation of the stabilization cutoff wave numbers for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability; a high-frequency silicon optical modulator; the angular dependence of stimulated Brillouin scattering; and femtosecond dynamics of ladder polymers. Three of these articles--second-harmonic generation, Rayleigh-Taylor cutoff wave numbers, and angular dependence of Brillouin scattering--are directly related to the OMEGA Upgrade, currently under construction. A summary of the status of the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility and the NLUF News for FY94 are included in this volume.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Knauer, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLE review: Quarterly report, April--June 1996. Volume 67

Description: This volume contains articles detailing several nonlinear processes associated with lasers and their use, as well as an article describing the computer control systems necessary to maintain and operate a large laser system such as the 60-beam OMEGA laser. The specific topics discussed in this issue include stimulated scattering in laser plasmas, power exchange between interacting laser beams, charged particles interacting with a laser pulse, thermal equilibration of optically excited states, an overview of the laser control system software in OMEGA, and a technique for cancellation of the nonlinear phase accumulation in short-pulse lasers.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Skeldon, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLE review. Volume 66. Quarterly report, January--March 1996

Description: This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1996, contains three articles related to spherical implosions and their diagnosis, one article that provides an analysis of laser-plasma interactions, and three articles on advanced technologies developed at LLE.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Boehly, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLE 1995 annual report, October 1994--September 1995

Description: The fiscal year ending September 1995 (FY95) concluded the third year of the cooperative agreement (DE-FC03-92SF19460) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) and reports on the successful completion of the OMEGA Upgrade. Previous annual reports describe the OMEGA Upgrade design. The preliminary design for the system was complete in October 1989 and the detailed design started in October 1990. The original 24-beam OMEGA system was decommissioned in December 1992 as construction for the OMEGA Upgrade began. We discuss the initial performance results (p. 99) of the upgraded OMEGA laser system. All acceptance tests were completed, and we demonstrated that all 60 beams can irradiate a target with more energy and better beam balance than was required by DOE`s acceptance criteria. We are most proud that all program milestones were met or exceeded, and that the system was completed on time and on budget.
Date: January 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory for Laser Energetics annual report, 1 October 1991--30 September 1992

Description: This is an annual report covering research progress on laser fusion and the OMEGA Upgrade design and development. In laser fusion, line-spectroscopy methods were demonstrated to be useful in diagnosing the core temperature and densities of polymer-shell targets; a theoretical analysis of nonlocal heat transport effects on filamentation of light in plasmas confirms that the principle mechanism driving filamentation is kinetic thermal rather than ponderomotive; a new method (spatial beam deflection) to produce laser pulses of arbitrary shape was developed; laser-plasma x-ray emission was measured using photodiode arrays; experiments on long-scale-length plasmas have shown that smoothing by spectral dispersion has proven effective in reducing Raman scattering; a method for increasing the gas-retention time of polymer shell targets was developed by overcoating them with aluminum. Experiments relating to the OMEGA Upgrade are described.
Date: January 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-dependent behavior of Mount Pinatubo aerosol

Description: The 15--16 June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo delivered approximately 20 million metric tons of SO{sub 2} to the stratosphere. The SO{sub 2} plume from Mount Pinatubo straddled the equator resulting in a more symmetrical global distribution of the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O aerosol that results from the photochemical conversion of the SO{sub 2}. This paper follows the aerosol optical depth change over three-northern mid-latitude sites for the first sixteen months following the eruption. The technique to derive volcanic aerosol optical depth from ground-based measurements (which are, by their nature, total column aerosol optical depth measurements) follows the technique developed in an earlier parer to examine El Chichon aerosol. The three sites` time-dependent behavior is discussed and compared. Comparison of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo aerosol optical depth change with time is also discussed for the one site that operated before, through, and after both eruptions.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Michalsky, J. & Larson, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a demand defrost controller. Final report

Description: The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a demand defrost controller that initiates defrosts of refrigeration systems only when required. The standard method of control is a time clock that usually defrosts too often, which wastes energy. The controller developed by this project uses an algorithm based on the temperature difference between the discharge and return of the display case air curtain along with several time settings to defrost only when needed. This controller was field tested in a supermarket where it controlled defrost of the low-temperature display cases. According to test results the controller could reduce annual energy consumption by 20,000 and 62,000 kWh for hot gas and electric defrost, respectively. The controller saves electric demand as well as energy, is adaptable to ambient air conditions, and provides valuable savings throughout the year. The savings are greatest for low-temperature systems that use the most energy. A less tangible benefit of the demand controller is the improvement in food quality that results from fewer defrosts.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Borton, D. N. & Walker, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diagnosis of high-temperature implosions using low- and high-opacity Krypton lines

Description: High-temperature laser target implosions can be achieved by using relatively thin-shell targets, and they can be. diagnosed by doping the fuel with krypton and measuring K-shell and L-shell lines. Electron temperatures of up to 5 keV at modest compressed densities ({approximately}1-5g/cm{sup 3}) are predicted for such experiments, with ion temperatures peaking above 10 keV at the center. It is found that the profiles of low-opacity (optically thin) lines in the expected density range are dominated by the Doppler broadening and can provide a measurement of the ion temperature if spectrometers of spectral resolution {Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {ge} 1000 are used. For high-opacity lines, obtained with a higher krypton fill pressure, the measurement of the escape factor can yield the {rho}R of the compressed fuel. At higher densities, Stark broadening of low-opacity lines becomes important and can provide a density measurement, whereas lines of higher opacity can be used to estimate the extent of mixing.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Yaakobi, B.; Epstein, R.; Hooper, C.F. Jr. & Haynes, D.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residential building code compliance: Implications for evaluating the performance of utility residential new construction programs

Description: Knowing how well builders comply with (or exceed) energy-related building codes is critical for completing a sound evaluation of utility residential new construction programs and for determining the actual cost-effectiveness of these programs. Obtaining credit from utility regulators for additional energy savings from code compliance in participant houses as a result of the utility program is one of the key options available for utilities for improving the cost-effectiveness of these programs. In this paper, the authors examine residential building energy code compliance and specific code violations in three states (California, Oregon and Washington). They then compare residential building energy code compliance for program participants and nonparticipants as well as estimates of the energy savings impacts from noncompliance. The authors also point out some of the methodological limitations of these studies which limit the ability to generalize from these studies.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing

Description: The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R. & Leigh, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report

Description: The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Hodge, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report, Tasks 1, 3, and 4

Description: New York State`s geothermal energy potential was evaluated based on a new resource assessment performed by the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY-Buffalo) and currently commercial technologies, many of which have become available since New York`s potential was last evaluated. General background on geothermal energy and technologies was provided. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed to evaluate the economics of using geothermal energy to generate electricity in upstate New York. A conventional rankine cycle, binary power system was selected for the economic evaluation, based on SUNY-Buffalo`s resource assessment. Binary power systems are the most technologically suitable for upstate New York`s resources and have the added advantage of being environmentally attractive. Many of the potential environmental impacts associated with geothermal energy are not an issue in binary systems because the geothermal fluids are contained in a closed-loop and used solely to heat a working fluid that is then used to generate the electricity Three power plant sizes were selected based on geologic data supplied by SUNY-Buffalo. The hypothetical power plants were designed as 5 MW modular units and sized at 5 MW, 10 MW and 15 MW. The life-cycle cost analysis suggested that geothermal electricity in upstate New York, using currently commercial technology, will probably cost between 14 and 18 cents per kilowatt-hour.
Date: July 25, 1996
Creator: Manger, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water vapor from sunradiometry in comparison wit microwave and balloon-sonde measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM site

Description: Water vapor plays an important role in weather in climate; it is the most important greenhouse gas and the most variable in space and time. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is studying the column abundance and distribution of water vapor with altitude. Although the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is mainly for measurements of spectral short-wave radiation and spectral extinction by aerosol, it can also measure total column water vapor. This paper reports a preliminary investigation of MFRSR`s capabilities for total column water vapor under cloudless conditions.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C. & Liljegren, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical modeling of suprathermal electron transport in laser-produced plasmas. Report number 36

Description: Supra-thermal electrons can radically alter the dynamics of imploding laser fusion targets by preheating the target material, by transforming energy to a rapid ion blowoff or, due to mean free path effects, decoupling the core from the corona. In order to correctly simulate the dynamics of a laser driven target, it is necessary to develop an accurate physical and computational model of these electrons. The difficulties inherent in this problem can be appreciated by noting that the supra-thermal velocities can vary by over an order of magnitude while the density of the background thermal electron fluid through which they propagate can vary by over four orders of magnitude. Since the supra-thermal mean free-path is proportional to v{sup 4}/n{sub e}, there can be an eight order of magnitude variation in this scaling parameter. Since the transport of supra-thermal electrons must be followed in both the diffusive and free streaming limits, neither flux limited diffusion models nor truncated moment methods are adequate. A three component model of transport of supra-thermal electrons is developed here to satisfy all requirements discussed in this paper.
Date: August 1, 1976
Creator: Delettrez, J. & Goldman, E.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utility residential new construction programs: Going beyond the code. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) Project

Description: Based on an evaluation of 10 residential new construction programs, primarily sponsored by investor-owned utilities in the United States, we find that many of these programs are in dire straits and are in danger of being discontinued because current inclusion of only direct program effects leads to the conclusion that they are not cost-effective. We believe that the cost-effectiveness of residential new construction programs can be improved by: (1) promoting technologies and advanced building design practices that significantly exceed state and federal standards; (2) reducing program marketing costs and developing more effective marketing strategies; (3) recognizing the role of these programs in increasing compliance with existing state building codes; and (4) allowing utilities to obtain an ``energy-savings credit`` from utility regulators for program spillover (market transformation) impacts. Utilities can also leverage their resources in seizing these opportunities by forming strong and trusting partnerships with the building community and with local and state government.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Vine, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

Description: This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Little, R. E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P. & Shapiro, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The automated rotating shadowband spectroradiometer

Description: We are developing a photodiode array rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) as part of the Instrument Development Program (IDP) of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This instrument uses the automated rotating shadowband technique to separate and measure the spectrally resolved direct-normal, total horizontal, and diffuse horizontal irradiances in the 360 to 1060 nm wavelength region. It is intended as an instrument for the central facility of each of the cloud and radiation testbed (CART) sites, and will complement the array of multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) currently being deployed by ARM and other research programs including TOGA/COARE.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Harrison, L.; Beik, M. A. & Michalsky, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

Description: This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department