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Hanford radiochemical site decommissioning demonstration program

Description: A program is proposed for the innovation, development, and demonstration of technologies necessary to decommission the Hanford radiochemical plant area to the extent that the sites can have unrestricted public access. The five tasks selected for development and demonstration of restoration techniques were restoration of a burial ground, decommissioning of a separations plant, restoration of a separations plant waste interim storage tank farm, restoration of a liquid disposal area, and disposal of large contaminated equipment. Process development requirements are tabulated and discussed. A proposed schedule and estimated costs are given. (JSR)
Date: August 1, 1971
Creator: Nelson, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Analyses of clam shells for Sr, Sr/sup 90/, and Ca are reported. The data include 208 Sr, 80 Sr/sup 90/, and 35 Ca analyses. Information on age of the clam and shell weight are also included because the Sr concentration in some shells is affected by age and growth rate. A detailed description of sample treatment and preparation is also included. (auth)
Date: June 20, 1962
Creator: Nelson, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building control system using redundant VAX and CAMAC technologies

Description: The plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is installing a building environmental monitoring and control system utilizing redundancy as much as possible. The installation will monitor and control heating, ventilation, power, radiation monitors, fire sensors, and the criticality system. This paper describes the hardware environment chosen for this application, along with some of the problems encountered in developing redundant operation. A unique part of the system is the field data concentrator, which has no permanent storage media and relies on an Ethernet link for all operations, including the loading of its system at bootup.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Nelson, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Display-management system for MFTF

Description: The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is controlled by 65 local control microcomputers which are supervised by a local network of nine 32-bit minicomputers. Associated with seven of the nine computers are state-of-the-art graphics devices, each with extensive local processing capability. These devices provide the means for an operator to interact with the control software running on the minicomputers. It is critical that the information the operator views accurately reflects the current state of the experiment. This information is integrated into dynamically changing pictures called displays. The primary organizational component of the display system is the software-addressable segment. The segments created by the display creation software are managed by display managers associated with each graphics device. Each display manager uses sophisticated storage management mechanisms to keep the proper segments resident in the local graphics device storage.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Nelson, D.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resistive ballooning mode equation

Description: A second-order ordinary differential equation on each flux surface is derived for the high mode number limit of resistive MHD ballooning modes in tokamaks with arbitrary cross section, aspect ratio, and shear. The equation is structurally similar to that used to study ideal MHD ballooning modes computationally. The model used in this paper indicates that all tokamak plasmas are unstable, with growth rate proportional to resistivity when the pressure gradient is less than the critical value needed for ideal MHD stability.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Bateman, G. & Nelson, D. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isolation of cDNAs from the human X chromosome and derivation of related STSs. Final progress report, April 1992--March 1995

Description: Over the course of this funding period, the number of genes assigned to the human X chromosome has approximately tripled from less than one hundred to nearly three hundred characterized, cloned genes assigned to it. The aims of this project were to develop methods for gene identification and to identify and characterize expressed sequences from the X chromosome. The rapidly changing environment of the human genome project provided abundant resources for gene characterization, and since methods for gene identification became rather robust over this period, these aims were de-emphasized during the project. Among the methods developed was a local one (reciprocal probing) that was developed by Drs. Cheng Chi Lee and C. Thomas Caskey, with emphasis on the human X chromosome. The development of this method offered significant expressed sequence resources for this project, particularly when coupled with the efforts to identify cosmid clones from specific X chromosome locations, as the reciprocal probing process results in paired genomic (cosmid) and cDNA materials. Attention, then has been paid to characterization of genes rather than to their identification.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Nelson, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternatives for the disposition of PUREX organic solution

Description: This Supporting Document submits options and recommendations for final management of Tank 40 Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant organic solution per Tri-Party Agreement Milestorm Number M-80-00-T03. Hanford is deactivating the PUREX Plant for the US DOE. One the key element of this Deactivation is disposition of approximately 81,300 liters (21,500 gallons) of slightly radioactively contaminated organic solution to reduce risk to the environment, reduce cost of long-term storage, and assure regulatory compliance. An announcement in the Commerce Business Daily (CBD) on October 14, 1994 has resulted in the submission of proposals from two facilities capabLe of receiving and thermally destroying the solution. Total decomposition by thermal destruction is the recommended option for the disposition of the PUREX organic solution and WHC is evaluating the proposals from the two facilities.
Date: June 16, 1995
Creator: Nelson, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

Description: The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Nelson, D.M. & Lovett, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment

Description: Measurements of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment have provided a wealth of information regarding the physical, biological, and chemical processes which control the behavior of these and many other pollutants in the oceans. Their value as tracers for the dispersion, transport, and fate of pollutants in the oceans is largely dependent on the chemical properties of each individual radioelement. Differences in these properties, particularly in relation to their interaction with biotic or abiotic particulate matter, result in the separation of parent-daughter radioisotopes in the natural radioelement series or in changes in the ratios of fission and activation products. Such differences have provided the means to provide time scales for a variey of transport processes and to determine sedimentation rates. The properties of these radionuclides in the oceans can, in general, be predicted from the chemical properties of the stable elements. For those elements such as plutonium, for which there are no naturally-occurring stable isotopes, studies of their distribution in the oceans have provided a new important understanding of their chemical behavior. This behavior has not always agreed with what would have been predicted from laboratory studies carried out at far higher concentrations. Differences between observed distributions and laboratory predictions have highlighted the importance of correct experimental conditions in order to avoid confusing experimental artifacts. The interaction of radionuclides with particles in the oceans and marine sediments can be described in terms of simple ion exchange or adsorption equilibria.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Edgington, D.N. & Nelson, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LBL Magnetic-Measurements Data-Acquisition System

Description: The LBL Magnetic Measurements Engineering (MME) Group has developed a Real-Time Data Acquisition System (DAS) for magnetic measurements. The design objective was for a system that was versatile, portable, modular, expandable, quickly and easily reconfigurable both in hardware and software, and inexpensive. All objectives except the last were attained. An LSI 11/23 microcomputer is interfaced to a clock-calendar, printer, CRT control terminal, plotter with hard copy, floppy and hard disks, GPIB, and CAMAC buses. Off-the-shelf hardware and software have been used where possible. Operational capabilities include: (1) measurement of high permeability materials; (2) harmonic error analysis of (a) superconducting dipoles and (b) rare earth cobalt (REC) and conventional quadrupole magnets; and (3) 0.1% accuracy x-y mapping with Hall probes. Results are typically presented in both tabular and graphical form during measurements. Only minutes are required to switch from one measurement capability to another. Brief descriptions of the DAS capabilities, some of the special instrumentation developed to implement these capabilities, and planned developments are given below.
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Green, M.I. & Nelson, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In Search of the Next Micron?

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Lab's National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project presents numerous measurement challenges and tasks, demanding an extremely high level of precision and accuracy. This paper discusses some of the efforts to optimize, and better understand the results and looks at some of the alignment tools tested to lay hold of this complex task. The methodologies discussed were commonplace in the 'good old days' of land surveying. However, with the introduction of high accuracy equipment many of those practices have fallen by the wayside. This paper looks at the results of a series of in-depth, comparison measurements using three different laser tracker measurement instruments.
Date: June 30, 2004
Creator: Nelson, D C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of gas mixtures by supported complexes

Description: A system was investigated that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of alcohols and the hydrogenation of ketones. Such a catalyst, if used in a membrane containing an alcohol solvent, might be of use in selective H/sub 2/ separation from gas mixtures. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol and 2-octanol were studied using a RhCl/sub 3//SnCl/sub 2//LiCl catalyst system. These alcohols are dehydrogenated at rates that are initially rapid, but which gradually slow to a stop. The decrease in rate of H/sub 2/ evolution is a result of the establishment of an equilibrium between the alcohol and the liberated hydrogen and ketone. At 150/sup 0/C, cyclohexanol has the fastest rate of dehydrogenation. Several dehydrogenation/hydrogenation cycles have been carried out using this alcohol over a period of one week without serious catalyst deactivation or side reactions. Initial tests of the catalyst dissolved in cyclohexanol within two membranes were inconclusive. An anion exchange membrane was not suitably wetted by the catalyst solution and Celgard/sup TM/, which was wetted, could not be kept wet at 150/sup 0/C under flow conditions in the membrane cell. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: December 1, 1986
Creator: Nelson, D. A. & Lilga, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The smallmouth buffalo fish, Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque), population of Watts Bar Reservoir, of the Tennessee River down stream from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was investigated in order to describe its age distribution, growth rates, dispersion, and importance as an accumulator of radionuclides. Measurements and scale samples were taken from commercially-caught fish and fish caught in the ORNL tagging operations. Scale impressions were anaiyzed for age and growth phenomena. Dispersion of smallmouth buffalo was investigated by conventional of ging methods and by autoradiographic analyses of scales. Stable and radiochemicsl composition of scales was examined by spectrographic analysis, flame spectrophotometer and radiometric surveys. Calcium was the most abundance element in fish scales with at lease twenty-three other elements present in varying quantities. Fish scaless and bone were found to contain radionuclides of ruthenium, cesium, zirconium, zinc, and cobalt. Radiometric surveys of scales revealed the Watts Bar Reservoir smallmouth buffalo population was a relatively minor accumulator of radionuclides with only 0.08 per cent showing the presence of artificially produced radionuclides. Approximately 6 per cent of the Clinch River fish and 77 per cent of the White Oak Creek fish had accumulations. Limited data on dispersion were determined from conventional tags. Much more dispersion and life history data were determined from autoradiographic analyses of scales. These dispersion data were applied only to individuals because the number was too small for generalizations for the population as a whole. All normal scales containing radionuclide accumulations were found to produce identical autoradiographic patterns of concentric circles which were associated with growth of the fish in contaminated areas. This phenomenon was combined with conventional capture-recapture methods of population estimates in a proposed technique of population studies. A laboratory experiment showed that scales could be tagged with cesium-134, but this radionuclide was found to accumulate in much larger concentrations ...
Date: January 20, 1964
Creator: Martin, R.E.; Auerbach, S.I. & Nelson, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus tentans larvae collected from White Oak Creek, an area contaminated by radioactive waste from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and from six uncontaminated areas were examined for chromosomal aberrations. White Oak Creek populations were exposed to absorbed doses as high as 230 rads per year or about 1000 times background. Chromosomal maps were constructed to make a general comparison of the banding pattern of the salivary chromosomes of the C. tentans in the East Tennessee area with those of Canada and Europe. These maps were used as a reference in scoring aberrations. Fifteen different chromosomal aberrations were found in 365 larvae taken from the irradiated population as compared with five different aberrations observed in 356 larvae from six control populations, but the mean number of aberrations per larva did not differ in any of the populations. The quantitative amount of heterozygosity was essentially the same in the irradiated and the control population, but there were three times the variety of chromosomal aberrations found in the irradiated area. From this evidence it was concluded that chronic low-level irradiation from radioactive waste was increasing the variability of chromosomal aberrations without significantly increasing the frequency. It was also concluded that chromosomal polymorphism can be maintained in a natural population without superiority of the heterozygous individuals. (C.H.)
Date: January 29, 1964
Creator: Blaylock, B G; Auerbach, S I & Nelson, D J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

History and Evolution of Control Banding: A Review

Description: Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents often encountered in the workplace. The original CB model was developed within the pharmaceutical industry; however, the modern movement involves models developed for non-experts to input hazard and exposure potential information for bulk chemical processes, receiving control advice as a result. The CB approach utilizes these models for the dissemination of qualitative and semi-quantitative risk assessment tools being developed to complement the traditional industrial hygiene model of air sampling and analysis. It is being applied and tested in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) within developed countries and industrially developing countries; however, large enterprises (LEs) have also incorporated these strategies within chemical safety programs. Existing research of the components of the most available CB model, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials, has shown that exposure bands do not always provide adequate margins of safety, that there is a high rate of under-control errors, that it works better with dusts than with vapors, that there is an inherent inaccuracy in estimating variability, and that when taken together the outcomes of this model may lead to potentially inappropriate workplace confidence in chemical exposure reduction in some operations. Alternatively, large-scale comparisons of industry exposure data to this CB model's outcomes have indicated more promising results with a high correlation seen internationally. With the accuracy of the toxicological ratings and hazard band classification currently in question, their proper reevaluation will be of great benefit to the reliability of existing and future CB models. The need for a more complete analysis of CB model components and, most importantly, a more comprehensive prospective research process remains and will be important in understanding implications of the model's overall effectiveness. Since the CB approach is now being used worldwide with an even ...
Date: July 19, 2006
Creator: Zalk, D & Nelson, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leveraging Genomics Software to Improve Proteomics Results

Description: Rigorous data analysis techniques are essential in quantifying the differential expression of proteins in biological samples of interest. Statistical methods from the microarray literature were applied to the analysis of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) proteomics experiments, in the context of technical variability studies involving human plasma. Protein expression measurements were corrected to account for observed intensity-dependent biases within gels, and normalized to mitigate observed gel to gel variations. The methods improved upon the results achieved using the best currently available 2-D DIGE proteomics software. The spot-wise protein variance was reduced by 10% and the number of apparently differentially expressed proteins was reduced by over 50%.
Date: September 6, 2005
Creator: Fodor, I K & Nelson, D O
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department