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Wireless Signal Conditioning

Description: This thesis presents a new approach to extend and reduce the transmission range in wireless systems. Conditioning is defined as purposeful electromagnetic interference that affects a wireless signal as it propagates through the air. This interference can be used constructively to enhance a signal and increase its energy, or destructively to reduce energy. The constraints and limitations of the technology are described as a system model, and a flow chart is used to describe the circuit process. Remaining theoretical in nature, practical circuit implementations are foregone in the interest of elementary simulations depicting the interactions of modulated signals as they experience phase mismatch. Amplitude modulation and frequency modulation are explored with using both positive and negative conditioning, and conclusions to whether one is more suitable than the other are made.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Valero, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis of Pre-ictal and Non-Ictal EEG Activity: An EMOTIV and LabVIEW Approach

Description: In the past few years, the study of electrical activity in the brain and its interactions with the body has become popular among researchers. One of the hottest topics related to brain activity is the epileptic seizure prediction. Currently, there are several techniques on how to predict a seizure; however, most of the techniques found in research papers are just mathematical models and not system implementations. The seizure prediction approach proposed in this thesis paper is achieved using the EMOTIV Epoc+ headset, MATLAB, and LabVIEW as the analog and digital signal processing devices. In addition, this thesis project incorporates the use of the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) method to obtain intrinsic mode functions (IMF) and instantaneous frequency components of the transform. From the IMFs, features as variation coefficient (VC) and fluctuation indexes (FI) are extracted to feed a support vector machine that classifies the EEG data as pre-ictal and non-ictal EEGs. Outstanding patterns in non-ictal and pre-ictal are observed and demonstrated by significant differences between both types of EEG signals. In other words, a classification of EEG signals according to a category can be achieved proving that an epileptic seizure prediction technology has a future in engineering and biotechnology fields.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Medina, Oscar F
Partner: UNT Libraries

Case Studies to Learn Human Mapping Strategies in a Variety of Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architectures

Description: Computer hardware and algorithm design have seen significant progress over the years. It is also seen that there are several domains in which humans are more efficient than computers. For example in image recognition, image tagging, natural language understanding and processing, humans often find complicated algorithms quite easy to grasp. This thesis presents the different case studies to learn human mapping strategy to solve the mapping problem in the area of coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures (CGRAs). To achieve optimum level performance and consume less energy in CGRAs, place and route problem has always been a major concern. Making use of human characteristics can be helpful in problems as such, through pattern recognition and experience. Therefore to conduct the case studies a computer mapping game called UNTANGLED was analyzed as a medium to convey insights of human mapping strategies in a variety of architectures. The purpose of this research was to learn from humans so that we can come up with better algorithms to outperform the existing algorithms. We observed how human strategies vary as we present them with different architectures, different architectures with constraints, different visualization as well as how the quality of solution changes with experience. In this work all the case studies obtained from exploiting human strategies provide useful feedback that can improve upon existing algorithms. These insights can be adapted to find the best architectural solution for a particular domain and for future research directions for mapping onto mesh-and- stripe based CGRAs.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Malla, Tika Kumari
Partner: UNT Libraries

Practical Evaluation of a Software Defined Cellular Network

Description: This thesis proposes a design of a rapidly deployable cellular network prototype that provides voice and data communications and it is interoperable with legacy devices and the existing network infrastructure. The prototype is based on software defined radio and makes use of IEEE 802.11 unlicensed wireless radio frequency (RF) band for backhaul link and an open source GSM implementation software. The prototype is also evaluated in environments where there is limited control of the radio frequency landscape, and using Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) performance metrics to measure the quality of service. It is observed that in environments where the IEEE 802.11 band is not heavily utilized, a large number of calls are supported with good quality of service. However, when this band is heavily utilized only a few calls can be supported as the quality of service rapidly degrades with increasing number of calls, which is due to interference. It is concluded that in order to achieve tolerable voice quality, unused licensed spectrum is needed for backhaul communication between base stations.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Agbogidi, Oghenetega
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Mobility Models based on Spatial Node Distribution and Area Coverage

Description: Mobile wireless sensor networks are not widely implemented in the real world, even after years of research carried out in this field. One reason is the lack of understanding of the impact that mobility has on network performance. The simulation and emulation of mobile wireless sensor networks is necessary before they are deployed for the real-world applications. This thesis presents a simulation-based study of different mobility models. The total area coverage that depends on the pattern of node movements is observed through simulations. The spatial distribution of node locations is also studied. Various synthetic mobility models available are explored based on their theoretical descriptions. ‘BonnMotion' is used as the network simulator for investigating different mobility scenarios. The results obtained after simulations are imported to MATLAB and the analysis of node movements is done through various plots and inferences from the data. The comparison of mobility models is also discussed based on their spatial node distribution in the simulated scenarios.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Alla, Sindhu
Partner: UNT Libraries

EEG Signal Analysis in Decision Making

Description: Decision making can be a complicated process involving perception of the present situation, past experience and knowledge necessary to foresee a better future. This cognitive process is one of the essential human ability that is required from everyday walk of life to making major life choices. Although it may seem ambiguous to translate such a primitive process into quantifiable science, the goal of this thesis is to break it down to signal processing and quantifying the thought process with prominence of EEG signal power variance. This paper will discuss the cognitive science, the signal processing of brain signals and how brain activity can be quantifiable through data analysis. An experiment is analyzed in this thesis to provide evidence that theta frequency band activity is associated with stress and stress is negatively correlated with concentration and problem solving, therefore hindering decision making skill. From the results of the experiment, it is seen that theta is negatively correlated to delta and beta frequency band activity, thus establishing the fact that stress affects internal focus while carrying out a task.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Salma, Nabila
Partner: UNT Libraries

Improving the Gameplay Experience and Guiding Bottom Players in an Interactive Mapping Game

Description: In game based learning, motivating the players to learn by providing them a desirable gameplay experience is extremely important. However, it's not an easy task considering the quality of today's commercial non-educational games. Throughout the gameplay, the player should neither get overwhelmed nor under-challenged. The best way to do so is to monitor the player's actions in the game because these actions can tell the reason behind the player's performance. They can also tell about the player's lacking competencies or knowledge. Based on this information, in-game educational interventions in the form of hints can be provided to the player. The success of such games depends on their interactivity, motivational outlook and thus player retention. UNTANGLED is an online mapping game based on crowd-sourcing, developed by Reconfigurable Computing Lab, UNT for the mapping problem of CGRAs. It is also an educational game for teaching the concepts of reconfigurable computing. This thesis performs qualitative comparative analysis on gameplays of low performing players of UNTANGLED. And the implications of this analysis are used to provide recommendations for improving the gameplay experience for these players by guiding them. The recommendations include strategies to reach a high score and a compact solution, hints in the form of preset patterns and a clustering based approach.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Ambekar, Kiran
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Cognitive Radio Application through Opportunistic Spectrum Access

Description: In wireless communication systems, one of the most important resources being focused on all the researchers is spectrum. A cognitive radio (CR) system is one of the efficient ways to access the radio spectrum opportunistically, and efficiently use the available underutilized licensed spectrum. Spectrum utilization can be significantly enhanced by developing more applications with adopting CR technology. CR systems are implemented using a radio technology called software-defined radios (SDR). SDR provides a flexible and cost-effective solution to fulfil the requirements of end users. We can see a lot of innovations in Internet of Things (IoT) and increasing number of smart devices. Hence, a CR system application involving an IoT device is studied in this thesis. Opportunistic spectrum access involves two tasks of CR system: spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access. The functioning of the CR system is rest upon the spectrum sensing. There are different spectrum sensing techniques used to detect the spectrum holes and a few of them are discussed here in this thesis. The simplest and easiest to implement energy detection spectrum sensing technique is used here to implement the CR system. Dynamic spectrum access involves different models and strategies to access the spectrum. Amongst the available models, an interweave model is more challenging and is used in this thesis. Interweave model needs effective spectrum sensing before accessing the spectrum opportunistically. The system designed and simulated in this thesis is capable of transmitting an output from an IoT device using USRP and GNU radio through accessing the radio spectrum opportunistically.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Bhadane, Kunal Ashok Ashok
Partner: UNT Libraries

Object Recognition Using Scale-Invariant Chordiogram

Description: This thesis describes an approach for object recognition using the chordiogram shape-based descriptor. Global shape representations are highly susceptible to clutter generated due to the background or other irrelevant objects in real-world images. To overcome the problem, we aim to extract precise object shape using superpixel segmentation, perceptual grouping, and connected components. The employed shape descriptor chordiogram is based on geometric relationships of chords generated from the pairs of boundary points of an object. The chordiogram descriptor applies holistic properties of the shape and also proven suitable for object detection and digit recognition mechanisms. Additionally, it is translation invariant and robust to shape deformations. In spite of such excellent properties, chordiogram is not scale-invariant. To this end, we propose scale invariant chordiogram descriptors and intend to achieve a similar performance before and after applying scale invariance. Our experiments show that we achieve similar performance with and without scale invariance for silhouettes and real world object images. We also show experiments at different scales to confirm that we obtain scale invariance for chordiogram.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Tonge, Ashwini Kishor
Partner: UNT Libraries

Leader-Follower Model and Impact of Mobility on Consensus Building

Description: Wireless sensor networks are an indispensable tool in this highly connected world. WSNs have been the focus of research efforts in areas of communication, electronics and control for many years. Advancements in the fields of MEMS, RF and digital circuit technology has led to the development of low cost and extremely power efficient smart sensors. This has led to the need of a fast, reliable and inexpensive method of consensus building for these sensor networks. Basic concepts of graph theory and consensus building are explained in this thesis. This thesis reviews the models and strategies for consensus building present in the literature. The shortcomings of these models are explained through examples and a leader-follower model based consensus building strategy is presented. Algorithm to convert any graph into a bipartite graph by edge removal and a strategy to select effective leaders based on a weighted combination of node centrality, ratio of leaders to the total number of nodes and presence of leaf nodes in the group is presented in this thesis. Proposed leader-follower model is compared against classic models for consensus building are compared and proven to be better. Mobility is studied using deterministic and random mobility models to show the improvement in convergence rate of the network. It is shown that mobility can turn any disconnected network into a connected network, which is able to reach consensus.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Singh, Ramanpreet
Partner: UNT Libraries

3D Reconstruction Using Lidar and Visual Images

Description: In this research, multi-perspective image registration using LiDAR and visual images was considered. 2D-3D image registration is a difficult task because it requires the extraction of different semantic features from each modality. This problem is solved in three parts. The first step involves detection and extraction of common features from each of the data sets. The second step consists of associating the common features between two different modalities. Traditional methods use lines or orthogonal corners as common features. The third step consists of building the projection matrix. Many existing methods use global positing system (GPS) or inertial navigation system (INS) for an initial estimate of the camera pose. However, the approach discussed herein does not use GPS, INS, or any such devices for initial estimate; hence the model can be used in places like the lunar surface or Mars where GPS or INS are not available. A variation of the method is also described, which does not require strong features from both images but rather uses intensity gradients in the image. This can be useful when one image does not have strong features (such as lines) or there are too many extraneous features.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Duraisamy, Prakash
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characterization of Ecg Signal Using Programmable System on Chip

Description: Electrocardiography (ECG) monitor is a medical device for recording the electrical activities of the heart using electrodes placed on the body. There are many ECG monitors in the market but it is essential to find the accuracy with which they generate results. Accuracy depends on the processing of the ECG signal which contains several noises and the algorithms used for detecting peaks. Based on these peaks the abnormality in the functioning of the heart can be estimated. Hence this thesis characterizes the ECG signal which helps to detect the abnormalities and determine the accuracy of the system.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Ravuru, Anusha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Source and Channel Coding Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks

Description: In this dissertation, I focus on source coding techniques as well as channel coding techniques. I addressed the challenges in WSN by developing (1) a new source coding strategy for erasure channels that has better distortion performance compared to MDC; (2) a new cooperative channel coding strategy for multiple access channels that has better channel outage performances compared to MIMO; (3) a new source-channel cooperation strategy to accomplish source-to-fusion center communication that reduces system distortion and improves outage performance. First, I draw a parallel between the 2x2 MDC scheme and the Alamouti's space time block coding (STBC) scheme and observe the commonality in their mathematical models. This commonality allows us to observe the duality between the two diversity techniques. Making use of this duality, I develop an MDC scheme with pairwise complex correlating transform. Theoretically, I show that MDC scheme results in: 1) complete elimination of the estimation error when only one descriptor is received; 2) greater efficiency in recovering the stronger descriptor (with larger variance) from the weaker descriptor; and 3) improved performance in terms of minimized distortion as the quantization error gets reduced. Experiments are also performed on real images to demonstrate these benefits. Second, I present a two-phase cooperative communication strategy and an optimal power allocation strategy to transmit sensor observations to a fusion center in a large-scale sensor network. Outage probability is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Simulation results demonstrate that: 1) when signal-to-noise ratio is low, the performance of the proposed system is better than that of the MIMO system over uncorrelated slow fading Rayleigh channels; 2) given the transmission rate and the total transmission SNR, there exists an optimal power allocation that minimizes the outage probability; 3) on correlated slow fading Rayleigh channels, channel correlation will degrade the system performance ...
Date: December 2012
Creator: Li, Li
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Convergence of LDPC Based on Eigenvalues

Description: Low-density parity check (LDPC) codes are very popular among error correction codes because of their high-performance capacity. Numerous investigations have been carried out to analyze the performance and simplify the implementation of LDPC codes. Relatively slow convergence of iterative decoding algorithm affects the performance of LDPC codes. Faster convergence can be achieved by reducing the number of iterations during the decoding process. In this thesis, a new approach for faster convergence is suggested by choosing a systematic parity check matrix that yields lowest Second Smallest Eigenvalue Modulus (SSEM) of its corresponding Laplacian matrix. MATLAB simulations are used to study the impact of eigenvalues on the number of iterations of the LDPC decoder. It is found that for a given (n, k) LDPC code, a parity check matrix with lowest SSEM converges quickly as compared to the parity check matrix with high SSEM. In other words, a densely connected graph that represents the parity check matrix takes more iterations to converge than a sparsely connected graph.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Kharate, Neha Ashok
Partner: UNT Libraries

Formation Control of Multi-Agent Systems

Description: Formation control is a classical problem and has been a prime topic of interest among the scientific community in the past few years. Although a vast amount of literature exists in this field, there are still many open questions that require an in-depth understanding and a new perspective. This thesis contributes towards exploring the wide dimensions of formation control and implementing a formation control scheme for a group of multi-agent systems. These systems are autonomous in nature and are represented by double integrated dynamics. It is assumed that the agents are connected in an undirected graph and use a leader-follower architecture to reach formation when the leading agent is given a velocity that is piecewise constant. A MATLAB code is written for the implementation of formation and the consensus-based control laws are verified. Understanding the effects on formation due to a fixed formation geometry is also observed and reported. Also, a link that describes the functional similarity between desired formation geometry and the Laplacian matrix has been observed. The use of Laplacian matrix in stability analysis of the formation is of special interest.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Mukherjee, Srijita
Partner: UNT Libraries

Optimization of an SDR Based Aerial Base Station

Description: Most times people are unprepared to face natural disasters resulting in chaos, increased number of deaths, etc.Emergency responders need an efficiently working communication network to get in touch with the emergency services like hospitals, police, fire and rescue as well as people who are stranded. Such a network is also the need of the hour for survivors to contact their near and dear ones. One of the major barriers of communication during an emergency is the destruction of network elements. In case the communication devices survive the calamity, odds of the network getting congested are certainly high because almost everyone will be trying to use the same network resources. An important factor when dealing with emergency situations is the calls for an immediate response and an efficient Emergency Communication Systems (ECS). Currently there is a capability gap between existing ECS solutions and what we dream of achieving. Most current solutions do not meet cost or mobility constraints. An inexpensive, portable and mobile system will fulfill this capability gap. The main purpose of this research is to optimize the altitude and received signal strength of an aerial base station to provide maximum radio coverage on the ground as well as propose the best fit radio propagation channel model to carry out the experiment for the current scenario.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Mathews, Steffy Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigation of the Effect of Functional Units/Connectivity Arrangement on Energy Consumption of Reconfigurable Architectures Using an Interactive Design Framework

Description: Allocation of expensive resources, (such as Multiplier) onto the CGRA has been of interest from quite some time. For these architectural solutions to fulfill the designers' requirements, it is of utmost importance that the design offers high performance, low power consumption, and effective area utilization. The allocation problem is studied using the UntangledII gaming environment, which has been developed at the Reconfigurable Computing Lab at UNT to discover the design of custom domain-specific architectures. This thesis explores several case-studies to investigate the arrangement of functional units and interconnects to achieve a low power, high performance, and flexible heterogeneous designs that can fit for a suite of applications. In the later part, several human mapping strategies of top and bottom players to design a custom domain-specific architecture are presented. Some common trends that were examined while analyzing the mapping strategies of the players are also discussed.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Bhargava, Arpita
Partner: UNT Libraries

Hardware Implementation Of Conditional Motion Estimation In Video Coding

Description: This thesis presents the rate distortion analysis of conditional motion estimation, a process in which motion computation is restricted to only active pixels in the video. We model active pixels as independent and identically distributed Gaussian process and inactive pixels as Gaussian-Markov process and derive the rate distortion function based on conditional motion estimation. Rate-Distortion curves for the conditional motion estimation scheme are also presented. In addition this thesis also presents the hardware implementation of a block based motion estimation algorithm. Block matching algorithms are difficult to implement on FPGA chip due to its complexity. We implement 2D-Logarithmic search algorithm to estimate the motion vectors for the image. The matching criterion used in the algorithm is Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD). VHDL code for the motion estimation algorithm is verified using ISim and is implemented using Xilinx ISE Design tool. Synthesis results for the algorithm are also presented.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Kakarala, Avinash
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development Of A Testbed For Multimedia Environmental Monitoring

Description: Multimedia environmental monitoring involves capturing valuable visual and audio information from the field station. This will permit the environmentalists and researchers to analyze the habitat and vegetation of a region with respect to other environmental specifics like temperature, soil moisture, etc. This thesis deals with the development of a test bed for multimedia monitoring by capturing image information and making it available for the public. A USB camera and a Single board computer are used to capture images at a specified frequency. A web-client is designed to display the image data and establish a secured remote access to reconfigure the field station. The development includes two modes of image acquisition including a basic activity recognition algorithm. Good quality images are captured with the cost for development of the system being less than 2 hundred dollars.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Kandula, Harsha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Communication System over Gnu Radio and OSSIE

Description: GNU Radio and OSSIE (Open-Source SCA (Software communication architecture) Implementation-Embedded) are two open source software toolkits for SDR (Software Defined Radio) developments, both of them can be supported by USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral). In order to compare the performance of these two toolkits, an FM receiver over GNU Radio and OSSIE are tested in my thesis, test results are showed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Results showed that the FM receiver over GNU Radio has better performance, due to the OSSIE is lack of synchronization between USRP interface and the modulation /demodulation components. Based on this, the SISO (Single Input Single Output) communication system over GNU Radio is designed to transmit and receive sound or image files between two USRP equipped with RFX2400 transceiver at 2.45G frequency. Now, GNU Radio and OSSIE are widely used for academic research, but the future work based on GNU Radio and OSSIE can be designed to support MIMO, sensor network, and real time users etc.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Cheng, Zizhi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploration Of Energy And Area Efficient Techniques For Coarse-grained Reconfigurable Fabrics

Description: Coarse-grained fabrics are comprised of multi-bit configurable logic blocks and configurable interconnect. This work is focused on area and energy optimization techniques for coarse-grained reconfigurable fabric architectures. In this work, a variety of design techniques have been explored to improve the utilization of computational resources and increase energy savings. This includes splitting, folding, multi-level vertical interconnect. In addition to this, I have also studied fully connected homogeneous and heterogeneous architectures, and 3D architecture. I have also examined some of the hybrid strategies of computation unit’s arrangements. In order to perform energy and area analysis, I selected a set of signal and image processing benchmarks from MediaBench suite. I implemented various fabric architectures on 90nm ASIC process from Synopsys. Results show area improvement with energy savings as compared to baseline architecture.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Yadav, Anil
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparison of Source Diversity and Channel Diversity Methods on Symmetric and Fading Channels.

Description: Channel diversity techniques are effective ways to combat channel fading and noise in communication systems. In this thesis, I compare the performance of source and channel diversity techniques on fading and symmetric continuous channels. My experiments suggest that when SNR is low, channel diversity performs better, and when SNR is high, source diversity shows better performance than channel diversity.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Li, Li
Partner: UNT Libraries

Study of the effects of background and motion camera on the efficacy of Kalman and particle filter algorithms.

Description: This study compares independent use of two known algorithms (Kalmar filter with background subtraction and Particle Filter) that are commonly deployed in object tracking applications. Object tracking in general is very challenging; it presents numerous problems that need to be addressed by the application in order to facilitate its successful deployment. Such problems range from abrupt object motion, during tracking, to a change in appearance of the scene and the object, as well as object to scene occlusions, and camera motion among others. It is important to take into consideration some issues, such as, accounting for noise associated with the image in question, ability to predict to an acceptable statistical accuracy, the position of the object at a particular time given its current position. This study tackles some of the issues raised above prior to addressing how the use of either of the aforementioned algorithm, minimize or in some cases eliminate the negative effects
Date: August 2009
Creator: Morita, Yasuhiro
Partner: UNT Libraries

Baseband Noise Suppression in Ofdm Using Kalman Filter

Description: As the technology is advances the reduced size of hardware gives rise to an additive 1/f baseband noise. This additive 1/f noise is a system noise generated due to miniaturization of hardware and affects the lower frequencies. Though 1/f noise does not show much effect in wide band channels because of its nature to affect only certain frequencies, 1/f noise becomes a prominent in OFDM communication systems where narrow band channels are used. in this thesis, I study the effects of 1/f noise on the OFDM systems and implement algorithms for estimation and suppression of the noise using Kalman filter. Suppression of the noise is achieved by subtracting the estimated noise from the received noise. I show that the performance of the system is considerably improved by applying the 1/f noise suppression.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Rodda, Lasya
Partner: UNT Libraries