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Project X - a new multi-megawatt proton source at Fermilab

Description: Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support intensity frontier research in elementary particle physics, with possible applications to nuclear physics and nuclear energy research, at Fermilab. The centerpiece of this program is a superconducting H-linac that will support world leading programs in long baseline neutrino experimentation and the study of rare processes. Based on technology shared with the International Linear Collider (ILC), Project X will provide multi-MW beams at 60-120 GeV from the Main Injector, simultaneous with very high intensity beams at lower energies. Project X will also support development of a Muon Collider as a future facility at the energy frontier.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Nagaitsev, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Antiproton momentum distributions as a measure of electron cooling force at the Fermilab Recycler

Description: The Fermilab Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring located in the Fermilab Main Injector tunnel near the ceiling. Electron cooling of high energy antiprotons has recently been demosntrated [1] at the Recycler. Antiproton beam Schottky signals were used to measure the antiproton momentum distribution at equilibrium between a calibrated broadband diffusion source and electron cooling. The large Recycler momentum aperture, the dependence of the electron cooling force as a function of the antiproton momentum deviation and the calibrated diffusion source combine to give a unique sepectral measurement of the antiproton beam momentum distribution.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Broemmelsiek, D. R. & Nagaitsev, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear integrable ion traps

Description: Quadrupole ion traps can be transformed into nonlinear traps with integrable motion by adding special electrostatic potentials. This can be done with both stationary potentials (electrostatic plus a uniform magnetic field) and with time-dependent electric potentials. These potentials are chosen such that the single particle Hamilton-Jacobi equations of motion are separable in some coordinate systems. The electrostatic potentials have several free adjustable parameters allowing for a quadrupole trap to be transformed into, for example, a double-well or a toroidal-well system. The particle motion remains regular, non-chaotic, integrable in quadratures, and stable for a wide range of parameters. We present two examples of how to realize such a system in case of a time-independent (the Penning trap) as well as a time-dependent (the Paul trap) configuration.
Date: October 1, 2011
Creator: Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V. & /SNS Project, Oak Ridge
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status and Plans for an SRF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

Description: A superconducting RF accelerator test facility is currently under construction at Fermilab. The accelerator will consist of an electron gun, 40 MeV injector, beam acceleration section consisting of 3 TTF-type or ILC-type cryomodules, and multiple downstream beam lines for testing diagnostics and performing beam experiments. With 3 cryomodules installed this facility will initially be capable of generating an 810 MeV electron beam with ILC beam intensity. The facility can accommodate up to 6 cryomodules for a total beam energy of 1.5 GeV. This facility will be used to test SRF cryomodules under high intensity beam conditions, RF power equipment, instrumentation, and LLRF and controls systems for future SRF accelerators such as the ILC and Project-X. This paper describes the current status and overall plans for this facility.
Date: July 29, 2011
Creator: Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Nagaitsev, S. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SCREAMm - modified code SCREAM to sumulate the acceleration of a pulsed beam through the superconducting linac

Description: The code SCREAM - SuperConducting RElativistic particle Accelerator siMulation - was significantly modified and improved. Some misprints in the formulae used have been fixed and a more realistic expression for the vector-sum introduced. The realistic model of Lorentz-force detuning (LFD) is developed and will be implemented to the code. A friendly GUI allows various parameters of the simulated problem to be changed easily and quickly. Effective control of various output data is provided. A change of various parameters during the simulation process is controlled by plotting the corresponding graphs 'on the fly'. A large collection of various graphs can be used to illustrate the results.
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Eidelman, Yu.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diffraction effects in the coherent transition radiation bunch length diagnostics

Description: Diffraction effects in the Coherent Transition Radiation (CTR) bunch length diagnostics are considered for the A0 Photoinjector and the New Muon Laboratory (NML) injection module. The effects can cause a noticeable distortion of the measured CTR spectra depending on the experimental setup and the bunch parameters and resulting in errors of the bunch length measurements. Presented calculations show possible systematic errors in the bunch length in measurements based on the CTR spectra at A0 Photo injector and the NML injection module.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Kazakevich, G.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plans for a 750 MeV electron beam test facility at Fermilab

Description: A 750 MeV electron beam test facility at Fermilab is in the planning and early construction phase. An existing building is being converted for this facility. The photoinjector currently in use at the Fermilab NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory (FNPL) will be moved to the new facility and upgraded to serve as an injector for a beam acceleration section consisting of three TTF or ILC-type RF cryomodules. A low energy off-axis beamline will be constructed to test ILC crab cavity designs and provide opportunities for other tests. Downstream beamlines will consist of a diagnostic section, a beam test area for additional beam experiments, and high power beam dumps. The initial program for this facility will concentrate on testing ILC-type cryomodules and RF control with full ILC beam intensity. A future building expansion will open up further possibilities for beam physics and beam technology experiments.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Church, M.; Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab; Piot, P. & U., /Fermilab /Northern Illinois
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear accelerator lattices with one and two analytic invariants

Description: Integrable systems appeared in physics long ago at the onset of classical dynamics with examples being Kepler's and other famous problems. Unfortunately, the majority of nonlinear problems turned out to be nonintegrable. In accelerator terms, any 2D nonlinear nonintegrable mapping produces chaotic motion and a complex network of stable and unstable resonances. Nevertheless, in the proximity of an integrable system the full volume of such a chaotic network is small. Thus, the integrable nonlinear motion in accelerators has the potential to introduce a large betatron tune spread to suppress instabilities and to mitigate the effects of space charge and magnetic field errors. To create such an accelerator lattice one has to find magnetic and electric field combinations leading to a stable integrable motion. This paper presents families of lattices with one invariant where bounded motion can be easily created in large volumes of the phase space. In addition, it presents 3 families of integrable nonlinear accelerator lattices, realizable with longitudinal-coordinate-dependent magnetic or electric fields with the stable nonlinear motion, which can be solved in terms of separable variables.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Danilov, V.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Nagaitsev, S. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synchrotron frequency spread independence of bunched-beam stochastic cooling at the Fermilab Recycler

Description: It is generally accepted that longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched beams is not possible without a synchrotron frequency spread. Experiments in the Recycler storage ring (Fermilab) demonstrate the opposite: with an antiproton bunch in a parabolic potential well (no synchrotron frequency spread), the cooling was almost as efficient as in a trapezoidal potential well (with a relative synchrotron frequency spread of {approx} 100%). A possible explanation is that, at Recycler parameters, diffusion processes are sufficient to provide particle mixing.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Neuffer, D. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimal coupler and power setting for superconductive linear accelerators

Description: The modeling analysis presented in this paper addresses the question of how to achieve the highest vector sum gradient for all beam currents when individual cavities operate at different gradients due to their inherent quenching limitations. The analytical method explained here constitutes a step forward toward the operability of the International Linear Collider (ILC), Project X [8], or XFEL [7]. Unlike previously proposed methods [1, 2], this approach prevents cavities from quenching should the beam current be lower than its maximum value.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Branlard, J.; Chase, B,; Nagaitsev, S.; Nezhevenko, O.; Reid, J. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A search for integrable four-dimensional nonlinear accelerator lattices

Description: Integrable nonlinear motion in accelerators has the potential to introduce a large betatron tune spread to suppress instabilities and to mitigate the effects of space charge and magnetic field errors. To create such an accelerator lattice one has to find magnetic and/or electric field combinations leading to a stable integrable motion. This paper presents families of lattices with one invariant where bounded motion can be easily created in large volumes of the phase space. In addition, it presents two examples of integrable nonlinear accelerator lattices, realizable with longitudinal-coordinate-dependent magnetic or electric fields with the stable nonlinear motion, which can be solved in terms of separable variables.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V. & /SNS Project, Oak Ridge
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design of the Project-X 1.3 GHz 3-8 GeV pulsed linac

Description: Project-X, a multi-MW proton source, is under development at Fermilab. It enables a Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment via a new beam line pointed to DUSEL in Lead, South Dakota, and a broad suite of rare decay experiments. The initial acceleration is provided by a 3-GeV 1-mA CW superconducting linac. In a second stage, about 5% of the H{sup -} beam is accelerated up to 8 GeV in a 1.3 GHz SRF pulsed linac and injected into the Recycler/Main Injector complex. In order to mitigate problems with stripping foil heating during injection, higher current pulses are accelerated in the CW linac in conjunction with the 1 mA beam which is separated and further accelerated in the pulsed linac. The optimal current in the pulsed linac is discussed as well as the constraints that led to its selection. A conceptual design which covers optics and RF stability analysis is presented. Finally, the need for HOM damping is discussed.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Solyak, N.; Eidelman, Y.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Vostrikov, A.; Yakovlev, V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of beam loss mechanism in the Project X linac

Description: Minimization of the beam losses in a multi-MW H{sup -} linac such as ProjectX to a level below 1 W/m is a challenging task. The impact of different mechanism of beam stripping, including stripping in electric and magnetic fields, residual gas, blackbody radiation and intra-beam stripping, is analyzed. Other sources of beam losses are misalignements of beamline elements and errors in RF fields and phases. We present in this paper requirements for dynamic errors and correction schemes to keep beam losses under control.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Carneiro, J.-P.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Solyak, N. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new approach to calculate the transport matrix in RF cavities

Description: A realistic approach to calculate the transport matrix in RF cavities is developed. It is based on joint solution of equations of longitudinal and transverse motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field of the linac. This field is a given by distribution (measured or calculated) of the component of the longitudinal electric field on the axis of the linac. New approach is compared with other matrix methods to solve the same problem. The comparison with code ASTRA has been carried out. Complete agreement for tracking results for a TESLA-type cavity is achieved. A corresponding algorithm will be implemented into the MARS15 code. A realistic approach to calculate the transport matrix in RF cavities is developed. Complete agreement for tracking results with existed code ASTRA is achieved. New algorithm will be implemented into MARS15 code.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Eidelman, Yu.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Mokhov, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Broad-band chopper for a CW proton linac at Fermilab

Description: The future Fermilab program in the high energy physics is based on a new facility called the Project X [1] to be built in the following decade. It is based on a 3 MW CW linear accelerator delivering the 3 GeV 1 mA H{sup -} beam to a few experiments simultaneously. Small fraction of this beam will be redirected for further acceleration to 8 GeV to be injected to the Recycler/Main Injector for a usage in a neutrino program and other synchrotron based high energy experiments. Requirements and technical limitations to the bunch-by-bunch chopper for the Fermilab Project X are discussed.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Lebedev, V.A.; Solyak, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sun, D. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ring for test of nonlinear integrable optics

Description: Nonlinear optics is a promising idea potentially opening the path towards achieving super high beam intensities in circular accelerators. Creation of a tune spread reaching 50% of the betatron tune would provide strong Landau damping and make the beam immune to instabilities. Recent theoretical work has identified a possible way to implement stable nonlinear optics by incorporating nonlinear focusing elements into a specially designed machine lattice. In this report we propose the design of a test accelerator for a proof-of-principle experiment. We discuss possible studies at the machine, requirements on the optics stability and sensitivity to imperfections.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Valishev, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Kashikhin, V.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V. & /SNS Project, Oak Ridge
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IBS in a CAM-Dominated Electron Beam

Description: We report on the performance and planned upgrades to the Fermilab Accumulator Stacktail Stochastic Cooling System. The current system has achieved a maximum flux of 16.5e10/hour, limited by the input flux of antiprotons. The upgrades are designed to handle flux in excess of 40e10/hour.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Burov, Alexey V.; /Fermilab; Gusachenko, I.; U., /Novosibirsk State; Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical transition radiation interferometry for the A0 photoinjector

Description: Optical Transition Radiation Interferometry (OTRI) is a promising diagnostic technique and has been successfully developed and used for investigation of relativistic beams. For mid-energy accelerators the technique is traditionally based on thin polymer films (the first one is being transparent for visible light), which causes beam multiple scattering of about 1 mrad. A disadvantage of those films is unacceptable vacuum properties for photoinjectors and accelerators using superconducting cavities. We have studied the application of thin mica sheets for the OTRI diagnostics at the A0 Photoinjector in comparison with 2.5 {micro}m thick Mylar films. This diagnostic is also applicable for the ILCTA-NML accelerator test facility that is planned at Fermilab. This report discusses the experimental setups of the OTR interferometer for the A0 Photoinjector and presents comparisons of simulations and measurements obtained using Mylar and mica-based interferometers.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Kazakevich, G.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ruan, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear Accelerator with Transverse Motion Integrable in Normalized Polar Coordinates

Description: Several families of nonlinear accelerator lattices with integrable transverse motion were suggested recently. One of the requirements for the existence of two analytic invariants is a special longitudinal coordinate dependence of fields. This paper presents the particle motion analysis when a problem becomes integrable in the normalized polar coordinates. This case is distinguished from the others: it yields an exact analytical solution and has a uniform longitudinal coordinate dependence of the fields (since the corresponding nonlinear potential is invariant under the transformation from the Cartesian to the normalized coordinates). A number of interesting features are revealed: while the frequency of radial oscillations is independent of the amplitude, the spread of angular frequencies in a beam is absolute. A corresponding spread of frequencies of oscillations in the Cartesian coordinates is evaluated via the simulation of transverse Schottky noise.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab; Kharkov, Y.; Morozov, I.A.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Zolkin, T.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PXIE Optics and Layout

Description: The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) will serve as a prototype for the Project X front end. The aim is to validate the Project-X design and to decrease technical risks mainly related to the front end. The paper discusses the main requirements and constraints motivating the facility layout and optics. Final adjustments to the Project X front end design, if needed, will be based on operational experience gained with PXIE.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Lebedev, V.A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Shemyakin, A.V.; Shteynas, B.G.; Solyak, N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Simulation of IOTA - a Novel Concept of Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

Description: The use of nonlinear lattices with large betatron tune spreads can increase instability and space charge thresholds due to improved Landau damping. Unfortunately, the majority of nonlinear accelerator lattices turn out to be nonintegrable, producing chaotic motion and a complex network of stable and unstable resonances. Recent advances in finding the integrable nonlinear accelerator lattices have led to a proposal to construct at Fermilab a test accelerator with strong nonlinear focusing which avoids resonances and chaotic particle motion. This presentation will outline the main challenges, theoretical design solutions and construction status of the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) underway at Fermilab.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V.V.; Ridge, /Oak; Shatilov, D.N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam Physics of Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab

Description: Fermilab's Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron storage ring designed for testing advanced accelerator physics concepts, including implementation of nonlinear integrable beam optics and experiments on optical stochastic cooling. The machine is currently under construction at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator facility. In this report we present the goals and the current status of the project, and describe the details of machine design. In particular, we concentrate on numerical simulations setting the requirements on the design and supporting the choice of machine parameters.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V.V.; Ridge, /Oak; Shatilov, D.N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department