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A STUDY OF THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE VANADIUM-IRON ALLOY SYSTEM

Description: The vapor pressure of iron over vanadium-iron alloys was measured by the torsion-effusion method in the temperature range from 1500 to 1700 deg K. The chemical activities, as weil as the free energies, entropies, and enthalpies of formation, of the alloys were computed from the vapor pressure data. The activities of iron exhibited large negative deviations from Raoult's law throughout the entire compositional range. Although the activities of vanadium, as determined by the Gibbs-Duhem relation, deviated negatively from ideal behavior in the iron-rich alloys, nearly ideal behavior was observed in the vanadium-rich alloys. Large positive excess entropies and enthalpies of formation were found at 1600 deg K. An attempt was made to interpret these quantities in terms of the various configurational, vibrational, and magnetic changes that occur in this system on alloying. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Myles, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Technology Division. Annual technical report, 1995

Description: Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1995 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (3) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (4) processes for separating and recovering selected elements from waste streams, concentrating low-level radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; (5) electrometallurgical treatment of different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (6) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Laidler, J.J.; Myles, K.M.; Green, D.W. & McPheeters, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress in carbonate fuel cells

Description: Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1)Development of LiFeO{sub 2} and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life) (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2}and >100 kW/m{sup 3}in an integrated MCFC system) (4)Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Myles, K. M.; Krumpelt, M. & Roche, M. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reformers for the Production of Hydrogen from Methanol and Alternative Fuels for Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles

Description: The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R & D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, Michael & Myles, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

Description: An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600{degree}C to 800{degree}C is discussed. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Krumpelt, M.; Bloom, I.D.; Pullockaran, J.D. & Myles, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of high-performance Na/NiCl sub 2 cell

Description: The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even below 200{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by a conventional galvanostatic method and by a newly developed powerdynamic'' method. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40 to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with already highly developed sodium/{beta} -- alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the NA/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Redey, L.: Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R. & Myles, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methanol reformers for fuel cell powered vehicles: Some design considerations

Description: Fuel cells are being developed for use in automotive propulsion systems as alternatives for the internal combustion engine in buses, vans, passenger cars. The two most important operational requirements for a stand-alone fuel cell power system for a vehicle are the ability to start up quickly and the ability to supply the necessary power on demand for the dynamically fluctuating load. Methanol is a likely fuel for use in fuel cells for transportation applications. It is a commodity chemical that is manufactured from coal, natural gas, and other feedstocks. For use in a fuel cell, however, the methanol must first be converted (reformed) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The desired features for a methanol reformer include rapid start-up, good dynamic response, high fuel conversion, small size and weight, simple construction and operation, and low cost. In this paper the present the design considerations that are important for developing such a reformer, namely: (1) a small catalyst bed for quick starting, small size, and low weight; (2) multiple catalysts for optimum operation of the dissociation and reforming reactions; (3) reforming by direct heat transfer partial oxidation for rapid response to fluctuating loads; and (4) thermal independence from the rest of the fuel cell system. 10 refs., 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M. & Myles, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

Description: Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R D issues.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M. & Myles, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1993

Description: Chemical Technology (CMT) Division this period, conducted research and development in the following areas: advanced batteries and fuel cells; fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; separating and recovering transuranic elements, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporators, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; recovering actinide from IFR core and blanket fuel in removing fission products from recycled fuel, and disposing removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors; and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, thin-film diamond surfaces, effluents from wood combustion, and molten silicates; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT also provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Battles, J. E.; Myles, K. M.; Laidler, J. J. & Green, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of high-performance Na/NiCl{sub 2} cell

Description: The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even below 200{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by a conventional galvanostatic method and by a newly developed ``powerdynamic`` method. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40 to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with already highly developed sodium/{beta} -- alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the NA/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.
Date: July 1, 1992
Creator: Redey, L.: Prakash, J.; Vissers, D. R. & Myles, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

Description: Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R&D issues.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M. & Myles, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical and in situ neutron diffraction investigations of La-Ni-Al-H alloys

Description: Li/metal hydride batteries are a strong contender to replace Ni/Cd batteries. Since the role of alloying components is not yet understood, a combination of electrochemical and neutron diffraction techniques has been designed to investigate metal hydrides. In this work, several Al-substituted LaNi{sub 5} alloys were investigated for their specific capacity (measured by mAh/La and symbolized by x in LaNi{sub 5-y}Al{sub y}H{sub x}), impedance, and cycling stability. Neutron diffraction was used to study the electrochemically induced phase transformation and structure change during charge/discharge.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Peng, W.; Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.; Carpenter, J.; Richardson et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1992

Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Technology Division (CMT) discussing the group's activities during 1992. These included electrochemical technology; fossil fuel research; hazardous waste research; nuclear waste programs; separation science and technology; integral fast reactor pyrochemical processes; actinide recovery; applied physical chemistry; basic chemistry research; analytical chemistry; applied research and development; and computer applications.
Date: June 1993
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Technology Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1993

Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Technology Division (CMT) discussing the group's activities during 1992. These included electrochemical technology; fossil fuel research; hazardous waste research; nuclear waste programs; separation science and technology; integral fast reactor pyrochemical processes; actinide recovery; applied physical chemistry; basic chemistry research; and analytical chemistry.
Date: April 1994
Creator: Battles, J. E.; Myles, K. M.; Laidler, J. J. & Green, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1994

Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Technology Division (CMT) discussing the group's activities during 1994. These included electrochemical technology; fossil energy research; hazardous waste research; nuclear waste programs; separation science and technology; electrometallurgical technology; actinide recovery; applied physical chemistry; basic chemistry research; analytical chemistry.
Date: June 1995
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Technology Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High power density molten carbonate fuel cells

Description: Our results to date indicate that the specific power of the MCFC can be increased from 1200 W/m{sup 2} to above 2000W/m{sup 2} through the use of advanced components such as the double doped LiFeO{sub 2} cathode and pressurized operation. Its volumetric power density can also be increased by an additional 60% by multiple manifolding. Therefore, MCFCs with two to three times the power density of the current generation of MCFCs are possible.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Bloom, I.; Johnson, S. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Roche, M. F.; Krumpelt, M. & Myles, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical and neutron diffraction measurements of PdD sub x cathodes

Description: Potentiometric and in-situ neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out on PdD{sub x} cathodes in LiOD-saturated D{sub 2}O solution. Open-circuit potentials of the PdD{sub x} electrode after interruption of high-intensity cathodic currents (300--500 mA/cm{sup 2}) showed a more negative potential ({epsilon} = 1010 mV, measured against a Hg/HgO reference electrode) than that expected from the literature. The anomalous potentials were observed for about 10--20 min after current interruption at x > 0.7 concentrations of deuterium. This phenomenon may indicate a metastable phase of the Pd-D system, which may be detected by neutron diffraction. In-situ neutron diffraction measurements, so far, have indicated only the evolution of the known {alpha} and {beta} phases of PdD{sub x}. Successful neutron diffraction measurements in electrochemical cells suggest the viability of this technique for in-situ investigations of metal-hydride battery electrodes in experiments when heavy-water electrolyte is used to model the MH{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O electrode.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Redey, L.; Myles, K.M.; Rotella, F.J.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Felcher, G.P.; Hitterman, R.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical and neutron diffraction measurements of PdD{sub x} cathodes

Description: Potentiometric and in-situ neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out on PdD{sub x} cathodes in LiOD-saturated D{sub 2}O solution. Open-circuit potentials of the PdD{sub x} electrode after interruption of high-intensity cathodic currents (300--500 mA/cm{sup 2}) showed a more negative potential ({epsilon} = 1010 mV, measured against a Hg/HgO reference electrode) than that expected from the literature. The anomalous potentials were observed for about 10--20 min after current interruption at x > 0.7 concentrations of deuterium. This phenomenon may indicate a metastable phase of the Pd-D system, which may be detected by neutron diffraction. In-situ neutron diffraction measurements, so far, have indicated only the evolution of the known {alpha} and {beta} phases of PdD{sub x}. Successful neutron diffraction measurements in electrochemical cells suggest the viability of this technique for in-situ investigations of metal-hydride battery electrodes in experiments when heavy-water electrolyte is used to model the MH{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O electrode.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Redey, L.; Myles, K. M.; Rotella, F. J.; Richardson, J. W. Jr.; Felcher, G. P.; Hitterman, R. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of high-specific-energy batteries for electric vehicles. Progress report, February 1973--July 1973

Description: A high-specific-energy lithium/sulfur battery having the performance characteristics required for powering pollutionfree automobiles is described. The cells currently under development have negative electrodes of molten lithium and positive electrodes of sulfur (plus an additive to reduce the sulfur vapor pressure) separated by a molten lithium halide-containing electrolyte. The operating temperature of the cells is about 400 deg C. The performance goals for a single cell include a capacity density of 0.4 A-hr/cm/sup 2/ at a current density of 0.1 A/cm/sup 2/, a peak power density of 1-2 W/cm/sup 2/, and a minimum cycle life of 1000 cycles. Cells with positive electrodes consisting of sulfurarsenic-carbon mixtures in graphite housings have achieved short-time peak power densities and capacity densities that meet or exceed the goals for a single cell. A capacity density of 0.1 A-hr/cm/sup 2/ has been sustained at a discharge current density of 0.1 A/cm/sup 2/l (1-V cutoff) for more than 500 hr and 100 cycles. Improvement in cell design is needed, however, to achieve higher sulfur utilization and longer cell lifetimes. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1973
Creator: Nelson, P.A.; Gay, E.C.; Steunenberg, R.K.; Battles, J.E.; Schertz, W.W.; Vissers, D.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel cells for transportation R and D at Argonne National Laboratory

Description: This paper describes the transportation fuel cell systems research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Two areas of research are discussed: the development of a catalytic partial-oxidation reformer for conventional and alternative transportation fuels, and a novel approach for the removal of carbon monoxide from reformate for use in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The objective of the first study is to develop reformers for converting liquid fuels (gasoline, ethanol, or methanol) to hydrogen gas for use with fuel cell systems in light-duty vehicles. The second study is investigating the use of acidic cuprous chloride (or other suitable sorbent) to chemically bind and thus remove the CO from the reformate.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Carter, J.D.; Doshi, R.; Kramarz, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Cycle Programs, Quarterly Progress Report: April-June 1979

Description: Quarterly report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division regarding activities related to properties and handling of radioactive materials, operation of nuclear reactors, and other relevant research.
Date: September 1980
Creator: Steindler, M. J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R. E.; Bates, J. K.; Bean, C. H.; Couture, R. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department