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Regulatory and Permitting Issues

Description: As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., reviewed current state and federal regulations related to carbon dioxide capture and storage within geologic formations and enhanced carbon uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. We have evaluated and summarized the current and possible future permitting requirements for the six states that comprise the West Coast Regional Partnership. Four options exist for CO{sub 2} injection into appropriate geologic formations, including storage in: (1) oil and gas reservoirs, (2) saline formations, (3) unmineable coal beds, and (4) salt caverns. Terrestrial CO{sub 2} sequestration involves improved carbon conservation management (e.g. reduction of deforestation), carbon substitution (e.g., substitution for fossil fuel-based products, energy conservation through urban forestry, biomass for energy generation), and improved carbon storage management (e.g., expanding the storage of carbon in forest ecosystems). The primary terrestrial options for the West Coast Region include: (1) reforestation of under-producing lands (including streamside forest restoration), (2) improved forest management, (3) forest protection and conservation, and (4) fuel treatments for the reduction of risk of uncharacteristically severe fires (potentially with associated biomass energy generation). The permits and/or contracts required for any land-use changes/disturbances and biomass energy generation that may occur as part of WESTCARB's activities have been summarized for each state.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Myer, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

Description: Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced ...
Date: September 29, 2005
Creator: Myer, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geomechanical risks in coal bed carbon dioxide sequestration

Description: The purpose of this report is to summarize and evaluate geomechanical factors which should be taken into account in assessing the risk of leakage of CO{sub 2} from coal bed sequestration projects. The various steps in developing such a project will generate stresses and displacements in the coal seam and the adjacent overburden. The question is whether these stresses and displacements will generate new leakage pathways by failure of the rock or slip on pre-existing discontinuities such as fractures and faults. In order to evaluate the geomechanical issues in CO{sub 2} sequestration in coal beds, it is necessary to review each step in the process of development of such a project and evaluate its geomechanical impact. A coal bed methane production/CO{sub 2} sequestration project will be developed in four steps: (1) Formation dewatering and methane production; (2) CO{sub 2} injection with accompanying methane production; (3) Possible CO{sub 2} injection for sequestration only; and The approach taken in this study was to review each step: Identify the geomechanical processes associated with it, and assess the risks that leakage would result from these processes.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Myer, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

Description: The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Myer, Larry; Surles, Terry & Birkinshaw, Kelly
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout within weakly cementedsandstones

Description: Breakout (wall failure) of boreholes within the earth can take several forms depending upon physical properties of the surrounding rock and the stress and flow conditions. Three distinctive modes of breakout are (I) extensile breakout observed in brittle rocks (e.g., Haimson and Herrick, 1986), (II) shear breakout in soft and clastic rocks (Zoback et al., 1985), and (III) fracture-like, slot-shaped breakout within highly porous granular rocks (Bessinger et al., 1997; Haimson and Song, 1998). During fluid production and injection within weakly cemented high-porosity rocks, the third type of failure could result in sustained and excessive sand production (disintegration of the rock's granular matrix and debris production). An objective of this research is to investigate the physical conditions that result in the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout, via laboratory experiments. Our laboratory borehole breakout experiment was conducted using synthetic high-porosity sandstone with controlled porosity and strength. Block samples containing a single through-goring borehole were subjected to anisotropic stresses within a specially designed tri-axial loading cell. A series of studies was conducted to examine the impact of (1) stress anisotropy around the borehole, (2) rock strength, and (3) fluid flow rate within the borehole on the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout. The geometry of the breakout was determined after the experiment using X-ray CT. As observed in other studies (Hamison and Song, 1998; Nakagawa and Myer, 2001), flow within a borehole plays a critical role in extending the slot-shaped breakout. The results of our experiments indicated that the width of the breakout was narrower for stronger rock, possibly due to higher resistance to erosion, and the orientation of the breakout plane was better defined for a borehole subjected to stronger stress anisotropy. In most cases, the breakout grew rapidly once the borehole wall started to fail. This 'run-away' failure growth is induced ...
Date: June 10, 2005
Creator: Nakagawa, Seiji; Tomutsa, Liviu & Myer, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EOSHYDR: A TOUGH2 Module for CH4-Hydrate Release and Flow in theSubsurface

Description: EOSHYDR is a new module for the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulator for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow and transport in the subsurface. EOSHYDR is designed to model the non-isothermal CH{sub 4} release, phase behavior and flow under the conditions of the comrilon methane hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) by solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance. As with all other members of the TOUGH2 family of codes, EOSHYDR can handle multidimensional flow domains and cartesian, cylindrical or irregular grids, as well as porous and fractured media. EOSHYDR extends the thermophysical description of water to temperatures as low as -30 C. Both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation or dissociation are included. Two new solid phases are introduced, one for the CH{sub 4}-hydrate and the other for ice. Under equilibrium conditions, water and methane, as well as heat, are the main components. In the kinetic model, the solid hydrate is introduced as the fourth component. The mass components are partitioned among the gas, liquid and the two solid phases. The thermodynamic phase equilibrium in EOSHYDR is described by the P-T-X diagram of the H{sub 2}O-CH{sub 4}system. Phase changes and the corresponding heat transfers are fully described. The effect of salt in pore waters on CH{sub 4} solubility and on the growth and decomposition of gas hydrates is also taken into account. Results are presented for three test problems designed to explore different mechanisms and strategies for production from CH{sub 4}-hydrate reservoirs. These tests include thermal stimulation and depressurization under both permafrost and suboceanic conditions. The results of the tests tend to indicate that CH{sub 4} production from CH{sub 4}-hydrates is technically feasible and has significant potential. Both depressurization and thermal stimulation seem to be capable of producing substantial amounts of ...
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Moridis, George; Apps, John; Pruess, Karsten & Myer, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predictions of long-term behavior of a large-volume pilot test for CO2 geological storage in a saline formation in the Central Valley, California

Description: The long-term behavior of a CO{sub 2} plume injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on mechanisms that lead to plume stabilization. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of CO{sub 2} phase-partitioning, which are examined by developing a numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture in the San Joaquin Valley, California, where a large-volume pilot test of CO{sub 2} injection will be conducted. The numerical model simulates a four-year CO{sub 2} injection period and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume until it stabilizes. Sensitivity studies are carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual gas saturation.
Date: November 1, 2008
Creator: Doughty, Christine; Myer, Larry R. & Oldenburg, Curtis M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Strategy for Monitoring of Geologic Sequestration of CO2

Description: Monitoring of geologic sequestration projects will require the measurement of many different parameters and processes at many different locations at the surface and in the subsurface. The greatest need for technology development is for monitoring of processes in the subsurface in the region between wells. The approach to fitting this need is to build upon decades of experience in use of geophysics in the oil and gas industry. These methods can be optimized for CO2 monitoring, and customized and extended in order to meet the need for cost-effective methods applicable to saline disposal sites, coal bed methane sites, as well as oil and gas reservoir sequestration sites. The strategy for development of cost-effective methods follows a three step iterative process of sensitivity analysis using numerical and experimental techniques, field testing at a range of scale in different formations, and analysis and integration of complimentary types of data.
Date: April 17, 2000
Creator: Myer, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a heterogeneous fracture

Description: A plane-wave method for computing the three-dimensional scattering of propagating elastic waves by a planar fracture with heterogeneous fracture compliance distribution is presented. This method is based upon the spatial Fourier transform of the seismic displacement-discontinuity (SDD) boundary conditions (also called linear slip interface conditions), and therefore, called the wave-number-domain SDD method (wd-SDD method). The resulting boundary conditions explicitly show the coupling between plane waves with an incident wave number component (specular component) and scattered waves which do not follow Snell's law (nonspecular components) if the fracture is viewed as a planar boundary. For a spatially periodic fracture compliance distribution, these boundary conditions can be cast into a linear system of equations that can be solved for the amplitudes of individual wave modes and wave numbers. We demonstrate the developed technique for a simulated fracture with a stochastic (correlated) surface compliance distribution. Low- and high-frequency solutions of the method are also compared to the predictions by low-order Born series in the weak and strong scattering limit.
Date: February 21, 2003
Creator: Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt T. & Myer, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Rosetta Resources CO2 Storage Project - A WESTCARB GeologicPilot Test

Description: WESTCARB, one of seven U.S. Department of Energypartnerships, identified (during its Phase I study) over 600 gigatonnesof CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations located in the Westernregion. The Western region includes the WESTCARB partnership states ofAlaska, Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon and Washington and theCanadian province of British Columbia. The WESTCARB Phase II study iscurrently under way, featuring three geologic and two terrestrial CO2pilot projects designed to test promising sequestration technologies atsites broadly representative of the region's largest potential carbonsinks. This paper focuses on two of the geologic pilot studies plannedfor Phase II -referred to-collectively as the Rosetta-Calpine CO2 StorageProject. The first pilot test will demonstrate injection of CO2 into asaline formation beneath a depleted gas reservoir. The second test willgather data for assessing CO2 enhanced gas recovery (EGR) as well asstorage in a depleted gas reservoir. The benefit of enhanced oil recovery(EOR) using injected CO2 to drive or sweep oil from the reservoir towarda production well is well known. EaR involves a similar CO2 injectionprocess, but has received far less attention. Depleted natural gasreservoirs still contain methane; therefore, CO2 injection may enhancemethane production by reservoir repressurization or pressure maintenance.CO2 injection into a saline formation, followed by injection into adepleted natural gas reservoir, is currently scheduled to start inOctober 2006.
Date: January 30, 2006
Creator: Trautz, Robert; Benson, Sally; Myer, Larry; Oldenburg, Curtis; Seeman, Ed; Hadsell, Eric et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Borehole Seismic Monitoring of Injected CO2 at the Frio Site

Description: As part of a small scale sequestration test (about 1500 tonsof CO2) in a saline aquifer, time-lapse borehole seismic surveys wereconducted to aid in characterization of subsurface CO2 distribution andmaterial property changes induced by the injected CO2. A VSP surveydemonstrated a large increase (about 75 percent) in seismic reflectivitydue to CO2 injection and allowed estimation of the spatial extent of CO2induced changes. A crosswell survey imaged a large seismic velocitydecrease (up to 500 m/s) within the injection interval and provided ahigh resolution image of this velocity change which maps the subsurfacedistribution of CO2 between two wells. Numerical modeling of the seismicresponse uses the crosswell measurements to show that this small CO2volume causes a large response in the seismic reflectivity. This resultdemonstrates that seismic detection of small CO2 volumes in salineaquifers is feasible and realistic.
Date: April 21, 2006
Creator: Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.; Hoversten, G.M.; Peterson, JohnE. & Korneev, Valeri A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilotin Northern California

Description: A geologic sequestration pilot in the Thornton gas field in Northern California, USA involves injection of up to 4000 tons of CO{sub 2} into a stacked gas and saline formation reservoir. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is leading the pilot test in collaboration with Rosetta Resources, Inc. and Calpine Corporation under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy and California Energy Commission's WESTCARB, Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership. The goals of the pilot include: (1) Demonstrate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} storage in saline formations representative of major geologic sinks in California; (2) Test the feasibility of Enhanced Gas Recovery associated with the early stages of a CO{sub 2} storage project in a depleting gas field; (3) Obtain site-specific information to improve capacity estimation, risk assessment, and performance prediction; (4) Demonstrate and test methods for monitoring CO{sub 2} storage in saline formations and storage/enhanced recovery projects in gas fields; and (5) Gain experience with regulatory permitting and public outreach associated with CO{sub 2} storage in California. Test design is currently underway and field work begins in August 2006.
Date: April 28, 2006
Creator: Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas & Seeman, Ed
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-lapse crosswell seismic and VSP monitoring of injected CO2 ina brine aquifer

Description: Seismic surveys successfully imaged a small scale C02injection (1,600 tons) conducted in a brine aquifer of the Frio Formationnear Houston, Texas. These time-lapse bore-hole seismic surveys,crosswell and vertical seismic profile (VSP), were acquired to monitorthe C02 distribution using two boreholes (the new injection well and apre-existing well used for monitoring) which are 30 m apart at a depth of1500 m. The crosswell survey provided a high-resolution image of the C02distribution between the wells via tomographic imaging of the P-wavevelocity decrease (up to 500 mls). The simultaneously acquired S-wavetomography showed little change in S-wave velocity, as expected for fluidsubstitution. A rock physics model was used to estimate C02 saturationsof 10-20 percent from the P-wave velocity change. The VSP survey resolveda large (-70 percent) change in reflection amplitude for the Friohorizon. This C02 induced reflection amplitude change allowed estimationof the C02 extent beyond the monitor well and on 3 azimuths. The VSPresult is compared with numerical modeling of C02 saturations and isseismically modeled using the velocity change estimated in the crosswellsurvey.
Date: May 30, 2006
Creator: Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.; Peterson, J.E.; Majer, E.L. & Hoversten,G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crosswell seismic and electromagnetic monitoring of CO2sequestration

Description: The quantitative estimation of changes in water saturation (S{sub W}) and effective pressure (P), in terms of changes in compressional and shear impedance, is becoming routine in the interpretations of time-lapse surface seismic data. However, when the number of reservoir constituents increases to include in situ gas and injected CO{sub 2}, there are too many parameters to be determined from seismic velocities or impedances alone. In such situations, the incorporation of electromagnetic (EM) images showing the change in electrical conductivity ({sigma}) provides essential independent information. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a methodology for jointly interpreting crosswell seismic and EM data, in conjunction with detailed constitutive relations between geophysical and reservoir parameters, to quantitatively predict changes in P, S{sub W}, CO{sub 2} gas saturation (S{sub CO2}), CO{sub 2} gas/oil ratio (R{sub CO{sub 2}}), hydrocarbon gas saturation (S{sub g}), and hydrocarbon gas/oil ration (R{sub g}) in a reservoir undergoing CO{sub 2} flood.
Date: July 30, 2002
Creator: Hoversten, G. Michael; Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Majer,Ernest L. & Myer, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TheU-Tube: A Novel System for Acquiring Borehole Fluid Samplesfrom a Deep Geologic CO2 Sequestration Experiment

Description: A novel system has been deployed to obtain geochemical samples of water and gas, at in situ pressure, during a geologic CO2 sequestration experiment conducted in the Frio brine aquifer in Liberty County, Texas. Project goals required high-frequency recovery of representative and uncontaminated aliquots of a rapidly changing two-phase (supercritical CO2-brine) fluid from 1.5 km depth. The datasets collected, using both the liquid and gas portions of the downhole samples, provide insights into the coupled hydro-geochemical issues affecting CO2 sequestration in brine-filled formations. While the basic premise underlying the U-Tube sampler is not new, the system is unique because careful consideration was given to the processing of the recovered two-phase fluids. In particular, strain gauges mounted beneath the high-pressure surface sample cylinders measured the ratio of recovered brine to supercritical CO2. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time gas analysis for perfluorocarbon and noble gas tracers that were injected along with the CO2. The U-Tube successfully acquired frequent samples, facilitating accurate delineation of the arrival of the CO2 plume, and on-site analysis revealed rapid changes in geochemical conditions.
Date: March 17, 2005
Creator: Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Myer, Larry R.; Hovorka, Susan D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging of CO{sub 2} injection during an enhanced-oil-recovery experiment

Description: A series of time-lapse seismic cross well and single well experiments were conducted in a diatomite reservoir to monitor the injection of CO{sub 2} into a hydrofracture zone, using P- and S-wave data. During the first phase the set of seismic experiments were conducted after the injection of water into the hydrofrac-zone. The set of seismic experiments was repeated after a time period of 7 months during which CO{sub 2} was injected into the hydrofractured zone. The issues to be addressed ranged from the detectability of the geologic structure in the diatomic reservoir to the detectability of CO{sub 2} within the hydrofracture. During the pre-injection experiment, the P-wave velocities exhibited relatively low values between 1700-1900 m/s, which decreased to 1600-1800 m/s during the post-injection phase (-5 percent). The analysis of the pre-injection S-wave data revealed slow S-wave velocities between 600-800 m/s, while the post-injection data revealed velocities between 500-700 m/s (-6 percent). These velocity estimates produced high Poisson ratios between 0.36 and 0.46 for this highly porous ({approx} 50 percent) material. Differencing post- and pre-injection data revealed an increase in Poisson ratio of up to 5 percent. Both, velocity and Poisson estimates indicate the dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the liquid phase of the reservoir accompanied by a pore-pressure increase. The results of the cross well experiments were corroborated by single well data and laboratory measurements on core data.
Date: April 29, 2003
Creator: Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M. & Myer, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint Cross Well and Single Well Seismic Studies at Lost Hills, California

Description: A series of time-lapse seismic cross well and single well experiments were conducted in a diatomite reservoir to monitor the injection of CO{sub 2} into a hydrofracture zone, based on P- and S-wave data. A high-frequency piezo-electric P-wave source and an orbital-vibrator S-wave source were used to generate waves that were recorded by hydrophones as well as three-component geophones. The injection well was located about 12 m from the source well. During the pre-injection phase water was injected into the hydrofrac-zone. The set of seismic experiments was repeated after a time interval of 7 months during which CO{sub 2} was injected into the hydrofractured zone. The questions to be answered ranged from the detectability of the geologic structure in the diatomic reservoir to the detectability of CO{sub 2} within the hydrofracture. Furthermore it was intended to determine which experiment (cross well or single well) is best suited to resolve these features. During the pre-injection experiment, the P-wave velocities exhibited relatively low values between 1700-1900 m/s, which decreased to 1600-1800 m/s during the post-injection phase (-5%). The analysis of the pre-injection S-wave data revealed slow S-wave velocities between 600-800 m/s, while the post-injection data revealed velocities between 500-700 m/s (-6%). These velocity estimates produced high Poisson ratios between 0.36 and 0.46 for this highly porous ({approx} 50%) material. Differencing post- and pre-injection data revealed an increase in Poisson ratio of up to 5%. Both, velocity and Poisson estimates indicate the dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the liquid phase of the reservoir accompanied by a pore-pressure increase. The single well data supported the findings of the cross well experiments. P- and S-wave velocities as well as Poisson ratios were comparable to the estimates of the cross well data. The cross well experiment did not detect the presence of the hydrofracture but appeared ...
Date: June 25, 2002
Creator: Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M. & Myer, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GEO-SEQ Best Practices Manual. Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Site Evaluation to Implementation

Description: The first phase of the GEO-SEQ project was a multidisciplinary effort focused on investigating ways to lower the cost and risk of geologic carbon sequestration. Through our research in the GEO-SEQ project, we have produced results that may be of interest to the wider geologic carbon sequestration community. However, much of the knowledge developed in GEO-SEQ is not easily accessible because it is dispersed in the peer-reviewed literature and conference proceedings in individual papers on specific topics. The purpose of this report is to present key GEO-SEQ findings relevant to the practical implementation of geologic carbon sequestration in the form of a Best Practices Manual. Because our work in GEO-SEQ focused on the characterization and project development aspects, the scope of this report covers practices prior to injection, referred to as the design phase. The design phase encompasses activities such as selecting sites for which enhanced recovery may be possible, evaluating CO{sub 2} capacity and sequestration feasibility, and designing and evaluating monitoring approaches. Through this Best Practices Manual, we have endeavored to place our GEO-SEQ findings in a practical context and format that will be useful to readers interested in project implementation. The overall objective of this Manual is to facilitate putting the findings of the GEO-SEQ project into practice.
Date: October 23, 2004
Creator: Benson, Sally M.; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Doughty, Christine A.; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department