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Construction and testing of arc dipoles and quadrupoles for the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL

Description: The production run of superconducting magnets for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is well underway. Of the 288 arc dipoles needed for the collider, more than 120 have been delivered. More than 150 arc quadrupoles have been delivered. All of these magnets have been accepted for RHIC. This paper reports the construction and performance of these magnets. Novel features of design and test, introduced to enhance technical performance and control costs, are also discussed. Other papers submitted to this Conference summarize work on the sextupoles and tuning quads, arc correctors, and combined corrector-quadrupole-sextupole assemblies (CQS).
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Wanderer, P.; Muratore, J. & Anerella, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quench propagation study for the BNL-built, full-length, 50mm aperture SSC model dipoles

Description: As part of the program to build and test SSC 50mm aperture prototype dipole magnets, a series of seven full-length dipoles were built and tested at BNL. Important part of the testing program was the study of quench propagation velocity and hot spot temperature over a range of experimental conditions in order to characterize the safety of the conductor during quenches experienced under different circumstances. Such studies are important tools in design, implementation, and verification of quench protection strategies in superconducting accelerator magnets. This investigation was facilitated by artificially inducing quenches under controlled experimental conditions with spot heaters placed at carefully chosen locations on the magnet coils. Such studies were done as part of the 15m-long magnet test program and were performed on five of the magnets in the series. All were equipped with spot heaters on an inner coil, and two of these also had spot heaters on an outer coil. Therefore, in addition to the studies in the inner coils, it was also possible to study quench propagation in the outer coils, where slower quench velocities and higher conductor temperatures are expected, in comparison to that in the inner coils. In spontaneous quenches, where there may be no voltage taps, it is not possible to measure the conductor hot spot temperature. It is straightforward to measure the number of MIITs generated, since only the magnet current and voltage need be measured. The concept of MIITs then becomes a valuable diagnostic tool which can characterize the temperature behavior of a conductor during quench and can be used to determine limits for safe operation of the coil. With spot heaters placed at known locations and closely bracketed by voltage taps, hot spot temperature can be measured. Research such as is described in this paper is therefore important in order to ...
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Muratore, J.; Anerella, M. & Cottingham, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quench observation using quench antennas on RHIC IR quadrupole magnets

Description: Quench observation using quench antennas is now being performed routinely on RHIC dipole and quadrupole magnets. Recently, a quench antenna was used on a RHIC IR magnet which is heavily instrumented with voltage taps. It was confirmed that the signals detected in the antenna coils do not contradict the voltage tap signals. The antenna also detects a sign of mechanical disturbance which could be related to a training quench. This paper summarizes signals detected in the antenna and discusses possible causes of these signals.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Ogitsu, T.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ganetis, G.; Muratore, J. & Wanderer, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quench antennas for RHIC quadrupole magnets

Description: Quench antennas for RHIC quadrupole magnets are being developed jointly by KEK and BNL. A quench antenna is a device to localize a quench origin using arrays of pick-up coils lined up along the magnet bore. Each array contains four pick-up coils: sensitive to normal sextupole, skew sextupole, normal octupole, and skew octupole field. This array configuration allows an azimuthal localization of a quench front while a series of arrays gives an axial localization and a quench propagation velocity. Several antennas have been developed for RHIC magnets and they are now routinely used for quench tests of production magnets. The paper discusses the description of the method and introduces a measured example using an antenna designed for quadrupole magnets.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Ogitsu, T.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ganetis, G.; Muratore, J. & Wanderer, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

R&D ERL: HTS Solenoid

Description: An innovative feature of the ERL project is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The HTS solenoid design offers many advantages because of several unique design features. Typically the solenoid is placed outside the cryostat which means that the beam gets significantly defused before a focusing element starts. In the current design, the solenoid is placed inside the cryostat which provides an early focusing structure and thus a significant reduction in the emittance of the electron beam. In addition, taking full advantage of the high critical temperature of HTS, the solenoid has been designed to reach the required field at {approx}77 K, which can be obtained with liquid nitrogen. This significantly reduces the cost of testing and allows a variety of critical pre-tests which would have been prohibitively expensive at 4 K in liquid helium because of the additional requirements of cryostat and associated facilities.
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Gupta, R.; Muratore, J. & Plate, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TEST RESULTS FOR LHC INSERTION REGION DEPOLE MAGNETS.

Description: The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has made 20 insertion region dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. These 9.45 m-long, 8 cm aperture magnets have the same coil design as the arc dipoles now operating in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL and are of single aperture, twin aperture, and double cold mass configurations. They are required to produce fields up to 4.14 T for operation at 7.56 TeV. Eighteen of these magnets have been tested at 4.5 K using either forced flow supercritical helium or liquid helium. The testing was especially important for the twin aperture models, whose construction was very different from the RHIC dipoles, except for the coil design. This paper reports on the results of these tests, including spontaneous quench performance, verification of quench protection heater operation, and magnetic field quality.
Date: May 16, 2005
Creator: MURATORE, J.; JAIN, A.; ANERELLA, M.; COSSOLINO, J. & AL., ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHANGE IN FIELD HARMONICS AFTER QUENCH AND THERMAL CYCLES IN SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

Description: A change in field harmonics after quench and thermal cycles has been observed in superconducting magnets for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of this effect in a number of RHIC dipole and quadrupole magnets. These changes in field harmonics may limit the ultimate field quality and its reproducibility in superconducting magnets. A change in pre-stress has also been observed after quench and thermal cycles. A possible link between these two changes is explored.
Date: May 12, 1997
Creator: GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; MURATORE,J.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E. & WYSS,C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac

Description: An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Anerella, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kayran, D.; McIntyre, G.; Muratore, J.; Plate, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A HELICAL MAGNET DESIGN FOR RHIC.

Description: Helical dipole magnets are required in a project for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to control and preserve the beam polarization in order to allow the collision of polarized proton beams. Specifications are for low current superconducting magnets with a 100 mm coil aperture and a 4 Tesla field in which the field rotates 360 degrees over a distance of 2.4 meters. A magnet meeting the requirements has been developed that uses a small diameter cable wound into helical grooves machined into a thick-walled aluminum cylinder.
Date: May 12, 1997
Creator: WILLEN,E.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KELLY,E.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent Triplet Vibration Studies in RHIC

Description: We report on recent developments for mitigating vibrations of the quadrupole magnets near the interaction regions of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). High precision accelerometers, geophones, and a laser vibrometer were installed around one of the two interaction points to characterize the frequencies of the mechanical motion. In addition actuators were mounted directly on the quadrupole cryostats. Using as input the locally measured motion, dynamic damping of the mechanical vibrations has been demonstrated. In this report we present these measurements and measurements of the beam response. Future options for compensating the vibrations are discussed.
Date: May 23, 2010
Creator: Thieberger, P.; Bonati, R.; Corbin, G.; Jain, A.; Minty, M.; McIntyre, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECENT TEST RESULTS OF THE FAST-PULSED 4 T COS DIPOLE GSI 001.

Description: For the FAIR-project at GSI a model dipole was built at BNL with the nominal field of 4 T and a nominal ramp rate of 1 T/S. The magnet design was similar to the RHIC dipole, with some changes for loss reduction and better cooling. The magnet was already successfully tested in a vertical cryostat, with good training behavior. Cryogenic losses were measured and first results of field harmonics were published. However, for a better understanding of the cooling process, quench currents at several ramp rates were investigated. Detailed measurements of the field harmonics at 2 T/S between 0 and 4 T were performed.
Date: May 26, 2005
Creator: MORITZ, G.; KAUGERTS, J.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; JAIN, A.; MARONE, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEASURED AND CALCULATED LOSSES IN A MODEL DIPOLE FOR GSI'S HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRON.

Description: The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 300T{center_dot}m and 10OT{center_dot}m. Fast ramp times are needed. These can cause problems of ac loss and field distortion in the magnets. For the high energy ring, a lm model dipole magnet has been built, based on the RHIC dipole design. This magnet was tested under boiling liquid helium in a vertical dewar. The quench current showed very little dependence on ramp rate. The ac losses, measured by an electrical method, were fitted to straight line plots of loss/cycle versus ramp rate, thereby separating the eddy current and hysteresis components. These results were compared with calculated values, using parameters which had previously been measured on short samples of cable. Reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment was found, although the measured hysteresis loss is higher than expected in ramps to the highest field levels.
Date: June 15, 2003
Creator: WANDERER,P.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A. K.; JOSHI,P.; MARONE,A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A HELICAL MAGNET DESIGN FOR RHIC.

Description: Helical dipole magnets are required in a project for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to control and preserve the beam polarization in order to allow the collision of polarized proton beams. Specifications are for low current superconducting magnets with a 100 mm coil aperture and a 4 Tesla field in which the field rotates 360 degrees over a distance of 2.4 meters. A magnet meeting the requirements has been developed that uses a small diameter cable wound into helical grooves machined into a thick-walled aluminum cylinder.
Date: May 12, 1997
Creator: WILLEN,E.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KELLY,E.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION.

Description: Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) D0 Insertion Dipole magnets were made during the production. This was included as part of the production plan because no R&D or pre-production magnets were built prior to the start of production. The first magnet produced had the desired coil pre-stress and low field harmonics in the body of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were carried out to minimize the iron saturation and to compensate for the end harmonics. This paper will discuss the details of the iterations made, the obstacles encountered, and the results obtained. Also included will be a brief summary of the magnet design and performance.
Date: May 12, 1997
Creator: SCHMALZLE,J.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PERFORMANCE SUMMARY OF THE HELICAL MAGNETS FOR RHIC.

Description: A series of four Snake and eight Rotator superconducting helical magnet assemblies has been built and installed in RHIC to control the polarization of protons during acceleration and storage in that machine. Each of these assemblies consists of four 2.4 m long dipole magnets in each of which the field rotates through 360 degrees along the magnet's length. The magnets were made by winding one millimeter diameter superconducting 7-strand cable into slots milled into thick-walled aluminum tubes. The magnets produce 4 Tesla field at a current of 320 amperes and are quench-protected with 0.050 ohm resistors placed across the winding in each slot. A total of 48 of these 2.4 m magnets has been built, tested and installed. This paper summarizes their quench performance as well as their field uniformity, of which the integral field is the most critical. All magnets reached the required operating field level of 4 T, and the integral field of the magnets was generally about half of the maximum permissible level of 0.050 Tesla meters.
Date: May 12, 2003
Creator: WILLEN,E.; ANERELLA,M.; ESCALLIER,J.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR REACT AND WIND COMMON COIL MAGNETS.

Description: High field common coil magnets [1,2] using brittle High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or Nb{sub 3}Sn cables provide new challenges with respect to the design and manufacturing of coils. We are developing the scaleable techniques that can be used in the production of common coil or other magnets with similar designs [3,4]. By utilizing a cost-effective rapid turnaround short coil program, it is possible to quickly develop and test the new conductors and learn the design and manufacturing concepts needed for them. The flexible nature of a rapid turnaround program required the development of a standard coil cassette for different size cable, allowing coils to be used as building blocks for testing in different magnet configurations. Careful attention is given to the design of the coil structure: The inner bobbin the wire is wound on, the coil winding process, insulation integrity, epoxy vacuum impregnation, and final assembly into a test magnet. This paper will discuss the manufacturing techniques and design rules learned from the rapid turnaround program, and test results to date.
Date: June 18, 2001
Creator: ESCALLIER,J.; ANERELLA,M.; COZZOLINO,J.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMMON COIL MAGNET PROGRAM AT BNL.

Description: The goal of the common coil magnet R&D program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is to develop a 12.5 T, 40 mm aperture dipole magnet using ''React and Wind Technology'' with High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) playing a major role. Due to its ''conductor friendly'' nature, the common coil design is attractive for building high field 2-in-1 dipoles with brittle materials such as HTS and Nb{sub 3}Sn. At the current rate of development, it is expected that a sufficient amount of HTS with the required performance would be available in a few years for building a short magnet. In the interim, the first generation dipoles will be built with Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor. They will use a ''React and Wind'' technology similar to that used in HTS and will produce a 12.5 T central field in a 40 mm aperture. The Nb{sub 3}Sn coils and support structure of this magnet will become a part of the next generation hybrid magnet with inner coils made of HTS. To develop various aspects of the technology in a scientific and experimental manner, a 10-turn coil program has been started in parallel. The program allows a number of concepts to be evaluated with a rapid throughput in a cost-effective way. Three 10-turn Nb{sub 3}Sn coils have been built and one HTS coil is under construction. The initial test results of this ''React & Wind'' 10-turn coil program are presented. It is also shown that a common coil magnet design can produce a field quality that is as good as a conventional cosine theta design.
Date: September 17, 2000
Creator: GUPTA, R.; ANERELLA, M.; COZZOLINO, J.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; GHOSH, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SUPERCONDUCTING DIPOLE MAGNETS FOR THE LHC INSERTION REGIONS

Description: Dipole bending magnets are required to change the horizontal separation of the two beams in the LHC. In Intersection Regions (IR) 1, 2, 5, and 8, the beams are brought into collision for the experiments located there. In IR4, the separation of the beams is increased to accommodate the machine's particle acceleration hardware. As part of the US contribution to the LHC Project, BNL is building the required superconducting magnets. Designs have been developed featuring a single aperture cold mass in a single cryostat, two single aperture cold masses in a single cryostat, and a dual aperture cold mass in a single cryostat. All configurations feature the 80 mm diameter, 10 m long superconducting coil design used in the main bending magnets of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider recently completed at Brookhaven. The magnets for the LHC, to be built at Brookhaven, are described and results from the program to build two dual aperture prototypes are presented.
Date: June 26, 2000
Creator: WILLEN,E.; ANERELLA,M.; COZZOLINO,J.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HERA LUMINOSITY UPGRADE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET PRODUCTION AT BNL.

Description: Production of two types of superconducting multi-function magnets, needed for the HEX4 Luminosity Upgrade is underway at BNL. Coil winding is now completed and cryostat assembly is in progress. Magnet type GO and type GG cold masses have been satisfactorily cold tested in vertical dewars and the first fully assembled GO magnet system has been horizontally cold tested and shipped to DESY. Warm measurements confirm that the coils meet challenging harmonic content targets. In this paper we discuss GO and GG magnet design and construction solutions, field harmonic measurements and quench test results.
Date: September 17, 2000
Creator: PARKER,B.; ANERELLA,M.; ESCALLIER,J.; GHOSH,A.; JAIN,A.; MARONE,A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MAGNET ENGINEERING AND TEST RESULTS OF THE HIGH FIELD MAGNET R AND D PROGRAM AT BNL.

Description: The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been carrying out design, engineering, and technology development of high performance magnets for future accelerators. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) play a major role in the BNL vision of a few high performance interaction region (IR) magnets that would be placed in a machine about ten years from now. This paper presents the engineering design of a ''react and wind'' Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet that will provide a 12 Tesla background field on HTS coils. In addition, the coil production tooling as well as the most recent 10-turn R&D coil test results will be discussed.
Date: August 4, 2002
Creator: COZZOLINO,J.; ANERELLA,M.; ESCALLIER,J.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRYOGENIC OPERATION AND TEST RESULTS FOR BNL BUILT LHC INSERTION MAGNETS.

Description: The D1 and D2 magnets, the first two types of magnets Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is building for the Insertion Regions of Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are being constructed and tested in the BNL magnet test facility. The D1 magnet is cooled using 4.5 K forced flow cooling with three types of bore tube conditions. The D2 magnet is cooled using both liquid helium and forced flow cooling. The liquid cooling scheme, using the shell of the D2 cold mass as the helium vessel and a level gauge in the end volume of the cold mass for liquid control, has been successfully demonstrated. Test results prove that both D1 and D2 meet the performance requirements and that the 4.5 K liquid cooling scheme to be used for D2 and other magnets in the Insertion Regions of LHC is adequate.
Date: July 22, 2002
Creator: WU,K.C.; ANERELLA,M.; COZZOLINO,J.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INITIAL TEST OF A FAST RAMPED SUPERCONDUCTING MODEL DIPOLE FOR GSIS PROPOSED SIS200 ACCELERATOR.

Description: Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI) has proposed a large expansion of the existing facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The proposal includes an accelerator, SIS200, with rigidity of 200 Tam that utilizes 4 T superconducting dipoles ramped at 1 T/s. An R&D program including both the superconductor and the magnet is directed at achieving the desired ramp rate with minimal energy loss. The RHIC arc dipoles, with 8 cm aperture, possess adequate aperture and field strength but are ramped at only 1/20 of the desired rate. However, for reasons of speed and economy, the RHIC dipole is being used as the basis for this work. The superconductor R&D has progressed far enough to permit the manufacture of an initial cable with satisfactory properties. This cable has been used in the construction of a I m model magnet, appropriately modified from the RHIC design. The magnet has been tested successfully at 2 T/s to 4.38 T.
Date: May 12, 2003
Creator: WANDERER,P.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; JOSHI,P.; MARONE,A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department