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Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments

Description: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Morrison, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol

Description: The protocol is designed to assist with the placement of wind power developments, and to document bird behavior and fatalities resulting from existing wind power developments. A standardized protocol will assist with comparing data among potential and existing development locations. Furthermore, this protocol is based on standard methods being used in other studies of bird behavior. The data collected will only be useful if observers follow each method carefully. In addition, the data collected using this protocol will likely be used by a permitting or other regulatory agency in evaluating the avian impacts at the site.
Date: November 12, 1998
Creator: Morrison, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

Description: One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Morrison, M.L. & Pollock, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studying Wind Energy/Bird Interactions: A Guidance Document

Description: This guidance document is a product of the Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC). The NWCC was formed to better understand and promote responsible, credible, and comparable avian/wind energy interaction studies. Bird mortality is a concern and wind power is a potential clean and green source of electricity, making study of wind energy/bird interactions essential. This document provides an overview for regulators and stakeholders concerned with wind energy/bird interactions, as well as a more technical discussion of the basic concepts and tools for studying such interactions.
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: Anderson, R.; Morrison, M.; Sinclair, K. & Strickland, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory avian research program

Description: As wind energy use continues to expand, concern over the possible impacts of wind farms on birds continues to be an issue. The concern includes two primary areas: the effect of avian mortality on bird populations, and possible litigation over the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act or the Endangered Species Act or both. In order to address these concerns, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working collaboratively with all stakeholders including utilities, environmental groups, consumer advocates, utility regulators, government officials, and the wind industry, has an active avian-wind power research program. DOE/NREL is conducting and sponsoring research with the expectation of developing solutions to educe or avoid avian mortality due to wind energy development throughout the US. This paper outlines the DOE/NREL approach and summarizes completed, current, and planned projects.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Sinclair, K.C. & Morrison, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

Description: This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Morrison, M.I.; McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T. & Hunt, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

Description: Twenty-three laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets have been constructed, tested, and installed in the SuperHILAC heavy ion linear accelerator at LBL, marking the first accelerator use of this new type of quadrupole. The magnets consist of conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnets, using iron pole-pieces, with permanent magnet material (samarium cobalt) inserted between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the individual quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is never reversed, we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide about 20% greater focusing strength than is available with conventional quadrupoles, while replacing the vanadium permendur poletips with iron poletips. Comparisons between these magnets and conventional tape-wound quadrupoles will be presented. 3 refs., 5 figs.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E. & Nelson, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

Description: A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs.
Date: October 1, 1988
Creator: Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E. & Nelson, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Diamondlike Carbon-Metal Composite Films

Description: Implants containing antimicrobial metals may reduce morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs associated with medical device-related infections. We have deposited diamondlike carbon-silver (DLC-Ag), diamondlike carbon-platinum (DLC-Pt), and diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum (DLC-AgPt) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films revealed that the silver and platinum self-assemble into nanoparticle arrays within the diamondlike carbon matrix. The diamondlike carbon-silver film possesses hardness and Young's modulus values of 37 GPa and 331 GPa, respectively. The diamondlike carbon-metal composite films exhibited passive behavior at open-circuit potentials. Low corrosion rates were observed during testing in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) electrolyte. In addition, the diamondlike carbon-metal composite films were found to be immune to localized corrosion below 1000 mV (SCE). DLC-silver-platinum films demonstrated exceptional antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. It is believed that a galvanic couple forms between platinum and silver, which accelerates silver ion release and provides more robust antimicrobial activity. Diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum films may provide unique biological functionalities and improved lifetimes for cardiovascular, orthopaedic, biosensor, and implantable microelectromechanical systems.
Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: MORRISON, M. L.; BUCHANAN, R. A.; LIAW, P. K.; BERRY, C. J.; BRIGMON, R.; RIESTER, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys

Description: The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G. & Morrison, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational Characteristics, parameters, and history of a 13T Nb3Sn dipole

Description: The early design and test results have been previously reported. During the subsequent operation of 'D20' the accelerator prototype dipole has provided both additional and more detailed data as to its characteristics and performance. D20's use as a test facility for high field critical current measurements has provided operational experience and history pertammg to accelerator required characteristics. There has been recently obtained data related to field quality, operational reproducibility and reliability, which will be presented. This prototype 'D20' has attained the highest magnetic field of any accelerator prototype dipole constructed and tested to date. The magnet has continued to operate routinely.
Date: March 18, 1999
Creator: Benjegerdes, R.; Bish, P.; Caspi, S.; Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.; Hannaford, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Results on Nb3Sn Dipole Magnets

Description: A cosine theta type dipole magnet using Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor have been designed, built and tested. D19H is a two-layer dipole magnet with a Nb{sub 3}Sn inner layer and a NbTi outer layer. Coil-pairs are connected with two of the four Nb{sub 3}Sn splices in a high field region, and compressed by a ring and collet system. It trained well at 4.4K, but poorly at 1.8K. Strain gages revealed that the coil-ends were not loaded well enough for high field operation (after cool-down), so another thermal cycle is planned. The low end-load is believed to be the cause of several mysteries observed during operation. Except for the outer-layer 1.8 K training difficulty, the magnet's operation was encouraging.
Date: December 12, 1996
Creator: Lietzke, A.F.; Benjegerdes, R.; Caspi, S.; Dell'Orco, D.; Harnden, W.; McInturff, A.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and Test Results of a Nb3Sn Superconducting Racetrack Dipole Magnet

Description: A 'proof-of-principle' Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting dual-bore dipole magnet was built from racetrack coils, as a first step in a program to develop an economical, 15 Tesla, accelerator-quality magnet. The mechanical design and magnet fabrication procedures are discussed. No training was required to achieve temperature-dependent plateau currents, despite several thermal cycles that involved partial magnet disassembly and substantial pre-load variations. Subsequent magnets are expected to approach 15 Tesla with substantially improved conductor.
Date: February 6, 2000
Creator: Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.; Gupta, R.; Harnden, W.; Lietzke, A. F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and Test Results of a Nb3Sn Superconducting Racetrack Dipole Magnet

Description: A 'proof-of-principle' Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting dual-bore dipole magnet was built from racetrack coils, as a first step in a program to develop an economical, 15 Tesla, accelerator-quality magnet. The mechanical design and magnet fabrication procedures are discussed. No training was required to achieve temperature-dependent plateau currents, despite several thermal cycles that involved partial magnet disassembly and substantial pre-load variations. Subsequent magnets are expected to approach 15 Tesla with substantially improved conductor.
Date: March 22, 1999
Creator: Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.; Gupta, R.; Harnden, W.; Lietzke, A.F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and Test Results of a Prototype, Nb3Sn Superconducting Racetrack Dipole Magnet

Description: A prototype, Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet, utilizing a racetrack coil design has been built and tested. This magnet represents the first step in a recently implemented program to develop a high field, accelerator quality magnet. This magnet was constructed with coils wound from conductor developed for the ITER project, limiting the magnet to a field of 6-7 Tesla. Subsequent magnets in the program will utilize improved conductor, culminating in a magnet design capable of producing fields approaching 15 Tesla. The simple geometry is more suitable for the use of brittle superconductors necessary to eventually reach high field levels. In addition, fewer and simpler parts are used in fabricating these coils compared with the more conventional cosine theta cross section coils. The general fabrication steps, mechanical design and quench performance are discussed.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Gourlay, S. A.; Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gupta, R.; Hannaford, R.; Harnden, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Fabrication of Racetrack Coil Accelerator Magnets

Description: Most accelerator magnets for applications in the field range up to 9 T utilize NbTi superconductor and a cosine theta coil design. For fields above 9 T, it is necessary to use Nb{sub 3}Sn or other strain sensitive materials, and other coil geometries that are more compatible with these materials must be considered. This paper describes their recent efforts to design a series of racetrack coil magnets that will provide experimental verification of this alternative magnet design for a dual aperture dipole magnet with the goal of reaching a field level of 15 T, will be described. The experimental program, which consists of a series of steps leading to a high field accelerator quality magnet, will be presented. Fabrication of a racetrack dipole magnet utilizing Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor and a wind and react approach will be presented.
Date: November 11, 1998
Creator: Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.; Gupta, R.; Harnden, W.; Lietzke, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Results for a High Field (13T) Nb3Sn Dipole

Description: A Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole magnet (D20) has been designed, constructed, and tested at LBNL. Previously, they had reported test results from a hybrid design dipole which contained a similar inner Nb{sub 3}Sn and outer NbTi winding. This paper presents the final assembly characteristics and parameters which will be compared with those of the original magnet design. The actual winding size was determined and a secondary calibration of the assembly pre-load was done by pressure sensitive film. The actual azimuthal and radial D20 pre-loading was accomplished by a very controllable novel stretched wire technique. D20 reached 12.8T(4.4K) and 13.5T(1.8K) the highest dipole magnetic fields obtained to date in the world.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: McInturff, A.D.; Benjegerdes, R.; Bish, P.; Caspi, S.; Chow, K.; Ell'Orco, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Fabrication of a 14 T, Nb3Sn Superconducting Racetrack Dipole Magnet

Description: Most accelerator magnets for applications in the field range up to 10 T utilize NbTi superconductor and a cosine theta coil design. For fields above 10 T, it is necessary to use Nb{sub 3}Sn or other strain sensitive superconductors land other coil geometries that are more compatible with these materials. This paper describes our recent efforts to design a series of racetrack coil magnets that will provide experimental verification of an alternative magnet design philosophy, with the near-term goal of reaching a field level of approximately 14 T. The conductor and fabrication issues relevant to building high field, racetrack dipoles utilizing Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor and a wind and react approach will also be discussed.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Gourlay, S.A.; Bish, P.; Caspi, S.; Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gupta, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department