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Measurements of near forward scattered laser light in a large ICF plasma

Description: We describe an instrument which measures the angular spread and spectrum of near forward scattered laser light from a probe beam in a long scalelength laser-plasma. The instrument consists of a combination of time integrating and time resolving detectors which measure the scattered light amplitude over four orders of magnitude for a range of angles. These measurements allow us to study the beam spray resulting from various laser and plasma conditions and determine the density fluctuations associated with this beam spray.
Date: June 2, 1998
Creator: Moody, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging back scattered and near back scattered light in ignition scale plasmas

Description: Diagnostics have been developed and fielded at the Nova laser facility that image scattered light in the vicinity of the final laser focusing lens. The absolute calibration of optical components exposed to the target debris have been achieved by a combination of routine in situ calibration and maintenance. The scattering observed from plasmas relevant to ignition experiments indicates that light scattered just outside the lens can be larger than that collected by the lens, and is a significant factor in the energy balance when the f number is high.
Date: May 7, 1996
Creator: Kirkwood, R.K.; Back, C.A.; Glenzer, S.H. & Moody, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid Deuterium-Tritium Surface Roughness In A Beryllium Inertial Confinement Fusion Shell

Description: Solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layers for inertial confinement fusion experiments were formed inside of a 2 mm diameter beryllium shell and were characterized using phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging. The solid D-T surface roughness is found to be 0.4 {micro}m for modes 7-128 at 1.5 K below the melting temperature. The layer roughness is found to increase with decreasing temperature, in agreement with previous visible light characterization studies. However, phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging provides a more robust surface roughness measurement than visible light methods. The new x-ray imaging results demonstrate clearly that the surface roughness decreases with time for solid D-T layers held at 1.5 K below the melting temperature.
Date: April 19, 2006
Creator: Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Moody, J D; Montgomery, D S & Gautier, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Angular Dependence of 3 Omega 0/2 Spectra from Laser-produced Plasmas

Description: Scattered light at three-halves of the incident laser frequency from solid targets is observed at five different angles. When the incident laser intensity is low enough, rescattering of two plasmon decay (TPD) instability electron plasma waves by ion acoustic waves is not significant. In this regime, Thomson scattering measurements of the electron temperature and the plasma flow velocity allow quantitative comparison of the angular dependence of the spectrum to theory.
Date: August 25, 1999
Creator: Young, P.E.; Moody, J.D. & Rhizomes, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling the Effects of IR Heating on the Fuel Layer Symetry in a Cryogenic NIF Ignition Target

Description: We use thermal conduction models to investigate the effects of tailored IR heating on the fuel layer symmetry within a target capsule supported inside of a National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum. We calculate the layer thickness profile that would result from the IR heat distribution alone and in combination with additional temperature shimming of the cylindrical hohlraum wall. We use the same model to study the effect of convection within the high density tamping gas in the hohlraum. A seven-region model was developed to evaluate how effective additional thin film convection barriers may be in damping convection with the higher power dissipation introduced by IR heating.
Date: August 22, 2003
Creator: Sanchez, J J; Giedt, W H; Kozioziemski, B J; London, R L & Moody, J D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Raman Scattering Measurements and Modeling in NIF Ignition Experiments

Description: Recent NIF indirect-drive experiments have shown significant Raman scattering from the inner beams. NIF data has motivated improvements to rad-hydro modeling, leading to the 'high flux model' [M. D. Rosen et al., HEDP 7, 180 (2011)]. Cross-beam energy transfer [P. A. Michel et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010] in the laser entrance hole is an important tool for achieving round implosions, and is uniformly distributed across the laser spot in rad-hydro simulations (but not necessarily in experiments). We find the Raman linear gain spectra computed with these plasma conditions agree well in time-dependent peak wavelength with the measured data, especially when overlapping laser-beam intensities are used. More detailed, spatially non-uniform modeling of the cross-beam transfer has been performed. The resulting gains better follow the time history of the measured backscatter. We shall present the impact of spatially non-uniform energy transfer on SRS gain. This metric is valid when amplification is in a linear regime, and so we shall also present an assessment of whether electron trapping in Langmuir waves can play a role in these shots.
Date: November 4, 2011
Creator: Strozzi, D J; Hinkel, D E; Williams, E A; Town, R J; Michel, P A; Divol, L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Infrared Exposure of Cryogenic Indirect Drive ICF Targets

Description: Cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets at the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be protected from thermal infrared radiation by a cold shroud. As the shroud is removed just before the laser pulse, infrared radiation will heat and possibly degrade the symmetry of the solid hydrogen fuel layer. A lumped component mathematical model has been constructed to calculate how long an indirect drive target can be exposed to thermal radiation before the fuel layer degrades. The allowed exposure time sets the maximum shroud removal time and therefore has important implications for the design of the cryogenic shroud systems. The model predicts that the maximum exposure time is approximately 0.18 s for plastic capsules inside hohlraums with transparent laser entrance holes. By covering the laser entrance holes with a partially reflective coating, the exposure time can be increased to approximately 1 s. The exposure time can be increased to about 2 s by using beryllium capsules. Several other design concepts could increase the exposure time even further. Lengthening of the allowed exposure time to 1 s or longer could allow a significant cost savings for the shroud system.
Date: July 8, 2005
Creator: London, R A; Moody, J D; Sanchez, J J; Sater, J D; Haid, B J & Bittner, D N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Machining For Fabrication Of Hohlraums And Capsules

Description: Laser machining technology has been used to demonstrate the ability to rapidly perform jobs on all aspects of ICF targets. Lasers are able to rapidly perform modifications and repairs to the gold metal parts on hohlraums, make cuts in the delicate polymer parts of the hohlraum, and drill holes in the capsules to enable them to be filled with fuel. Lasers investigated in this work include 193 nm ArF and 248 nm KrF excimers and 810 nm chirped-pulse amplification Ti:Sapphire lasers. The excimer lasers showed a definite advantage in drilling and machining of polymeric materials and the ultrashort infrared pulses of the Ti:Sapphire laser were far better for the gold structures.
Date: June 24, 2005
Creator: Shirk, M D; Kelly, B T; Haynes, S M; Stuart, B C; Sanchez, J J; Moody, J D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Beam Propagation through Inertial Confinement Fusion Hohlraum Plasmas

Description: A study of the relevant laser-plasma interaction processes has been performed in long-scale length plasmas that emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Experiments in this high-temperature (T{sub e} = 3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e} = 0.5 - 1 x 10{sup -3}) hohlraum plasma have demonstrated that blue 351-nm laser beams produce less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for ignition relevant laser intensities (I < 2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}). The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows that these results are relevant for the outer beams in ignition hohlraum experiments corresponding to a gain threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering of 15. By increasing the gas fill density in these experiments further accesses inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions. In this case, stimulated Raman scattering dominates the backscattering processes. They show that scattering is small for gains smaller than 20, which can be achieved through proper choice of the laser beam intensity.
Date: October 26, 2006
Creator: Froula, D. H.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N. B.; DIxit, S.; Neumayer, P.; Moody, J. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ideal Laser Beam Propagation through high temperature ignition hohlraum plasmas

Description: We demonstrate that a blue (3{omega}, 351 nm) laser beam with an intensity of 2 x 10{sup 15} W-cm{sup -2} propagates within the original beam cone through a 2-mm long, T{sub e}=3.5 keV high density (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) plasma. The beam produced less than 1% total backscatter; the resulting transmission is greater than 90%. Scaling of the electron temperature in the plasma shows that the plasma becomes transparent for uniform electron temperatures above 3 keV. These results are consistent with linear theory thresholds for both filamentation and backscatter instabilities inferred from detailed hydrodynamic simulations. This provides a strong justification for current inertial confinement fusion designs to remain below these thresholds.
Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Froula, D H; Divol, L; Meezan, N; Dixit, S; Moody, J D; Pollock, B B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parametric instabilities in large nonuniform laser plasmas

Description: The study of parametric instabilities in laser plasmas is of vital importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The long scale-length plasma encountered in the corona of an ICF target provides ideal conditions for the growth of instabilities such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and filamentation. These instabilities can have detrimental effects in ICF and their characterization and understanding is of importance. Scattering instabilities are driven through a feedback loop by which the beating between the electromagnetic EM fields of the laser and the scattered light matches the frequency of a local longitudinal mode of the plasma. Any process which interferes with the coherence of this mechanism can substantially alter the behavior of the instability. Of particular interest is the study of laser beam smoothing techniques on parametric instabilities. These techniques are used to improve irradiation uniformity which can suppress hydrodynamic instabilities. Laser beam smoothing techniques have the potential to control the scattering level from parametric instabilities since they provide not only a smoother laser intensity distribution, but also reduced coherence. Beam smoothing techniques that affect the growth of parametric instabilities include spatial smoothing and temporal smoothing by laser bandwidth. Spatial smoothing modifies the phase fronts and temporal distribution of intensities in the focal volume. The transverse intensity spectrum is shifted towards higher spatial wavenumber and can significantly limit the growth of filamentation. Temporal smoothing reduces the coherence time and consequently limits the growth time. Laser bandwidth is required for most smoothing techniques, and can have an independent effect on the instabilities as well.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Baldis, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Moody, J. D.; Estabrook, K. G.; Berger, R. L.; Kruer, W. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Studies of Convection Effects in a Cryogenic NIF Ignition Target

Description: We describe experiments which investigate convection effects on hydrogen ice layers in a transparent CH capsule suspended with a fill-tube. These experiments validate simulations which show that unmitigated convection from the hohlraum fill gas can produce significant distortions to the cryogenic hydrogen ice layer. Experimental results show good agreement with thermal simulations which include conduction and convection.
Date: August 22, 2003
Creator: Moody, J D; Sanchez, J J; Bittner, D N; Giedt, W H; London, R L; Sater, J D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging Detectors for 20-100 ke V X-ray Backlighters in HEDES Petawatt Experiments

Description: We are developing a petawatt laser for use as a high energy backlighter source in the 20{approx} 100 keV range. High energy x-ray backlighters will be essential for radiographing High-Energy- Density Experimental Science (HEDES) targets for NIF projects especially to probe implosions and high areal density planar samples. For these experiments we are employing two types of detectors: a columnar grown CsI scintillator coupled to a 2K x 2K CCD camera and a CdTe crystal with a special ASIC readout electronics in a 508 x 512 format array. We have characterized these sensors using radioactive sources. In addition, we utilized them to measure the Sm K{alpha} source size generated by the short pulse laser, JanUSP, at LLNL. This paper will present the results of our characterizations of these detectors.
Date: April 16, 2004
Creator: Wickersham, J E; Park, H; Bell, P M; Koch, J A; Landen, O L & Moody, J D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department