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Plutonium Assay in Soil at the BRC Threshold

Description: The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston has investigated the performance of low and high-resolution gamma-ray detectors for plutonium (Pu) assay in soil at the UK Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) threshold (0.4 Bq/g above the natural background activity level). The goal was a rapid and economical technique for sorting large volumes of lightly contaminated soils into above and BRC fractions. The strategy involved utilizing the relatively high yield 60 keV emission from Am-241 ingrowth (Pu-241 daughter) and known isotopic ratios. This paper covers the determination of detector response factors for an Am-241 source positioned at various locations within a circular tray of soil. These factors were weighted, according to the relative volumes that they represent, in order to derive a uniform response factor and quantify the systematic error for non-uniform activity distributions. Detection limits and random errors were also derived from the counting data. The high-resolution detector was shown to have the best detection levels and lowest systematic and random errors. However, uncertainties for non-uniform distributions of contamination were relatively large. Hence, analyzing soils at the BRC threshold would only be feasible if contamination was well distributed throughout the soil sample being monitored. Fortunately, contaminated land at AWE is generally homogeneous and so the technique has wide applicability.
Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Miller, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne National Laboratory - West's approach to filter characterization.

Description: Like other DOE facilities, ANL-W uses a variety of nuclear grade, industrial grade, or furnace-type particulate filters to control airborne radioactivity and hazardous contaminants in radiological containment structures or processes. As designed, these filters entrain and ultimately concentrate contaminants in the media. Toxic metal contaminants include cadmium, chromium, lead; and mercury present in sufficient concentrations to exhibit the hazardous waste characteristic of toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261.24. Radionuclide contaminants deposited in the media may at times accumulate in sufficient quantity to classify the filter as transuranic or remote-handled waste. Upon their removal from the ventilation system, these particulate filters become wastes, which must be characterized to determine their hazardous and radioactive classifications. A well defined filter characterization process is essential for the proper/consistent waste characterization and minimization and for maintaining personnel radiological exposures as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) (1,2). ANL-W has developed an approach to filter sampling and characterization to meet these needs. The ANL-W filter sampling and characterization process is designed to ensure representative sampling and/or process knowledge is utilized in characterizing the filters. The data obtained through sampling and/or process knowledge is used to show compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (3) and Treatment/Storage/Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria. The ANL-W filter characterization involves the collection of process information, filter handling and sampling, sample analysis, data management filter characterization, and waste handling. Each element of the process is streamlined to ensure proper characterization while minimizing radiological exposure to maintenance workers, samplers, laboratory personnel, and waste handlers.
Date: February 10, 1999
Creator: Miller, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeologic Framework Model for the Saturated Zone Site Scale flow and Transport Model

Description: The purpose of this report is to document the 19-unit, hydrogeologic framework model (19-layer version, output of this report) (HFM-19) with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The HFM-19 is developed as a conceptual model of the geometric extent of the hydrogeologic units at Yucca Mountain and is intended specifically for use in the development of the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Primary inputs to this model report include the GFM 3.1 (DTN: MO9901MWDGFM31.000 [DIRS 103769]), borehole lithologic logs, geologic maps, geologic cross sections, water level data, topographic information, and geophysical data as discussed in Section 4.1. Figure 1-1 shows the information flow among all of the saturated zone (SZ) reports and the relationship of this conceptual model in that flow. The HFM-19 is a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the hydrogeologic units surrounding the location of the Yucca Mountain geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The HFM-19 represents the hydrogeologic setting for the Yucca Mountain area that covers about 1,350 km2 and includes a saturated thickness of about 2.75 km. The boundaries of the conceptual model were primarily chosen to be coincident with grid cells in the Death Valley regional groundwater flow model (DTN: GS960808312144.003 [DIRS 105121]) such that the base of the site-scale SZ flow model is consistent with the base of the regional model (2,750 meters below a smoothed version of the potentiometric surface), encompasses the exploratory boreholes, and provides a framework over the area of interest for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport modeling. In depth, the model domain extends from land surface to the base of the regional groundwater flow model (D'Agnese et al. 1997 [DIRS 100131], p 2). For the site-scale SZ flow model, ...
Date: November 15, 2004
Creator: Miller, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxygen deficiency hazards associated with liquefied gas systems development of a program of controls

Description: The use of liquefied gases in industry and research has become commonplace. Release into the atmosphere of these gases, whether intentional or not, will result in a displacement of air and a reduction in the oxygen concentration. Exposure to reduced levels of oxygen levels may cause reduced abilities, unconsciousness, or death. This paper describes the derivation of a novel program of controls for oxygen deficiency hazards. The key to this approach is a quantitative assessment of risk for each planned operation and the application of control measures to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Five risk levels evolve which are based on the probability of fatality. Controls such as training, oxygen monitoring equipment, self-rescue respirators, and medical surveillance are required when the probability of fatality exceeds 10/sup -7/ per hour. The quantitative nature of this program ensures an appropriate level of control without undue burden or expense. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Miller, T.M. & Mazur, P.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a Mark I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

Description: A /sup 1///sub 5/-scale test facility of a pressure-suppression system from a Mark I boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy, dynamic loading data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. A total of 27 air tests have been completed with an average of 175 transducers recorded for each test. An end-to-end calibration of the total measurement system was run to establish accuracy of the data. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure-suppression system.
Date: April 25, 1978
Creator: Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G. & Miller, T.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanodroplet quantification: pushing the detection limits of micro x-ray fluorescence

Description: In this study, detection limits for a variety of elements were determined on an EDAX Eagle I1 MXRF system equipped with a polycapillary and a Rh X-ray source. Both mass, volume, and spot diameter detection limits were established using dried spot technology, where various volumes and/or masses of different elements were deposited on different substrates, dried, and quantitatively analyzed by MXRF. Preliminary results have shown that sub-nanogram levels of material can be detected in less than 200 pm diameter spot sizes deposited on thin polymer films. Specifically, detection limits were found for a given element as a function of mass deposited for a given spot volume, and volume deposited for a given mass. The effect of the presence of multiple elements in a droplet on the detection limit was also investigated. For example, the detection limit for copper was determined when it was deposited as a single Cu solution and in various multielement mixtures containing from 2 up to 10 different elements. To determine how the substrate affects the detection limit of different species, elemental dried spots were analyzed on different polymer films, including polypropylene and AP 1 . Comparisons were also made to elements deposited on different spherical, resin substrates such as polystyrene beads.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Miller, T. C. (Thomasin C.) & Havrilla, G. J. (George J.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adobe or sun-dried brick for farm buildings.

Description: Describes an efficient method of making and using adobe in the form of sun-dried bricks; describes how adobe bricks can be used in different parts of a building, such as: the roof, the boundary walls, the foundation, etc.
Date: August 1949
Creator: Miller, T. A. H. (Thomas Arrington Huntington), 1885- & Molander, Edward G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The physical properties and chemical composition of the gas within the free volume of canistered waste forms

Description: The DWPF must meet Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) for acceptance of the DWPF canistered waste forms. A number of these specifications deal with the exclusion of non-wasteglass (or foreign) materials within the canistered waste forms. Those material which are specifically excluded include the following: Free Liquids, Free Gases, other than cover or radiogenic gases, Explosives, Pyrophorics and Combustibles, and Organics. This report documents the results obtained by carrying out an assigned task as described in three task plans. The task plans cover the determination of pressure, gas composition and relative humidity of SRL canistered waste forms; and organic and inorganic analysis of volatilized and condensed species within SRL canistered waste forms. These results provide evidence to demonstrate compliance with these specifications and will be included in the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). In all, four canistered waste forms, produced during the Scale Glass Melter (SGM) campaigns, were examined. The internal gas pressure, dewpoint temperature and gas composition were determined for each canistered waste form. The experience gained in these experiments will be used to generate procedures for obtaining the same information on canistered waste forms produced during the Integrated Cold Runs (ICR). 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Harbour, J.R.; Miller, T.J. & Whitaker, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drill string enclosure

Description: This invention is comprised of a drill string enclosure which consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Jorgensen, D. K.; Kuhns, D. J.; Wiersholm, O. & Miller, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coherent electron cooling proof of principle instrumentation design

Description: The goal of the Coherent Electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment being designed at RHIC is to demonstrate longitudinal (energy spread) cooling before the expected CD-2 for eRHIC. The scope of the experiment is to longitudinally cool a single bunch of 40 GeV/u gold ions in RHIC. This paper will describe the instrumentation systems proposed to meet the diagnostics challenges. These include measurements of beam intensity, emittance, energy spread, bunch length, position, orbit stability, and transverse and temporal alignment of electron and ion beams.
Date: April 15, 2012
Creator: M., Gassner D.; Litvinenko, V.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T.; Minty, M. & Pinayev, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ce-MXRF: the power of separation with bench top element sensitive detection

Description: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a proven separation technique that offers highly efficient separation, rapid analysis, and minute sample consumption. When combined with a element specific detection scheme, it can be used for chemical speciation of biologically and environmentally relevant species such as metal containing proteins. In this study, a new tool was developed for separation and elemental detection. Specifically, a simple CE apparatus was constructed using a thin-walled fused Si capillary and interfaced with a bench top micro x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) system. X-ray excitation and detection of the separated sample volumes was performed using an EDAX Eagle II micro x-ray fluorescence system equipped with a Rh target excitation source and a SiLi detector. It was demonstrated that the system could be used for the separation and detection of two metals from one another, specifically Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. Free Co{sup 2+} could also be isolated from Co{sup 2+} bound to cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12). Other systems that were explored were the separation of two organics, ferritin from cyanocobalamin as well as the separation of the different Cu and Zn isoforms of metallothinein. CE-MXRF was also used to separate the important serum isoforms of transferrin. Direct comparisons were made between CE-MXRF system and other elemental separation techniques such as CE-PIXE, CE-synchrotron-XRF, and CE-ICPMS.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Miller, T. C. (Thomasin C.); Joseph, M. R. (Martha R.) & Havrilla, G. J. (George J.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials characterization using micro-x-ray fluorescence elemental imaging.

Description: Materials characterization continues to be a key challenge in a variety of programs. Although bulk elemental composition provides overall concentration of both major and trace elements, the distribution of these elements both on micro and macro scales can determine the performance and ultimately the physical properties of the materials. Hence elemental imaging can provide a new level of information for major and in some cases bulk trace concentrations of elements. Micro X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) offers unique capabilities in terms of elemental imaging. This approach is based on a meso scale level of resolution around 50 micrometer X-ray spot size. When coupled with a moveable stage, specimens several inches on a side can be imaged with surprising detail. In most instances, qualitative images are sufficient to illustrate the elemental heterogeneity. This information can then be used to determine if the material meets the desired physical characteristics and whether this is due to the observed heterogeneity or in spite of it. Several examples of elemental imaging will be presented. These will include the aging of polymers and the effects of residual organotin catalyst. The tin can be imaged using MXRF and has been show to be mobile within the polymeric material over time. Corrosion is a serious issue throughout the industrial world. A specific example of chloride attack on a metal, which creates problems in waste storage. Finally, MXRF used in high throughput screening in the development of novel peptide receptors will be shown. The advantage of MXRF is that no fluorescent tags need be added to the target molecules. This insures the unhindered interaction of the target molecules and allows for additional characterization using molecular spectroscopic techniques.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Havrilla, G. J. (George J.); Miller, T. C. (Thomasin C.) & Joseph, M. R. (Martha R.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demolition of an analytical laboratory hot cell facility for future refurbishment

Description: An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with current DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet ANL-W programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort had to take place. Existing equipment was removed and disposed of, including working trays and supports, lead-follow manipulators, a steel metallographic cell, penetration plugs, and the cell ventilation exhaust system. The hot cell viewing windows were removed and sent to a contractor for refurbishment. Waste generation, minimization, characterization, and packaging issues were taken into account during planning and performance of the demolition activities.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Michelbacher, J.A.; Henselee, S.P.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Coleman, R.M. & Miller, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of bulk- and surface-micromachined pressure sensors

Description: Two piezoresistive micromachined pressure sensors were compared: a commercially available bulk-micromachined (BM) pressure sensor and an experimental surface-micromachined (SM) pressure sensor. While the SM parts had significantly smaller die sizes, they were outperformed in most areas by the BM parts. This was due primarily to the smaller piezoresistive gauge factor in the polysilicon piezoresistors in the SM parts compared to the single crystal strain gauge used in the BM parts.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Eaton, W.P.; Smith, J.H.; Monk, D.J.; O`Brien, G. & Miller, T.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dew point, internal gas pressure, and chemical composition of the gas within the free volume of DWPF canistered waste forms

Description: The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) produced 55 canistered waste forms containing simulated waste glass during the four Waste Qualification campaigns of the DWPF Startup Test Program. Testing of the gas within the free volume of these canisters for dew point, internal gas pressure, and chemical composition was performed as part of a continuing effort to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications. Results are presented for six glass-filled canisters. The dew points within the canisters met the acceptance criterion of < 20{degrees}C for all six canisters. Factors influencing the magnitude of the dew point are presented. The chemical composition of the free volume gas was indistinguishable from air for all six canisters. Hence, no foreign materials were present in the gas phase of these canisters. The internal gas pressures within the sealed canisters were < 1 atm at 25{degrees}C for all six canisters which readily met the acceptance criterion of an internal gas pressure of less than 1.5 atm at 25{degrees}C. These results provided the evidence required to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Harbour, J.R.; Herman, D.T.; Crump, S.; Miller, T.J. & McIntosh, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation transport analyses in support of the SNS Target Station Neutron Beam Line Shutters Title I Design

Description: A detailed radiation transport analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) shutters is important for the construction of the SNS because of its impact on conventional facility design, normal operation of the facility, and maintenance operations. Thus far the analysis of the SNS shutter travel gaps has been completed. This analysis was performed using coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations.
Date: December 1, 2000
Creator: Miller, T.M.; Pevey, R.E.; Lillie, R.A. & Johnson, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Roof Coverings for Farm Buildings and Their Repair

Description: "This bulletin describes the common types of roof coverings classified as rigid shingles, bituminous roofing, metal roofing, and canvas roofing. The essential steps to be taken in making repairs are described and information given regarding certain roofing details." -- p. ii
Date: 1935
Creator: Edgar, Alfred D. (Alfred Douglas), 1898- & Miller, T. A. H. (Thomas Arrington Huntington), 1885-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Addendum 2: Logs of monitor wells drilled May 1988 through December 1992

Description: The logs in this addendum were plotted in a new format by the same software package (LOGGER by Rockware, Denver, CO) that was used in the original publication. The scale remains the same, 1 inch = 15 foot. The header is totally automated with a subheading indexing the well-construction symbols. Geophysical curves are labeled in their respective channels, and percentage core recovery is plotted in a histogram. Lithologic symbols are plotted to scale in a channel similar to previous logs. The lithologic description also has been automated to assure consistency in terminology. Descriptions are more extensive and are referenced by leader lines to the lithologic symbol. Additional figures included for this Addendum are: a plot of all the monitoring well locations at the LLNL Main site and a plot detailing the gasoline spill area well locations in the vicinity of Building 403.
Date: November 1993
Creator: Stout, J.; Qualheim, B.; McPherrin, R.; Barber, K.; Hedegaard, R.; McConihe, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controls system developments for the ERL facility

Description: The BNL Energy Recovery LINAC (ERL) is a high beam current, superconducting RF electron accelerator that is being commissioned to serve as a research and development prototype for a RHIC facility upgrade for electron-ion collision (eRHIC). Key components of the machine include a laser, photocathode, and 5-cell superconducting RF cavity operating at a frequency of 703 MHz. Starting with a foundation based on existing ADO software running on Linux servers and on the VME/VxWorks platforms developed for RHIC, we are developing a controls system that incorporates a wide range of hardware I/O interfaces that are needed for machine R&amp;D. Details of the system layout, specifications, and user interfaces are provided.
Date: October 7, 2011
Creator: Jamilkowski, J.; Altinbas, Z.; Gassner, D.; Hoff, L.; Kankiya, P.; Kayran, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RHIC electron lens test bench diagnostics

Description: An Electron Lens (E-Lens) system will be installed in RHIC to increase luminosity by counteracting the head-on beam-beam interaction. The proton beam collisions at the RHIC experimental locations will introduce a tune spread due to a difference of tune shifts between small and large amplitude particles. A low energy electron beam will be used to improve luminosity and lifetime of the colliding beams by reducing the betatron tune shift and spread. In preparation for the Electron Lens installation next year, a test bench facility will be used to gain experience with many sub-systems. This paper will discuss the diagnostics related to measuring the electron beam parameters.
Date: May 16, 2011
Creator: Gassner, D.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department