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Reactor Safety Quarterly Progress Report for January-March 1957

Description: ABS>Seven special safety elements of the Mark II design were rebuilt and are ready for resumption of lifetime testing. Precision-cast parts were received for ten Mark IV highpressure chambers; one set was assembled and pressdre tested to 2000 psi. Two special assemblies of the NAA 1093 experiment were completed and are being shipped to Hanford. Conductivity measurements on stainles s steel were continued in an effort to determine the cause of erratic behavior of the variable-cooled trigger. A vacuum chamber was used in am effort to eliminate local heat loss due to convection. A study of corrosion rates of various container materials in liquid-metal poisons was umdertaken. Experiments with the differential-pressure device on the rate of pressure rise thnt can be achieved by electrically heating a closed gas volume were continued. An exponential generator is being constructed to enable simulation of reactor periods from 30 msec to one sec. Three types of research reactor safety device were chosen for further study: the pyrophoric, the double-diaphragm, and the electronic-explosive. Preparations are in process for demonstrating models of the latter two devices in the KEWB facility. (For preceding period see NAA-SR1954.) (M.H.R.)
Date: December 1, 1957
Creator: Miller, N.C. ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of water quality on pile operation

Description: Tests have been made to study the effects of lowering process water pH from pH 7.7 to the range pH 6.2--7.3; of reducing the amount of sodium dichromate inhibitor added to the water; and of eliminating the filtration step in the water treatment process. The results on the pH testing showed that reducing the pH of the cooling water would reduce aluminum corrosion rates. The plant specification has been changed to lower process water pH from 7.7 to 7.3 and plant scale testing of pH 7.0 water is in progress. Reducing the dichromate concentration in the water from 2 to 0.2 ppm had no deleterious effects on the aluminium pile components but might cause pitting of the carbon steel pile effluent lines. The use of unfiltered water is technically feasible from the stand-points of corrosion and film formation but probably would cause a sizable increase in the radioactivity of the pile effluent water. 6 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: September 23, 1955
Creator: Miller, N.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Automated Land Analysis System (ALAS) for applications at a range of spatial scales: Watershed to global

Description: Recent advances in Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data availability and topographic analysis have enabled us to develop an Automated Land Analysis System (ALAS). ALAS is based on a series of codes which determine topographic and hydrologic characteristics at each pixel, watershed, and each large scale cell. The input requirements are a DEM from any location in the world, it`s resolution, and array size. A Motif accessed script reads in these inputs and generates a series of data sets which further describe the watershed properties such as flow directions, hydrologic characteristic probability density functions, etc.). Postscript files and arrays indicating the fme river networks and each subcatchment, as well as numerous other properties, are produced and catalogued. The motivation behind the development of ALAS is a direct response to the conceptualization of convergent scales between hydrologic and atmospheric models as defined by the World Climate Research Programme. The remainder of this paper highlights ALAS components, capabilities, and provides some discussion on its applications.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Miller, N.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Safety Program

Description: While the safety status of the Richland facilities has in the past been deemed adequate all aspects of nuclear technology have progressed and evolved including standards of nuclear safety. During FY 1968 the nuclear safety R&D efforts continued along the lines and at about the schedule predicted at the beginning of the year. Hence, the safety problems to be studied have been identified and the program seems well-defined. While some program modifications and changes in emphasis are to be expected, the five-year outline shown here is considered to be a reasonable representation of the safety work of highest priority to be studied.
Date: May 8, 1968
Creator: Miller, N.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromechanical polishing of metal spheres

Description: Equipment has been developed to electromechanically polish metal spheres. Mechanical polishing is accomplished by the action of three cup-shaped laps which rotate against the sphere. An abrasive slurry containing an electrolyte is continuously applied to the sphere and laps. Electrochemical etching is accomplished by applying a positive potential to two of the laps and a negative potential to the third.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Miller, N.E. & Engelhaupt, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A hierarchical framework for coupling surface fluxes to atompsheric general circulation models: The homogeneity test

Description: The atmosphere and the biosphere are inherently coupled to one another. Atmospheric surface state variables such as temperature, winds, water vapor, precipitation, and radiation control biophysical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes at the surface and subsurface. At the same time, surface fluxes of momentum, moisture, heat, and trace gases act as time-dependent boundary conditions providing feedback on atmospheric processes. To understand such phenomena, a coupled set of interactive models is required. Costs are still prohibitive for computing surface/subsurface fluxes directly for medium-resolution atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs), but a technique has been developed for testing large-scale homogeneity and accessing surface parameterizations and models to reduce this computational cost and maintain accuracy. This modeling system potentially bridges the observed spatial and temporal ranges yet allows the incorporation of necessary details about individual ecological community types or biomes and simulates the net momentum, heat, moisture, and trace gas fluxes. This suite of coupled models is defined here as the hierarchical systems flux scheme (HSFS).
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Miller, N.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

Description: This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Wurm, K.J. & Miller, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROTOTYPE GAGES TO MEASURE PLATE SPACING IN FLAT FUEL-PLATE SUBASSEMBLIES

Description: The feasibillty of two types of gages for measuring the plate separation in flat fuel-plate subassemblies was investigated with experimental model gages. One gage is based on a four-arm strain-gage bridge mounted on a flexible beryllium-copper beam. The deflection of the sensing beam as the gage traverses the channel is continuously reconded by a strsin-gage analyzer. The second gage is a liquid-filled system consisting of a small flat plunger-and-cylinder arrangement. A rubber diaphragrn betwecn the piston and the cylinder serves as the seal. As the element is inserted in the space between the plates, the piston is forced into the cylinder. The liquid, distilled water, thus displaced expands an external bellows. The variable expausion during a scan is measured by a differential transformer and recorded. The recorded output frnm either gage is directly proportional to the actual channel spacing and is reproducible to within 0.001 in. The general performances of the two gages are equivalent except that an error of about 0.001 In, is introduced into the calibration of the hydraulic gage for each 3 deg F change in ambient temperature. The strain-gage-type is temperature compensated. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1959
Creator: Miller, N.E.; Weaver, C.V. & Goldthwaite, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model

Description: The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model has been under development since 1991. The unique system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post- processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow model, and (4) a suite of crop response models. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. This three-component version of RCSM has been tested, validated, and successfully used for operational quantitative precipitation forecasts and seasonal water resource studies over the southwestern US. We are currently implementation and validating the fourth component, the Decision Support system for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). A description of the UC-LLNL RCSM and some recent results are presented.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Miller, N.L. & Kim, Jinwon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative precipitation and river flow predictions over the southwestern United States

Description: Accurate predictions of local precipitation and river flow are crucial in the western US steep terrain and narrow valleys can cause local flooding during short term heavy precipitation. Typical size of hydrologically uniform watersheds within the mountainous part of the western US ranges 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} km{sup 2}. Such small watershed size, together with large variations in terrain elevations and a strong dependence of precipitation on terrain elevation, requires a find-resolution and well-localized NWP to improve QPF and river predictions. The most important aspects of accurate QPF and river flow predictions in the western US are: (1) partitioning the total precipitation into rainfall and snowfall, (2) representing hydrologic processes within individual watersheds, and (3) map watershed areas onto the regularly-spaced atmospheric grid model grid. In the following, we present the QPF and river flow calculations by the CARS system during two winter seasons from Nov. 1994 to Apr. 1995.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Kim, J. & Miller, N.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A coupled atmosphere-river flow simulation in California during the 1994-1995 winter

Description: Calculation of river flow is important for managing reservoirs and flood forecasting. In the western United States, a complex terrain which is characterized by steep slopes and narrow valleys often cause a substantial rise of river levels in a short period during heavy precipitation events. Since flood control is one of the major tasks of reservoir operation, inaccurate predictions of precipitation and river flow may cause flooding or waste of water resources. Accurate calculations of river flow need accurate liquid water input to the river system at scales of individual watersheds. Precipitation and snowmelt are the most important natural source of water for a river. Reservoir operations significantly affect river flow in the western United States. Factors such as instantaneous soil water content, vegetation cover, terrain slope and ground water table structure are also crucial for river flow calculation. There are two types of precipitation: rain and snowfall. River flow quickly responds to rainfall while snowfall does not directly affect river flow until it melts afterwards. Therefore, these two types of precipitation must be separately provided to the river flow model for correct calculation of river flows. A large portion of snowfall is accumulated at high terrain during winter months in the western United States. Accumulation of snow causes the river flow to respond to instantaneous precipitation with a certain amount of time lag. During warm springs, large amounts of snowmelt can even cause local flooding. Hence, accurate estimation of snowmelt is another important step for calculating river flows. River flows are affected many different atmospheric and land surface processes. Therefore, a well-designed numerical modeling system which includes atmospheric-surface-hydrologic processes and is coupled to large-scale atmospheric data is an important tool for predicting and diagnosing local river flows and water resources.
Date: September 28, 1995
Creator: Kim, J. & Miller, N.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

URANIUM-SERIES DISEQUILIBRIUM IN TUFF AND GRANITE:HYDROGEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

Description: Uranium occurs naturally at trace levels in the major rock-forming minerals (quartz, feldspars, micas) in volcanic and plutonic rocks and is concentrated in accessory minerals (zircon, sphene, apatite). It may attain concentrations as high as 1000 ppm in the accessory minerals. Radiometric age determinations on zircon and sphene have shown that uranium migration from these minerals is generally negligible over prolonged periods of geologic time. Zircon grains separated from highly weathered igneous rocks have been found to retain most of their uranium. In contrast, the uranium fixed onto mineral grain boundaries or present in less-resistant minerals such as biotite or hornblende can be readily leached by groundwater. The ubiquitous presence of uranium in a rock makes it an ideal ''natural analogue'' for understanding the mobility of uranium at a potential site for nuclear fuel waste disposal and one that is easily overlooked in the search for suitable analogues for a disposal site. Several of the intermediate radionuclides in the decay series of the two long-lived isotopes of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) have half-lives greater than one year and are, therefore, of geological interest. In a sealed rock mass with no water-rock interactions, all intermediate radionuclides attain radioactive equilibrium with one another within a maximum 1-2 million years. Because rocks of the Yucca Mountain area and the Canadian Shield (both potential sites for nuclear waste disposal in the United States and Canadian programs, respectively) are considerably older, this condition (known as secular equilibrium) should exist in these rocks, and all daughter/parent radionuclide activity ratios should equal unity (1.000). If the ratios are found not to equal unity, then the rock has been disturbed, probably by groundwater transport of more soluble radionuclides into or away from the rock. How recently this migration has occurred can be determined from the half-life ...
Date: October 27, 2000
Creator: Gasscoyne, M. & Miller, N.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The quality of the ELCAP (End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program) engineering data set: Background issues

Description: The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983. Prior to beginning ELCAP, there was an abundance of information regarding total power consumption for residential structures in the Pacific Northwest, through billing records for example, and limited information regarding power consumption by various end uses (such as hot water, heating and cooling). This program, conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, involves collecting and analyzing hourly end-use data in commercial and residential buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The purpose of this document is to provide background information to analyses that may use ELCAP data. In general, the ELCAP data set is extremely high in quality, but analysts should be aware of potential problems that could exist with a data set of this size. This report describes the quality of the ELCAP data and emphasizes the guidelines for data review along with limitations and suggestions regarding engineering and characteristics data including missing data values, procedures for time-stamp assignments, and incomplete integration periods. 3 figs.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Crowder, R.S. III & Miller, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion of 2-S Aluminum in Potassium Tetraborate Solution

Description: From summary: "A laboratory test was conducted to determine the feasibility of using an uninhibited solution of potassium tetraborate in steam condensate as a material for a pile ink facility. The evaluation was made from the standpoints of 2-5 aluminum corrosion, the rate and composition of film build-up on aluminum flow surfaces, and the change of solution composition."
Date: 1957
Creator: Miller, N. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report on Production Test 105-526-E -- Elimination of lime as a process water additive

Description: Interest in using low pH water (pH 6.5--7.3) for cooling Hanford reactors dates back to carly laboratory investigation. Work has consistently shown that the use of this low pH water should reduce overall corrosion rates of the aluminum components. Work done by Draley at the Clinton Laboratories with simulated Columbia River water showed that aluminum corrosion rates at 80 C were minimized at pH 6.5. These results were later substantiated by work at Hanford by the CMX Project. (Z) In spite of these results. the original specifications called for the process water pH to be maintained in the range 7.5--7.8. This report details the data obtained from tests on the 100-F reactor at Hanford.
Date: June 20, 1955
Creator: Miller, N. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Geothermal Technology Program: Hawaii glass project. Final report

Description: Objective was to develop a glass utilizing the silica waste material from geothermal energy production, and to supply local artists with this glass to make artistic objects. A glass composed of 93% indigenous Hawaiian materials was developed; 24 artists made 110 objects from this glass. A market was found for art objects made from this material.
Date: January 20, 1988
Creator: Miller, N. & Irwin, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A hierarchical framework for coupling surface fluxes to atompsheric general circulation models: The homogeneity test

Description: The atmosphere and the biosphere are inherently coupled to one another. Atmospheric surface state variables such as temperature, winds, water vapor, precipitation, and radiation control biophysical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes at the surface and subsurface. At the same time, surface fluxes of momentum, moisture, heat, and trace gases act as time-dependent boundary conditions providing feedback on atmospheric processes. To understand such phenomena, a coupled set of interactive models is required. Costs are still prohibitive for computing surface/subsurface fluxes directly for medium-resolution atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs), but a technique has been developed for testing large-scale homogeneity and accessing surface parameterizations and models to reduce this computational cost and maintain accuracy. This modeling system potentially bridges the observed spatial and temporal ranges yet allows the incorporation of necessary details about individual ecological community types or biomes and simulates the net momentum, heat, moisture, and trace gas fluxes. This suite of coupled models is defined here as the hierarchical systems flux scheme (HSFS).
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Miller, N. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contributions to RL-3-0 summary nuclear safety program - Mission 8

Description: The Nuclear Safety Mission consists of seven programs of broad integrated experimental and analytical studies designed to answer long-standing nuclear safety questions and thus assist in providing safeguards against nuclear accidents. It will provide data leading to the technical bases for controlling the consequences of postulated nuclear incidents. Safety standards in the area of nuclear and radiological control are tending towards increased restrictions. As this trend continues it will be necessary for Richland facilities to either show compliance or modify facilities for compliance with new standards.
Date: June 19, 1967
Creator: Miller, N. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eastern Frequency Response Study

Description: This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S. & D'Aquila, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

Description: This paper presents an overview of the variable characteristics of solar power, as well as the accompanying grid dynamic performance and operational economics for a system with significant solar generation. The paper will show results of economic operational simulations of a very high solar generation future for the western half of the United States.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Lew, D.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Jordan, G. & Gao, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of land use change on the local climate over the Tibetan Plateau

Description: Observational data show that the remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) has a significant downward trend over the east Tibetan Plateau (TP), while a warming trend is found in the same area. Further analysis indicates that this warming trend mainly results from the nighttime warming. The Single-Column Atmosphere Model (SCAM) version 3.1 developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is used to investigate the role of land use change in the TP local climate system and isolate the contribution of land use change to the warming. Two sets of SCAM simulations were performed at the Xinghai station that is located near the center of the TP Sanjiang (three rivers) Nature Reserve where the downward LAI trend is largest. These simulations were forced with the high and low LAIs. The modeling results indicate that, when the LAI changes from high to low, the daytime temperature has a slight decrease, while the nighttime temperature increases significantly, which is consistent with the observations. The modeling results further show that the lower surface roughness length plays a significant role in affecting the nighttime temperature increase.
Date: April 1, 2010
Creator: Jin, J.; Lu, S.; Li, S. & Miller, N.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department