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Prospects for DNA methods to measure human heritable mutation rates

Description: A workshop cosponsored by ICPEMC and the US Department of Energy was held in Alta, Utah, December 9-13, 1984 to examine the extent to which DNA-oriented methods might provide new approaches to the important but intractable problem of measuring mutation rates in control and exposed human populations. The workshop identified and analyzed six DNA methods for detection of human heritable mutation, including several created at the meeting, and concluded that none of the methods combine sufficient feasibility and efficiency to be recommended for general application. 8 refs.
Date: June 14, 1985
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human somatic, germinal and heritable mutagenicity

Description: This report deals with the general process of variant formation rather than with the consequences of a specific variant being present. It focusses on mutational mechanisms, mutagens, and the method for detecting de novo mutants and estimating mutation rate. It is to human genetics much like disease causation and prevention medicine are to medicine as a whole. The word ''mutagenicity'' is used in the title and throughout the text to connote the causation of all classes of genetic damage. Mutagenicity and the corresponding words mutation, mutagen and mutagenesis can have multiple meaning, sometimes relating to gene mutation, sometimes to heritable mutation, and somtimes to all types of genetic damage. 38 refs., 1 tab.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

Description: The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

Description: Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references.
Date: June 29, 1984
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of group III A and IV A element substitutions (M) on the hydrogen dissociation pressures of LaNi/sub 5-x/M/sub x/ hydrides

Description: Ternary modifications of the hydrogen absorbing alloy LaNi/sub 5/ have been found to have a large effect on the hydrogen dissociation pressure of the corresponding hydride. A series of alloys LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 6/M/sub 0/ /sub 4/ (M = Al, Ga, In, Sn) were studied to establish the effect of various group III A and IV A element substitutions on the dissociation pressures of their corresponding hydrides. Results were extended to include the alloys LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 6/Si/sub 0/ /sub 4/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 6/Ge/sub 0/ /sub 4/ and LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 4/B/sub 0/ /sub 6/. Further dissociation pressure measurements were made on the alloy LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 6/Ga/sub 0/ /sub 4/ as well as two additional indium alloys. The data obtaned for the three indium alloys appear to follow a linear correlation of lnP or ..delta..G with the amount of substituted element as has been previously observed for Al.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.H. & Gruen, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxygen-stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

Description: An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound is described which has the formula (Zr/sub 1-x/Ti/sub x/)/sub 2-u/(V/sub 1-y/Fe/sub y/)O/sub z/ where x = 0.0 to 0.9, y = 0.01 to 0.9, z = 0.25 to 0.5 and u = 0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196/sup 0/C to 200/sup 0/C at pressures down to 10/sup -8/ torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.
Date: June 16, 1981
Creator: Mendelsohn, M H & Gruen, D M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials engineering of metal hydrides

Description: Intermetallic hydrides of the AB/sub 5/ type have enthalpies in the range valid for chemical heat pumps. A scheme for manufacturing hydrides with optimal properties for a chemical heat pump is described, using LaNi/sub 5-x/Al/sub x/ and ZrV/sub 2x/Cr/sub x as examples. The Laves-phase ternary hydrides appear to be good candidates for gettering hydrogen in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Gruen, D.M. & Mendelsohn, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them

Description: Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Mendelsohn, M. & Kreycik, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.

Description: Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for ...
Date: November 27, 2006
Creator: Mendelsohn, M. H. & Livengood, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financing U.S. Renewable Energy Projects Through Public Capital Vehicles: Qualitative and Quantitative Benefits

Description: This paper explores the possibility of financing renewable energy projects through raising capital in the public markets. It gives an overview of the size, structure, and benefits of public capital markets, as well as showing how renewable energy projects might take advantage of this source of new funds to lower the cost of electricity.
Date: April 1, 2013
Creator: Mendelsohn, M. & Feldman, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-mutational model for cancer based on age-time patterns of radiation effects: 2. Biological aspects

Description: Biological properties of relevance when modeling cancers induced in the atom bomb survivors include the wide distribution of the induced cancers across all organs, their biological indistinguishability from background cancers, their rates being proportional to background cancer rates, their rates steadily increasing over at least 50 years as the survivors age, and their radiation dose response being linear. We have successfully described this array of properties with a modified Armitage-Doll model using 5 to 6 somatic mutations, no intermediate growth, and the dose-related replacement of any one of these time-driven mutations by a radiation-induced mutation. Such a model is contrasted to prevailing models that use fewer mutations combined with intervening growth. While the rationale and effectiveness of our model is compelling for carcinogenesis in the atom bomb survivors, the lack of a promotional component may limit the generality of the model for other types of human carcinogenesis.
Date: September 4, 1997
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.L. & Pierce, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.

Description: Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less than $5,000/ton ...
Date: November 3, 1999
Creator: Livengood, C. D. & Mendelsohn, M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactions of gaseous, elemental mercury with dilute halogen solutions

Description: Of the trace elements known to exist in fossil fuels, mercury (Hg) has emerged as one of the greatest concerns. Mercury has been found to be emitted from combustion in at least two different chemical forms: elemental Hg and oxidized Hg compounds. Precise identification of the oxidized compounds emitted has not been accomplished to date. However, most workers in this field assume that mercuric chloride should be the predominant oxidized species. Mercuric chloride should be readily removed in a wet scrubber system because of its relatively high solubility in water. However, it has been presumed, and we have shown, that elemental Hg will pass through a wet scrubber system with little or no removal being effected. Therefore, it is important, in order to obtain a high total Hg removal, to study methods that might result in a removal of gaseous, elemental Hg from a flue-gas stream. In this regard, we have been studying the effect of dilute halogen-containing solutions on elemental Hg in gas streams of various compositions. In particular, the results of passing Hg through bubblers containing solutions of iodine, chlorine, and chloric acid are described. Mercury found in the bubbler solutions is an indication of the extent of reaction (oxidation) of elemental Hg with the halogen species, since we have found very little Hg transferred to the liquid phase when only distilled water is used in the bubblers. Results using commercial iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and NOXSORB (sup TM) solutions are presented and discussed.
Date: July 1996
Creator: Mendelsohn, M. H. & Livengood, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new method for oxidation of gaseous, elemental mercury.

Description: Elemental mercury (Hg) is difficult to remove from flue-gas streams using existing wet-scrubber technology, primarily because of its limited volubility in water. We have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing gaseous Hg{sup 0}removal in wet scrubber systems by altering the chemical form of the Hg{sup 0} to a water-soluble oxidized species. Recently, we have discovered a new method for injection of the oxidizing species that dramatically improves reactant utilization and at the same time gives significant nitric oxide (NO) oxidation as well. Our method uses a diluted oxidizing solution containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate (sold commercially as NOXSORB{trademark}). When this solution is injected into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} at about 300 F, we found that nearly 100% of the Hg{sup 0} was removed from the gas phase and was recovered in liquid samples from the test system. At the same time, approximately 80% of the added NO was also removed (oxidized). The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on this method was also investigated, and it appears to decrease slightly the amount of Hg oxidized. We are currently testing the effect of variations in oxidizing solution concentration, SO{sub 2} concentration, NO concentration, and reaction time (residence time).
Date: August 23, 1999
Creator: Livengood, C. D. & Mendelsohn, M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation and some properties of Cu-Li alloys containing up to 20 at. % Li

Description: Lithium strongly segregates to the surface of Cu-Li alloys, thus substantially lowering the Cu sputtering yield relative to pure Cu. Use of Cu-Li limiters or divertors in tokamaks can therefore be expected to be beneficial in limiting high-Z plasma impurity influx. A large scale (100-200g) method for the preparation of Cu-Li alloys is described. Analysis reveals that on solidification from the melt stratification occurs which leads to compositional inhomogeneity. The results are discussed in the light of the Cu-Li binary phase diagram and rationalized on the basis of large density differences between Cu and Cu-Li solid solutions. It is concluded that obtaining homogeneous Cu-Li solid solutions is a nontrivial task.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.; Krauss, A.R. & Gruen, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent results on the preparation and properties of Li-containing Cu alloys

Description: Homogeneous solid solutions of Li in copper have been prepared containing up to 6 to 8 at. % Li. However, the possible metastable nature of these materials has not yet been fully investigated. The existence of a unique intermetallic compound near the composition Cu/sub 4/Li is currently being investigated by single crystal x-ray diffraction and powder neutron diffraction techniques. The copper-lithium binary alloy has demonstrated potential as a means of forming a self-sustaining coating for the reduction of sputtering-induced erosion in fusion applications. The initial performance under high flux conditions is strongly dependent on the lithium content and method of preparation.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M. & Krauss, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of stability on waste produced in pilot plant testing using ferrous{center_dot}EDTA and magnesium-enhanced lime for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal

Description: A pilot-plant-scale study of combined sulfur dioxide/nitrogen oxides (SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}) removal has been performed by the Dravo Lime Company at the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company`s Miami Fort Station in North Bend, Ohio. This study used Dravo`s patented Thiosorbic{reg_sign} lime process, utilizing a magnesium-enhanced lime, along with Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) patented ARGONOX metal-chelate additive, ferrous{center_dot}ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Fe{center_dot}EDTA). For approximately nine months, scrubbing tests were carried out, and waste samples were collected. Waste testing at ANL involved two types of long-term chemical stability experiments. In one experiment, the gas-phase composition above several different samples was studied by mass spectrometry over a period of about 22 months. Significant changes were noted for oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) gases. The other experiment involved solid-phase leaching using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Samples were stored for up to 14 months before leaching. Then each leachate was tested for total Kjeldahl nitrogen and for some nitrogen-containing species. Total leachable nitrogen was found to stabilize after about the first seven months of storage.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Mendelsohn, M. H. & Livengood, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

Description: As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.
Date: February 1, 2013
Creator: Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B. & Hill, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

Description: Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T. & Canavan, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

Description: To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P. & Cory, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential of Securitization in Solar PV Finance

Description: This report aims to demonstrate, hypothetically and at a high level, what volumes of solar deployment could be supported given solar industry access to the capital markets in the form of security issuance. Securitization is not anticipated to replace tax equity in the near- to mid-term, but it could provide an additional source of funds that would be comparatively inexpensive and could reduce the weighted average cost of capital for a given solar project or portfolio. Thus, the potential to securitize solar assets and seek financing in the capital markets could help to sustain the solar industry when the investment tax credit (ITC) -- one of the federal incentives that has leveraged billions of dollars of private capital in the solar industry -- drops from 30% to 10% at the close of 2016. The report offers analysis on the size of the U.S. third-party financed solar market, as well as on the volumes (in MW) of solar asset origination possible through a $100 million securitization fund (assuming no overcollateralization). It also provides data on the size of the relevant securities markets and how the solar asset class may fit into these markets.
Date: December 1, 2013
Creator: Lowder, T. & Mendelsohn, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Qualifications for Treating Photovoltaic Assets as Real Property by Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)

Description: It has been proposed that Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) have the potential to lower the cost and increase the adoption of photovoltaic systems (PV) by offering a more attractive source of capital. The purpose of this paper is to explain the fundamental physical characteristics of PV and compare them to the characteristics of 'real' property, to help determine whether REITs can own PV systems.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Feldman, D.; Mendelsohn, M. & Coughlin, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department