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Contribution to the United States position paper on sodium fires: Design basis and testing

Description: There were four large-scale sodium fire tests completed to provide a data base for computer code validation; three for the ABCOVE program and one for the SOFICOV program. The purpose of the ABCOVE program is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of existing aerosol behavior computer codes to describe inherent aerosol attenuation in containment buildings during postulated accidents. The program involves both analytical calculations by code developers and users, and large-scale confirmatory tests in the 850-m/sup 3/ containment vessel of the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. A key element of both programs is that all code calculations are made without knowledge of the experimental results, and thus, provide a true measure of the code capabilities without benefit of post-test fitting.
Date: June 1, 1988
Creator: McCormack, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sodium fire aerosol loading capacity of several sand and gravel filters

Description: Improved specific loading capacity for sodium fire aerosols was the objective of a sand and gravel test series. The aerosol capacity and related differential pressure of eight aggregate filters is presented. A maximum specific aerosol capacity, for dry aerosol, of 2.4 kg (Na) m/sup -2/ was obtained. This filter was loaded to a final differential pressure of 2.6 kPa. The average superficial face velocity was 0.5 cm/s and the average efficiency was 99.8%. The test results indicate that filter capacity increases with aerosol moisture content and with decreasing superficial velocity.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Barreca, J.R. & McCormack, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerosol measurement techniques and accuracy in the CSTF. [LMFBR]

Description: The Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) provides the capability of performing large-scale aerosol behavior experiments at a scale factor of approximately 0.5 in height for a typical reactor containment building. The containment height is 20.3 m, the volume is 850 m/sup 3/, the design pressure is 5 bar, and quantities of sodium up to 1250 kg can be sprayed or spilled for sodium combustion product aerosol sources. Instrumentation is provided for characterization of the aerosol and the containment atmosphere. This paper describes the aerosol sampling techniques and instruments used in the CSTF and discusses their accuracy and reproducibility.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: McCormack, J.D. & Hilliard, R. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results and code predictions for ABCOVE (aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation) aerosol code validation with low concentration NaOH and NaI aerosol: CSTF test AB7

Description: A program for aerosol behavior validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The third large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB7, was performed in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF vessel with a two-species test aerosol. The test conditions involved the release of a simulated fission product aerosol, NaI, into the containment atmosphere after the end of a small sodium pool fire. Four organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using five computer codes. Two of the codes (QUICKM and CONTAIN) were discrete, multiple species codes, while three (HAA-3, HAA-4, and HAARM-3) were log-normal codes which assume uniform coagglomeration of different aerosol species. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for eight key aerosol behavior parameters. 11 refs., 44 figs., 35 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1985
Creator: Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D. & Muhlestein, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-scale tests of aqueous scrubber systems for LMFBR vented containment

Description: Six large-scale air cleaning tests performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) are described. The test conditions simulated those postulated for hypothetical accidents in an LMFBR involving containment venting to control hydrogen concentration and containment overpressure. Sodium aerosols were generated by continously spraying sodium into air and adding steam and/or carbon dioxide to create the desired Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ or NaOH aerosol. Two air cleaning systems were tested: (a) spray quench chamber, educator venturi scrubber and high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series; and (b) the same except with the spray quench chamber eliminated. The gas flow rates ranged up to 0.8 m/sup 3//s (1700 acfm) at temperatures to 313/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Quantities of aerosol removed from the gas stream ranged up to 700 kg per test. The systems performed very satisfactorily with overall aerosol mass removal efficiencies exceeding 99.9% in each test.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K. & Postma, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerosol behavior during sodium pool fires in a large vessel: CSTF tests AB1 and AB2

Description: Two large-scale aerosol behavior tests, using sodium pool fires as the aerosol source, were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The tests were conducted to characterize the properties and behavior of sodium aerosol particles formed and aged in a large containment vessel. The 20-m high, 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF containment building in regard to parameters that affect agglomeration and gravitational settling. In both tests, sodium burned for one hour in a 4.38-m/sup 2/ pool, and the only difference between them was that steam was injected during the second test, simulating the release of water vapor from heated concrete.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D. & Postma, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent aerosol tests in the Containment Systems Test Facility

Description: The Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) is a 20-meter high, 850m/sup 3/ model containment vessel in which various sodium fire aerosol air cleaning tests are studied for purposes of developing and proof testing air cleaning techniques. The first series of tests was designed to study the properties of sodium fire aerosols without any air cleaning and to provide a data base for model verification using large-scale experiments. To date, three such tests (two pool fire and one spray fire) have been completed and are being analyzed. These tests will be discussed, as will plans for the air cleaning tests to follow.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K. & Postma, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

Description: Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D. & POSTMA, A K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary results of CSTF aerosol behavior test, AB-1. [LMFBR]

Description: A large-scale aerosol behavior test (AB-1) was performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) containment vessel using sodium oxide aerosol generated by a pool of sodium burning in air. The purpose was to characterize the aerosol properties and compare the experimental results with computer code predictions. The 20-meter high CSTF vessel is by far the largest ever used in aerosol agglomeration studies and is approximately half-scale of large commercial reactor containment buildings for the parameters affecting particle agglomeration and settling.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Hassberger, J.A. & Muhlestein, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

Description: A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na/sub 2/0/sub 2/ and Na0H aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na/sub 2/0/sub 2/ and Na0H and >99.7% for NaI.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hilliard, R. K.; McCormack, J. D.; Postma, A. K. & Owen, R. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerosol behavior during sodium spray fires and comparison with computer codes. [LMFBR]

Description: The results of sodium spray fires in air in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF vessel are discussed. During these tests, sodium at 600/sup 0/C was sprayed downward through commercial nozzles located 16 m above the floor. Test AB3 released 48 kg of sodium spray in 140 seconds with 670-..mu..m MMD drop size and produced a maximum pressure increase of 0.041 MPa and 30 g/m/sup 3/ of airborne sodium compounds. Test NT-1 sprayed 82 kg of sodium at 320 ..mu..m MMD drop size over 4.7 hours. In both tests, large stable temperature gradients, not predicated by pre-test SPRAY computer code calculations, were observed. Also, post-test estimations of pressure and aerosol concentration made using SPRAY and HAA-3B codes exceeded actual values measured. Thus, the codes conservatively over-predicted the aerosol leakage potential. The experimental data and the SPRAY and HAA-3B code calculations are compared and discussed.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K. & Owen, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Attenuation of airborne debris from LMFBR accidents

Description: Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to characterize the behavior of airborne particulates (aerosols) expected to be produced by hypothetical core disassembly accidents (HCDA's) in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). These aerosol studies include work on aerosol transport in a 20-m high, 850-m/sup 3/ closed vessel at moderate concentrations; aerosol transport in a small vessel under conditions of high concentration (approx. 1000 g/m/sup 3/), high turbulence, and high temperature (approx. 2000/sup 0/C); and aerosol transport through various leak paths. These studies have shown that little, if any, airborne debris from LMFBR HCDA's would reach the atmosphere exterior to an intact reactor containment building.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Morewitz, H. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Nelson, C. T.; Vaughan, E. U.; Guderjahn, C. A.; Hilliard, R. K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States position paper on sodium fires: Design basis and testing

Description: When aerosols generated by sodium fires are released to the atmosphere, they are of concern in two primary areas. First, these aerosols may adversely impact the health of persons exposed to them. Second, the air intake ports that are used for reactor cooling might suffer restricted flow under high aerosol concentrations. We have performed studies related to both of these areas. The Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model (Slase 1968) is the most widely used approach for modeling the atmospheric concentration and deposition of aerosols for health impact assessments. We have compared predictions from one implementation of this model (Fields and Miller 1980) with actual measured air and ground concentrations for sodium aerosols released to the atmosphere (Miller, Fields, and Wiseman 1982). The observed values used in this study come from seven atmospheric sodium release tests conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during 1978 and 1979. An important consideration when evaluating the possible consequences of a sodium fire is the sodium aerosol concentration at the air intake ports that are used for reactor cooling, which may suffer restricted flow under high aerosol concentrations. We have devised and applied a methodology for estimating the concentration of aerosols released vertically and horizontally from building surfaces and monitored at other building surface points. We have used this methodology to make calculations that indicate the time development of aerosol buildup, and the maximum aerosol concentrations, at air intake ports. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Lancet, R.T.; Johnson, R.P.; Matlin, E.; Vaughan, E.U.; Fields, D.E.; Gluekler, E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department