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Portland cement: A solidification agent for low-level radioactive waste

Description: This bulletin discusses the solidification of waste streams using portland-type cement to provide the structural stability required by 10 CFR 61. Portland cement has been used in this role since early in the commercial nuclear program as a simple and inexpensive solidification medium for immobilization of radioactive wastes. Through the use of additives, most waste streams can be satisfactorily immobilized with portland cement. However, some problem waste streams can not be solidified with portland cement at this time, and those are discussed in this document.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Examination plan for the soils and low-level radioactive waste forms of the NRC field testing lysimeters.

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The lysimeter is a useful experimental device that is providing source term data and can be used to determine waste form stability. Lysimeters are ideal systems for obtaining actual field test data because, when properly designed and operated, they can be used to isolate soil and waste systems under actual environmental conditions. Such conditions cannot be duplicated by standard laboratory testing. The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental plan for the examination of the waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays, which have now been shut down. During this examination, it is planned to characterize the waste forms after removal from the lysimeter and to compare those findings to the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores have been taken from the soil columns and will be analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST-predicted releases to those previously determined and ...
Date: January 16, 1998
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment models.

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-117 prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. The program includes reviewing radionuclide releases from those waste forms in the first 7 years of sampling and examining the relationship between code input parameters and lysimeter data. Also, lysimeter data are applied to performance assessment source term models, and initial results from use of data in two models are presented.
Date: January 14, 1998
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Examination plan for the soils and low-level radioactive waste forms of the NRC field testing lysimeters

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. Lysimeters are ideal systems for obtaining actual field test data because, when properly designed and operated, they can be used to isolate soil and waste systems under actual environmental conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental plan for the examination of the waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays, which have now been shut down. Vertical soil cores have been taken from the soil columns and will be analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST-predicted releases to those previously determined and reported from the lysimeter leachate analyses. That comparison uses new partition coefficients (Kd) recently obtained from laboratory analysis of the lysimeter soils and sand. Those DUST code results also will be compared to actual radionuclide movements through the soil columns as determined from soil core analysis.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D. & Jastrow, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of aging on compressive strength of low-level radioactive waste form samples

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose ion-exchange resins. Compressive tests were performed periodically over a 12-year period as part of the Technical Position testing. Results of that compressive testing are presented and discussed. During the study, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested. This testing was designed to examine the effects of aging caused by self-irradiation on the compressive strength of the waste forms. Also presented is a brief summary of the results of waste form characterization, which has been conducted in 1986, using tests recommended in the Technical Position on Waste Form. The aging test results are compared to the results of those earlier tests. 14 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: June 1996
Creator: McConnell, J. W., Jr. & Neilson, R. M., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Classification of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system components according to importance to safety

Description: This report provides a graded approach for classification of components used in transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage systems. This approach provides a method for identifying, the classification of components according to importance to safety within transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. Record retention requirements are discussed to identify the documentation necessary to validate that the individual components were fabricated in accordance with their assigned classification. A review of the existing regulations pertaining to transportation packagings and dry storage systems was performed to identify current requirements The general types of transportation packagings and dry storage systems were identified. Discussions were held with suppliers and fabricators of packagings and storage systems to determine current practices. The methodology used in this report is based on Regulatory Guide 7.10, Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in the Transport of Radioactive Material. This report also includes a list of generic components for each of the general types of transportation packagings and spent fuel storage systems. The safety importance of each component is discussed, and a classification category is assigned.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: McConnell, J.W., Jr; Ayers, A.L. Jr & Tyacke, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation degradation in EPICOR-2 ion exchange resins

Description: The Low-Level Waste Data base Development -- EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is investigating chemical and physical conditions for organic ion exchange resins contained in several EPICOR-II prefilters. Those prefilters were used during cleanup of contaminated water from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station after the March 1979 accident. The work was performed by EG G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho Engineering Laboratory. This is the final report of this task and summarizes results and analyses of three samplings of ion exchange resins from prefilters PF-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated resins supplied by Epicor, Inc. to determine the extent of degradation due to the high internal radiation dose received by the organic resins. Results also are compared with those of other researchers. 18 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Johnson, D.A. & Sanders, R.D. Sr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disposal demonstration of a high integrity container (HIC) containing an EPICOR-II prefilter from Three Mile Island

Description: A high integrity container (HIC) was developed, tested, and certified for use in disposing of unusual low-level radioactive waste from Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The work was coordinated by EG and G Idaho, Inc. and funded by the US Department of Energy. A disposal demonstration using an HIC containing an EPICOR-II prefilter from TMI-2 was completed at the commercial disposal facility in the State of Washington. A Certification of Compliance was issued by the Department of Social and Health Services of the State of Washington to use the HIC in disposing of up to 50 EPICOR-II prefilters. That Certification of Compliance was issued after rigorous review of the HIC design and test program by the State and by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes the processes of loading, transporting, and disposing of the demonstration HIC and briefly describes the design, testing, and approval effort leading up to the demonstration.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Tyacke, M.J.; Schmitt, R.C. & Reno, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment source term codes

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II{sup c} prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first seven years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to be used in performance assessment source term models is presented. Initial results from use of data in two models are discussed.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: McConnell, J. W. Jr.; Rogers, R. D. & Sullivan, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Lysimeter Investigations - test results: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1994-1995

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (1) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (2) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (3) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (4) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the final 2 (10 total) years of data acquisition from operation of the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s {open_quotes}Technical Position on Waste Form{close_quotes} are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period. At the end of the tenth year, the experiment was closed down. Examination of soil and waste forms is planned to be conducted next and will be reported later.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: McConnell, J. W., Jr.; Rodgers, R. D.; Hilton, L. D. & Neilson, R. M., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

Description: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H. & McConnell, J.W. Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiment close out of lysimeter field testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and the contents of the lysimeters have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radio nuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the examination of waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays after shut down. During this examination, the waste forms were characterized after removal from the lysimeters and the results compared to the findings of the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores were taken from the soil columns and analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides in the soils after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST and BLT code predictions of releases and movement, using recently developed partition coefficients and leachate measurements, to actual radio nuclide movement through the soil columns as determined from these core analyses.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D. & Jastrow, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2, Annual report for FY 1994

Description: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program is to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that will be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluating the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites are being employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results over the past year on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of the annual report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides has been developed during this study.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H. & McConnell, J.W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 1, Annual report for FY 1993

Description: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews laboratory efforts that are being developed to address the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are being employed that are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. Sufficient data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW has been developed during the course of this study. These data support the continued development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbially induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form. They also justify the continued effort of enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Rogers, R. D.; Hamilton, M. A.; Veeh, R. H. & McConnell, J. W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of recovering hazardous waste from phenolic resin filters

Description: A method has been found for treating phenolic resin filter, whereby the filter is solubilized within the filter cartridge housing so the filter material can be removed from the cartridge housing in a remote manner. The invention consists of contacting the filter within the housing with an aqueous solution of about 8 to 12M nitric acid, at a temperature from about 110 to 190{degree}F, maintaining the contact for a period of time sufficient to solubilize the phenolic material within the housing, and removing the solubilized phenolic material from the housing, thereby removing the filter cartridge from the housing. Any hazardous or other waste material can then be separated from the filter material by chemical or other means.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Meikrantz, D. H.; Bourne, G. L.; McFee, J. N.; Burdge, B. G. & McConnell, J. W. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of field testing of radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining informaiton on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first six years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to use in performance assessment models is presented. Initial results from use of data in a performance assessment model are discussed.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: McConnell, J. W., Jr.; Rogers, R. D.; Jastrow, J. D. & Wickliff, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results after ten years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters. The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental results of two lysimeter arrays after 10 years of operation, and to compare those results to bench test results and to DUST code predictions of releases using recently developed partition coefficients. This paper discusses soil and waste form sampling in which vertical cores were removed from the lysimeter soil columns for laboratory characterization. Soils will be analyzed for radionuclide movement. Further analysis of soil cores taken to define the observed upward migration of radionuclides in one lysimeter is also presented.
Date: May 1997
Creator: McConnell, J. W., Jr.; Rogers, R. D.; Jastrow, J. D.; Sanford, W. E.; Cline, S. R.; Sullivan, T. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results after nine years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. Ion-exchange resins from a nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using Portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. This paper reviews radionuclide releases from those waste forms in the first 9 years of sampling. Included is a discussion of the recently discovered upward migration of radionuclides. Also, lysimeter data are applied to a performance assessment source term model, and initial results are presented.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E. & Sullivan, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field lysimeter investigations: Low-level waste data base development program for fiscal year 1996. Annual report; Volume 9

Description: A data base development program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose the ion-exchange resins. During the field testing experiments, both portland type 1--2 cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The study was designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over an extended period. Those experiments have been shut down and are to be exhumed. This report discusses the plans for removal, sampling, and analysis of waste form and soil cores from the lysimeters. Results of partition coefficient determinations are presented, as well as application of a source term computer code using those coefficients to predict the lysimeter results. A study of radionuclide-containing colloids associated with the leachate waters removed from these lysimeters is described. An update of upward migration of radionuclides in the sand-filled lysimeter at ORNL is included.
Date: August 1997
Creator: McConnell, J. W., Jr.; Rogers, R. D.; Larsen, I. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Sanford, W. E.; Sullivan, T. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results after ten years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters. The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental results of two lysimeter arrays after 10 years of operation, and to compare those results to bench test results and to DUST code predictions of releases using recently developed partition coefficients. This paper discusses soil and waste form sampling in which vertical cores were removed from the lysimeter soil columns for laboratory characterization. Those samples will be analyzed for radionuclide movement from the waste forms and through the soil columns. Further analysis of soil cores taken to define the observed upward migration of radionuclides in one lysimeter is also presented.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Cline, S.R.; Sullivan, T.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term lysimeter field testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. Ion-exchange resins from a nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl esterstyrene. These waste forms are being tested to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment and to develop a low-level waste data base. Radionuclide releases from those waste forms during the first 9 years of sampling have been evaluated. Also, upward migration of radionuclides was recently discovered. Lastly, lysimeter data are applied to a performance assessment source term model.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E. & Sullivan, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results after ten years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl esterstyrene. These waste forms are being tested to: (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters. The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental results of two lysimeter arrays over 10 years of operation, and to compare those results to bench test results and to DUST code predicted releases. Further analysis of soil cores taken to define the observed upward migration of radionuclides in one lysimeter is also presented.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Larsen, I.L. & Sullivan, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiment close out of lysimeter testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

Description: The program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms (WFs). These experiments were recently shut down and the contents of the lysimeters have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the examination of waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays after shut down. During this examination, the waste forms were characterized after removal from the lysimeters and the results compared to the findings of the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores were taken from the soil columns and analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides in the soils after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST code predictions of releases using recently developed partition coefficients to actual radionuclide movement through the soil columns as determined from these core analyses. This paper discusses soil and waste form sampling in which vertical cores were removed from the lysimeter soil columns for laboratory characterization. Those samples will be analyzed for radionuclide movement from the waste forms and through the soil columns.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Cline, S.R.; Sullivan, T.M. & Reed, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program for fiscal year 1994. Annual report, Volume 7

Description: The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Compressive test results of 11-year-old cement and vinyl ester-styrene solidified waste forms are presented, which show effects of aging and self-irradiation. Results of the ninth year of data acquisition from the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E. & Sullivan, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department