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Diffusion modeling of fission product release during depressurized core conduction cooldown conditions

Description: A simple model for diffusion through the silicon carbide layer of TRISO particles is applied to the data for accident condition testing of fuel spheres for the High-Temperature Reactor program of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Categorization of sphere release of {sup 137}Cs based on fast neutron fluence permits predictions of release with an accuracy comparable to that of the US/FRG accident condition fuel performance model. Calculations are also performed for {sup 85}Kr, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 110m}Ag. Diffusion of cesium through SiC suggests that models of fuel failure should consider fuel performance during repeated accident condition thermal cycling. Microstructural considerations in models in fission product release are discussed. The neutron-induced segregation of silicon within the SiC structure is postulated as a mechanism for enhanced fission product release during accident conditions. An oxygen-enhanced SiC decomposition mechanism is also discussed. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Martin, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomedical neutron research at the Californium User Facility for neutron science

Description: The Californium User Facility for Neutron Science has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Californium User Facility (CUF) is a part of the larger Californium Facility, which fabricates and stores compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for worldwide distribution. The CUF can provide a cost-effective option for research with {sup 252}Cf sources. Three projects at the CUF that demonstrate the versatility of {sup 252}Cf for biological and biomedical neutron-based research are described: future establishment of a {sup 252}Cf-based neutron activation analysis system, ongoing work to produce miniature high-intensity, remotely afterloaded {sup 252}Cf sources for tumor therapy, and a recent experiment that irradiated living human lung cancer cells impregnated with experimental boron compounds to test their effectiveness for boron neutron capture therapy.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Martin, R.C.; Byrne, T.E. & Miller, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Description: The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL has petitioned to establish a Californium-252 User Facility for Neutron Science for academic, industrial, and governmental researchers. The REDC Californium Facility (CF) stores the national inventory of sealed {sup 252}Cf neutron source for university and research loans. Within the CF, the {sup 252}Cf storage pool and two uncontaminated hot cells currently in service for the Californium Program will form the physical basis for the User Facility. Relevant applications include dosimetry and experiments for neutron tumor therapy; fast and thermal neutron activation analysis of materials; experimental configurations for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis; neutron shielding and material damage studies; and hardness testing of radiation detectors, cameras, and electronics. A formal User Facility simplifies working arrangements and agreements between US DOE facilities, academia, and commercial interests.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Martin, R.C.; Laxson, R.R. & Knauer, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

Description: The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed {sup 252}Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies ...
Date: October 3, 1999
Creator: Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B. & Martin, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the radiation damage of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets.

Description: Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are highly desirable for use in the insertion devices of synchrotron radiation sources due to their high remanence, or residual magnetic induction, and intrinsic coercivity. However, the radiation environment within high-energy electron storage rings necessitates the determination of the degree of radiation sensitivity as well as the mechanisms of radiation-induced demagnetization. A 0.5% change in the residual induction due to radiation damage cannot be tolerated in these devices. Sample Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets were irradiated at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) with bending magnet x-rays up to an absorbed dose of approximately 280 Mrad (1 Mrad = 10 kGy). Sample magnets were also irradiated with 60 Co {gamma}-rays up to an absorbed dose of 700 Mrad at the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) standard gamma irradiation facility. Changes in the residual induction were found to be within the experimental uncertainties for both the x-ray and {gamma}-ray irradiations. Sample Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets were then irradiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Californium User Facility for Neutron Science with fast neutrons up to a total fast fluence of 1.61 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} and with thermal neutrons up to a total thermal fluence of 2.94 x 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}. The fast-neutron irradiation with a {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source revealed significant changes in residual induction of the sample magnets.
Date: February 14, 2002
Creator: Job, P.K.; Alderman, J.M.; Martin, R.C. & Simmons, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron dosimetry for low dose rate Cf-252 AT sources and adherence to recent clinical dosimetry protocol for brachytherapy

Description: In 1995, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 (AAPM TG-43) published a protocol obsoleting all mixed-field radiation dosimetry for Cf-252. Recommendations for a new brachytherapy dosimetry formalism made by this Task Group favor quantification of source strength in terms of air kerma rather than apparent Curies or other radiation units. Additionally, representation of this dosimetry data in terms of radial dose functions, anisotropy functions, geometric factors, and dose rate constants are in an angular and radial (spherical) coordinate system as recommended, rather than the along-away dosimetry data (Cartesian coordinate system) currently available. This paper presents the initial results of calculated neutron dosimetry in a water phantom for a Cf-252 applicator tube (AT) type medical source soon available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F. & Martin, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A New Simplified System for the Evaluation of BNCT Pharmaceuticals

Description: A system for testing potential BNCT pharmaceuticals in cell cultures has been developed with the cooperation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the University of Tennessee Chemistry Department and the University of Tennessee Nuclear Engineering Department. A BNCT test model has been established with the use of the human lung cancer cell line A 549. These cells were maintained in standard laboratory facilities and subjected to boronated chemicals. Following toxicity studies the human luug cancer cells were exposed to {sup 252}Cf neutron sources provided by the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL The isotope {sup 252}Cf performs effectively for BNCT applications. The neutron spectrum is similar to that of a reactor fission source with an average energy of 2.1 MeV. A 50 mg source of {sup 252}Cf moderated by water provides a source on the order of 1 x 10{sup 9} thermal neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at a distance of 3 cm. The half-life of {sup 252}Cf is 2.65 years, and thus may provide a simple and reliable source of neutrons for BNCT in locations without suitable nuclear reactors. The REDC of ORNL stores and processes the U.S. stockpile of {sup 252}Cf.
Date: September 13, 1998
Creator: Byrne, T.E.; Kabalka, G.W.; Martin, R.C. & Miller, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of high-activity {sup 252}Cf sources for neutron brachytherapy

Description: The Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center of Wayne State University (WSU), Detroit, Michigan, is using {sup 252}Cf medical sources for neutron brachytherapy. These sources are based on a 20-year-old design containing {le} 30 {micro}g {sup 252}Cf in the form of a cermet wire of Cf{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a palladium matrix. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been asked to develop tiny high-activity {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for use with remote afterloading equipment to reduce treatment times and dose to clinical personnel and to expedite treatment of brain and other tumors. To date, the REDC has demonstrated that {sup 252}Cf loadings can be greatly increased in cermet wires much smaller than before. Equipment designed for hot cell fabrication of these wires is being tested. A parallel program is under way to relicense the existing source design for fabrication at the REDC.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Martin, R.C.; Laxson, R.R.; Miller, J.H.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Rivard, M.J. & Marsh, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

Description: The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide {sup 252}Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world`s largest inventory of compact {sup 252}Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of {le} 10{sup 11} neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at the sample. Total flux of {ge}10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the {sup 252}Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Martin, R.C.; Smith, E.H.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Marsh, D.L. & Zhao, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The status of low dose rate and future of high dose rate Cf-252 brachytherapy

Description: This work describes the current status of the US low dose rate (LDR) Cf-252 brachytherapy program. The efforts undertaken towards development of a high dose rate (HDR) remotely after loaded Cf-252 source, which can accommodate 1 mg or greater Cf-252, are also described. This HDR effort is a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), commercial remote after loader manufactures, the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center (ROC), and Wayne State University. To achieve this goal, several advances in isotope chemistry and source preparation at ORNL must be achieved to yield a specific material source loading of greater than or equal 1 mg Cf-252 per mm3. Development work with both radioactive and non-radioactive stand-ins for Cf-252 have indicated the feasibility of fabricating such sources. As a result, the decreased catheter diameter and computer controlled source placement will permit additional sites (e.g. brain, breast, prostate, lung, parotid, etc.) to be treated effectively with Cf-252 sources. Additional work at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) remains in source fabrication, after loader modification, and safe design. The current LDR Cf-252 Treatment Suite at the ROC is shielded and licensed to hold up to 1 mg of Cf-252. This was designed to maintain cumulative personnel exposure, both external to the room and in direct isotope handling, at less than 20 microSv/hr. However, cumulative exposure may be greatly decreased if a Cf-252 HDR unit is employed which would eliminate direct isotope handling and decrease treatment times from tilde 3 hours to an expected range of 3 to 15 minutes. Such a Cf-252 HDR source will also demonstrate improved dose distributions over current LDR treatments due to the ability to step the point-like source throughout the target volume and weight the dwell time accordingly.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Rivard, M. J.; Wierzbicki, J. G.; Van den Heuvel, F.; Chuba, P. J.; Fontanesi, J.; Martin, R. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department