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Attributes of system testing which promote cost-effectiveness

Description: A brief overview of conventional EMP testing activity examines attributes of overall systems tests which promote cost-effectiveness. The general framework represents an EMP-oriented systems test as a portion of a planned program to design, produce, and field system elements. As such, all so- called system tests should play appropriate cost-effective roles in this program, and the objective here is to disclose such roles. The intrinsic worth of such tests depends not only upon placing proper values on the outcomes, but also upon the possible eventual consequences of not doing tests. A relative worth measure is required. Attributes of EMP system testing over the range of potential activity which encompasses research and development, production, field handling, verification, evaluation, and others are reviewed and examined. Thus, the relative worth, in a cost-effective sense, is provided by relating such attributes to the overall program objectives so that values can be placed on the outcomes for tradeoff purposes. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1975
Creator: Martin, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What Einstein Did Not Know

Description: This public lecture is about 100 years of research on elementary particles and fundamental forces, beginning with the identification of the electron about 1900 and extending to the astonishing discovery of Dark Matter in the late 1900s. The author talks about the elementary particle concept; the discoveries of leptons, quarks and force carrying particles; and some of the experimental technology used. The author tells of his own research, the discovery of the tau lepton, the long, inconclusive search for fractional charged particles and his new involvement in astronomical research on Dark Matter. He concludes by looking ahead to old unsolved puzzles and new questions on the fundamental nature of matter and force that face us in the 21st Century.
Date: February 2, 2007
Creator: Perl, Martin L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Searches for Fractionally Charged Particles: What Should Be Done Next?

Description: Since the initial measurements of the electron charge a century ago, experimenters have faced the persistent question as to whether elementary particles exist that have charges that are fractional multiples of the electron charge. I concisely review the results of the last 50 years of searching for fractional charge particles with no confirmed positive results. I discuss the question of whether more searching is worthwhile?
Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Perl, Martin L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Contrarian View of How to Develop Creativiity in Science and Engineering

Description: This paper outlines what an individual engineer or scientist can do to increase her or his creativity. It then describes what educators can do and makes two proposals: (a) Reduce the number of courses required for undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering and science and (b) change the nature of laboratory courses and Ph. D. research so that students have the freedom to try out their own ideas, with the expectation that they will make mistakes and will both expand their creativity and learn more, by doing.
Date: November 8, 2007
Creator: Perl, Martin L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A semigraphical method for the determination of the rolling characteristics of rolleron-equipped missiles

Description: From Summary: "A semigraphical analysis method has been devised to evaluate the effectiveness and dynamic stability of rolleron roll-rate dampers on missile configurations. The necessary charts, equations, and the analysis procedure have been presented. The greatest utility of these charts and of the method outlined is that, once a point on the charts has been established at a given flight condition, if the response is not acceptable than the necessary modifications to the parameters of the system are readily seen."
Date: November 29, 1956
Creator: Nason, Martin L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of an aeromechanical method of minimizing servo- missile transfer function variations with flight condition

Description: Report presenting a theoretical investigation to determine the static and dynamic characteristics of a control-surface actuator and missile combination, with primary consideration given to the minimization of the effects of Mach number and altitude.The results indicate that the type of actuator studied in combination with a missile might replace a gain-adjusted acceleration control system. Results regarding the control-system static characteristics, control-system dynamic characteristics, comparison of torposervo and position-servo actuation, and some suggestions for further research are provided.
Date: April 18, 1956
Creator: Nason, Martin L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of organic ligands on the soil behavior of technetium-99

Description: Results of studies on the effects of organics on /sup 99/Tc mobility are reported. The effects of organics (EDTA,DTPA and citrate) on the sorption/migration of Tc is examined from two aspects, first by desorption techniques where reduced, sorbed Tc is exposed to organic ligands; and second, by exposure of synthetic Tc-organic complexes to soils. A calcareous, sandy, loam Hanford soil (pH approx. 8.2) was used. Very little desorption of the reduced Tc has occurred both in the 10 day study (95-87% remains sorbed for 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -8/ M levels even at cit/Tc - 10,000= and even less desorption is observed in the extended 45 day study (95-90% remains sorbed for 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -9/ M levels). Similar results were also observed when a stronger chelating agent such as EDTA was used. Approximately 95% of the reduced Tc remains sorbed for the 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -6/ M levels and approx. 70 remains sorbed at 10/sup -7/ M.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Martin, L.Y. & Franz, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tau physics at future facilities

Description: This paper dicusses and projects the tau research which may be carried out at CESR, at BEPC, at the SLC, in the next few years at LEP I, at the asymmetric B-factories under construction in Japan and the United States and, if built, a tau-charm factory. As the size of tau data sets increases, there is an increasing need to reduce the effects of systematic errors on the precision and search range of experiments. In most areas of tau physics there is a large amount of progress to be made, but in a few areas it will be difficult to substantially improve the precision of present measurements.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Perl, Martin L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tau Physics

Description: This report discusses the following topics: {tau} production and related {tau} properties; general discussion of {tau} decays; leptonic decays; hadronic decays; the {tau} in atomic physics; and the {tau} neutrino: {nu}{sub {tau}}
Date: March 1993
Creator: Perl, Martin L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Maturity and Organic Facies of Devonian Shales From Selected Wells

Description: An organic geochemical study was performed on core samples of the Devonian shale from wells in Ohio, Kentucky, and Illinois. The thermal maturity of the organic matter (kerogen) contained in the fine-grained sediments was investigated by vitrinite reflectance and kerogen coloration (Thermal Alteration Index). The results indicate that the organic matter has been thermally matured to the early stages of petroleum and associated gas generation. A suite of geochemical analyses designed to evaluate the organic richness, the hydrocarbon potential for gas, condensate, and/or oil, and the type of organic matter was performed on the samples analyzed for thermal maturity. In general, two types of organic facies were encountered. The rich organic facies (A) is characterized by abundant gas, gasoline, and gas-oil hydrocarbons, a high organic carbon content, and organic matter prone to gererate abundant oil and associated gas. Based on the geochemical data, a second type of organic facies (B) interbedded with the rich organic facies (A) was encountered in Kentucy and Ohio wells. Organic facies B consists of sediments relatively lean in organic carbon and gas-oil hydrocarbons, and abundant gas and gasoline hydrocarbons. In most cases, facies B is composed of woody and coaly types of kerogen. The woody-coaly kerogen is presumed to indicate a nonmarine derived depositional source prone to generate predominately gas (methane).
Date: October 1, 1976
Creator: Zielinski, R. E. & Martin, L. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and Characterization of Graded Impedance Gas Gun Impactors from Tape Cast Metal Powders

Description: Fabrication of compositionally graded structures for use as light-gas gun impactors has been demonstrated using a tape casting technique. Mixtures of metal powders in the Mg-Cu system were cast into a series of tapes with uniform compositions ranging from 100% Mg to 100% Cu. The individual compositions were fabricated into monolithic pellets for characterization by laminating multiple layers together, thermally removing the organics, and hot-pressing to near-full density. The pellets were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and measurement of density and sound wave velocity. The density and acoustic impedance were observed to vary monotonically (and nearly linearly) with composition. Graded structures were fabricated by stacking layers of different compositions in a sequence calculated to yield a desired acoustic impedance profile. The measured physical properties of the graded structures compare favorably with those predicted from the monolithic-pellet characteristics. Fabrication of graded impactors by this technique is of significant interest for providing improved control of the pressure profile in gas gun experiments.
Date: November 21, 2005
Creator: Martin, L P & Nguyen, J H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

Description: The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Moore, K.; Martin, L. & Smith, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of reduced 99/Tc and 99/Tc organic complexes on Hanford soil

Description: Both synthetically and naturally derived organic complexing agents in soil have been found in other studies to accelerate the rate of migration of specific radionuclides. In an effort to aid in the development of comprehensive plans for the disposal of low-level waste, the effect of organic complexing agents on the transport properties of /sup 99/Tc, a long-lived constituent of radioactive waste, was examined. The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and sodium citrate on the mobility of reduced Tc species was examined from two aspects: first, by techniques of desorption from soil in which reduced, sorbed Tc was exposed to solutions of organic ligands; and second, by exposure of synthetic Tc-organic complexes to soils. Only a slight desorption of reduced Tc from Hanford soil by EDTA was found to occur in 10-day desorption tests. However, when synthetic EDTA and DTPA complexes of reduced Tc were exposed to soil under similar conditions, only a slight amount of Tc was sorbed by the soil. This comparison clearly shows that at least one type of test did not reach equilibrium in the 10-day time period allowed. Although the effects of these complexants at equilibrium cannot be quantified from these data, it is obvious that they can have large effects on the mobility of reduced Tc. Desorption tests of reduced Tc from Hanford soil by citrate solutions showed definite indications of desorption only at a relatively high (0.01 M) citrate concentrations. Results with synthetic Tc(IV) and Tc(V) citrate complexes indicate the Tc(V) citrate complex to be strongly sorbed, while the Tc(IV) citrate complex was sorbed only slightly.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Franz, J.A.; Martin, L.Y. & Wiggins, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Replacement fuel scoping studies for the Annular Core Research Reactor

Description: Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) is undertaking a new mission for the Department of Energy: production of the radioisotope {sup 99}Mo used in nuclear medicine applications. Isotope production is significantly different from previous programs conducted at the ACRR that typically required high intensity, short duration pulses. The current UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel will power the initial startup phase of the production program, and can perform exceptionally well for this mission. However, this type of fuel is no longer available, commercially or otherwise. This paper presents the results of some preliminary studies of commercially available fuels.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Hays, K.; Martin, L. & Parma, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight investigation to evaluate the roll-rate stabilization system of the Naval Ordnance Test Station SIDEWINDER missile at Mach numbers from 0.9 to 2.3

Description: Report presenting a flight investigation using a rocket-powered model to evaluate the roll-rate stabilization of the Naval Ordnance Test Station SIDEWINDER missile, which uses aerodynamic damping by gyro-actuated rollerons. Dynamic roll instability was found to occur in flight.
Date: April 29, 1954
Creator: Brown, Clarence A., Jr. & Nason, Martin L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The tau-charm factory: Concept and construction

Description: The first part of this paper explains the tau-charm factory concept: a high luminosity, low-energy, two-ring, electron-positron collider which enables precise and probing studies of the physics of the charm quark, tau lepton, and tau neutrino. The second part describes the plans for construction of a tau-charm factory in Spain. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Perl, Martin L. & Niemi, Gary D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1994

Description: Experiments on flotation of 60--200 mesh treated Illinois No. 6 coal (PSOC-1539) and Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) were performed. The coals were treated with 20-ppM alcohol aqueous solutions (soln) for 1-24 hours at the 0.002-g/min mass flow rate at 225C. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal, treated with 1-propanol aqueous solution, increases with treatment durations for the first 10 hours and then decreases. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal, treated with isopropanol soln increases with treatment durations for the first 18 hours and then levels off. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal, treated with butanol soln, increases with treatment durations. Flotation of 1-butanol-treated Illinois No. 6 coal is higher than that of t-butanol-treated Illinois No. 6 coal. Flotation of Illinois No. 6 coal, treated with 20-ppM-isobutanol 20-ppM-HCl soln, increases with treatment durations for the first 10 hours treatment period, and then decreases sharply with treatment durations. Flotation of Wyodak coal, treated with water only, increases with treatment durations. Effects of water treatment on flotation of Wyodak coal are significantly pronounced compared to Illinois No. 6 coal.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Kwon, K. C. & Martin, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

Description: The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Moore, K.; Martin, L. & Smith, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impedance Analysis of Electrochemical NOx Sensor Using a Au/Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ)/Au cell

Description: An electrochemical cell employing a YSZ electrolyte and two Au electrodes was utilized as a model system for investigating the mechanisms responsible for impedance metric NO{sub x} (NO and NO{sub 2}) sensing. The cell consists of two dense Au electrodes on top of a porous/dense YSZ bilayer structure (with the additional porous layer present only under the Au electrodes). Both electrodes were co-located on the same side of the cell, resulting in an in-plane geometry for the current path. The porous YSZ appears to extend the triple phase boundary and allows for enhanced NO{sub x} sensing performance, although the exact role of the porous layer is not completely understood. Impedance data were obtained over the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz, and over a range of oxygen (2 to 18.9%) and NO{sub x} (10 to 100 ppm) concentrations, and temperatures (600 to 700 C). Data were fit with an equivalent circuit, and the values of the circuit elements were obtained for different concentrations and temperatures. Changes in a single low-frequency arc were found to correlate with concentration changes, and to be temperature dependent. In the absence of NO{sub x}, the effect of O{sub 2} on the low-frequency resistance could be described by a power law, and the temperature dependence described by a single apparent activation energy at all O{sub 2} concentrations. When both O{sub 2} and NO{sub x} were present, however, the power law exponent varied as a function of both temperature and concentration, and the apparent activation energy also showed dual dependence. Adsorption mechanisms are discussed as possibilities for the rate-limiting steps.
Date: November 20, 2006
Creator: Woo, L Y; Martin, L P; Glass, R S & Gorte, R J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department