69 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Assessment of the Effects of Interpersonal Openness and Coping Resources on the Psychological Sequelae of Traumatic Victimization

Description: The present study tested a model addressing whether interpersonal Openness and interpersonal and intrapersonal Coping Resources mediated the relationship between interpersonal Victimization and the Psychological Symptoms women experience as a result of these traumas. Victimization indicators (physical violence, sexual assault, psychological abuse, and revictimization), Coping indicators (optimism, self-esteem, private self-consciousness, social network and therapy), Openness indicators (self-silencing, communal orientation, trust, self-monitoring, and network orientation), and Psychological Symptoms indicators (global distress, dissociation, and suicidal ideation) were examined separately for African American (n = 245), Euro-American (n = 185), and Mexican American (n = 202) women. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that for African American and Euro-American women, Openness partially mediated the victimization-distress relationship. The model for Mexican Americans was the most complex with Openness and intrapersonal Coping fully mediating the psychological effects of victimization. Approximately 50% of the variance in psychological symptoms resulting from victimization was predicted by this model for African American and Euro-American women; over 80% of the variance was predicted for Mexican Americans. Thus, the importance of Openness to relationships in alleviating the psychological sequelae following interpersonal victimization was underscored by the results. Similarities and differences between these models are discussed. Implications of the results for future research and intervention are addressed.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Sedillo, Diane Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Affect of Coping on the Physical and Mental Health of Abused Women

Description: Thesis written by a student in the UNT Honors College discussing the role of coping on the physical and mental health symptoms of women in abusive relationships. It is hypothesized that sustained partner abuse will be associated with mental and physical health symptoms and that coping will mediate these effects. Psychological abuse was found to have the strongest impact on women's physical and mental health.
Date: Spring 2003
Creator: Chase, Amanda L.
Partner: UNT Honors College

Religiosity as a moderator of anger in the expression of violence by women

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of women's anger and religiosity on their expression of violence toward their partner. The sample consisted of the 664 women who completed three interviews for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women, a study of low-income, ethnically diverse women in Dallas county. Across the waves, women completed measures of relationship violence, anger, and religiosity. Religiosity was not found to moderate the relationship between women's anger and their use of violence. When partners' threats and violence were included in the regression equations, these variables were consistently related to women's behavior. Due to several methodological limitations, clinical implications of the results should be considered with caution.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Wilson, Jennifer L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Patterns of Relationship Violence among Low Income Women and Severely Psychologically Abused Women

Description: Little research has addressed the degree to which domestic violence is mutual and whether patterns are stable across women's relationships. Studies that exist have conflicting results. This study addressed these issues and the effects of sustaining past violence on women's expressions of violence in their current relationship. Archival data from a sample of severely psychologically abused community women (N = 92) and a sample of low-income community women (N = 836) were analyzed. Results showed the presence of mutual violence in women's current relationships which was not related to past partners' violence. Results regarding the stability of violence are weak, but indicate that the frequency and severity of violence across relationships sustained by women does not decrease across relationships. Overall, results supported the hypothesis that violence is mutual in the relationships of community women, although specific patterns may differ by ethnicity.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Weston, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality and Rater Leniency: Comparison of Broad and Narrow Measures of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness

Description: Performance appraisal ratings provide the basis for numerous employment decisions, including retention, promotion, and salary increases. Thus, understanding the factors affecting the accuracy of these ratings is important to organizations and employees. Leniency, one rater error, is a tendency to assign higher ratings in appraisal than is warranted by actual performance. The proposed study examined how personality factors Agreeableness and Conscientiousness relate to rater leniency. The ability of narrower facets of personality to account for more variance in rater leniency than will the broad factors was also examined. The study used undergraduates' (n = 226) evaluations of instructor performance to test the study's hypotheses. In addition to personality variables, students' social desirability tendency and attitudes toward instructor were predicted to be related to rater leniency. Partial support for the study's hypotheses were found. The Agreeableness factor and three of the corresponding facets (Trust, Altruism and Tender-Mindedness) were positively related to rater leniency as predicted. The hypotheses that the Conscientiousness factor and three of the corresponding facets (Order, Dutifulness, and Deliberation) would be negatively related to rater leniency were not supported. In the current sample the single narrow facet Altruism accounted for more variance in rater leniency than the broad Agreeableness factor. While social desirability did not account for a significant amount of variance in rater leniency, attitude toward instructor was found to have a significant positive relationship accounting for the largest amount of variance in rater leniency.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Grahek, Myranda
Partner: UNT Libraries

Women's Gender Role Attitudes: Association of Demographic Characteristics, Work Related Factors, and Life Satisfaction

Description: Factors related to women's gender role attitudes were assessed using data from a national survey in 1988 in which 3,507 members of the Young Women cohort were interviewed by phone. The demographic characteristics were education, age, marital status, and region of residence. Older women, married women, and those of Southern residence were hypothesized to have traditional gender role attitudes. These hypotheses were supported by the data (p &tn; .05, p &tn; .05, p &tn; .01, respectively). As hypothesized, those with high educational levels (p &tn; .01) had egalitarian attitudes. Four work related variables (labor force participation, hours worked at one's paid position, personal income, and earnings as percent of total family income) were hypothesized to relate to non-traditional gender role attitudes. Job dissatisfaction was hypothesized to relate to traditional gender role attitudes. Personal income (p &tn; .01) was related to non-traditional gender role attitudes. There was no relationship between labor force participation and hours worked at one's position and gender role attitudes. Percent of total family income (p &tn; .01) was related to traditional gender role attitudes, not egalitarian attitudes, and, as hypothesized, job dissatisfaction (p &tn; .05) was related to traditional gender role attitudes. Life dissatisfaction was hypothesized to relate to egalitarian attitudes; however (p &tn; .01) was associated with traditional, not egalitarian, gender role attitudes. When exploring practical reasons for women working, a negative relationship was found between Southern (p &tn; .01) residence and labor force participation (p &tn; .01) and practical reasons for women working. Higher educational levels (p &tn; .01) were positively related.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Lee, Audra
Partner: UNT Libraries

Predicting Counter-Productive Workplace Behavior: Item Level Analysis of an Integrity Test

Description: Counter-productive workplace behavior (CWB) is defined as any intentional behavior on the part of an organization member viewed by the organization as contrary to its legitimate interests. A growing body of literature reveals that individual variables and pre-employment integrity tests can play a strong role in the prediction of CWB. The empirical literature has failed to clarify which type of individual level antecedents, or types of integrity test items, are more predictive of CWB. The current study evaluated data collected from restaurant employees (N=464) that measured items relating to personality tendencies, attitudes toward acceptance of counter-productive behaviors, work and high school background, and admissions of counter-productive behavior. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed a mediocre fit to a typology of CWB (interpersonal CWB vs. organizational CWB). Correlation analysis revealed that only specific attitudinal items and empirically keyed biodata items were significantly related to CWB. Hierarchical regression analysis found that attitudinal items paralleling admissions of CWB contributed variance beyond that of other personality and work and high school background antecedents.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Impelman, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Agreement Between Self and Other Ratings in Multi-Rater Tools: Performance, Alternative Measures, and Importance.

Description: Multi-rater tools also referred to as 360-degree feedback tools, are frequently used in addition to traditional supervisory appraisals due to sources (i.e., supervisor, peer, direct report) unique perspectives and opportunities to view different aspects of job performance. Research has found that the differences among sources are most prevalent between self and other ratings, and the direction of agreement is related to overall job performance. Research has typically focused on one form of agreement, the direction of an individual's self-ratings compared to others' ratings. The current study expanded on past research on rater agreement using a data set (n = 215) consisting of multi-rater data for professionals participating in a leadership development process. The study examined the ability to predict job performance with three different measures of self-other agreement (i.e., difference between overall mean scores (difference), mean absolute difference across items (difference), and mean correlation across items (similarity)). The study also examined how the relationships may differ across performance dimensions. The final purpose was to explore how the importance of the performance dimensions, as rated by the participant, may moderate the relationship between self-other agreement and job performance. Partial support for study's hypotheses was found. The direction and difference measures of agreement on the overall multi-rater tool and performance dimensions accounted for a significant amount of the variance in job performance. The relationship between the similarity measure of agreement and job performance, and the moderating effect of importance were not supported in the current study.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Grahek, Myranda
Partner: UNT Libraries

Violence and depression among ethnically diverse, low income women: Mediating and moderating factors

Description: This longitudinal study examined factors influencing the relationship between sustained partner violence and depression/suicidality among ethnically diverse, low income, community women. The sample at Wave 1 consisted of 303 African American, 273 Euro-American, and 260 Mexican American women in long term relationships with a household income less that twice the poverty threshold. There were no ethnic differences on frequency of partner violence, depression, or suicidality. The moderate relationship between partner violence and women's depression, confirmed previous findings. Frequency, but not recency, of violence predicted depression and suicidal ideation for African Americans and Mexican Americans, even after controlling for earlier depression or ideation. Recent violence did not predict Euro-American's depression or suicidality after controlling for initial scores. Causal and responsibility attributions for partners' violence did not mediate the relationship between violence and depression or suicidality in any ethnic group. However, African American women's attributions of global effects for violence mediated the relationship of violence on depression and suicidal ideation. Poverty level and marital status moderated the relationship between violence and the number of times women seriously considered and actually attempted suicide. Frequent violence was most lethal among the poorest women and marriage provided the least protection for women in the most violent relationships. Specifically, poverty status moderated violence on consideration of suicide for African Americans and Euro-Americans and suicide attempts among Mexican Americans. Marital status moderated partners' violence on suicidal ideation and attempts for Mexican Americans and consideration of suicide for Euro-Americans, but was not a moderator for African Americans' depression or suicidality. Women with different ethnic backgrounds appear to differ in the ways partner violence contributes to their depression and suicidality. Policy implications include the need to offer suicide intervention, particularly for low income women seeking services for violence. Mental health professionals should routinely inquire about partner violence when women ...
Date: August 2000
Creator: VanHorn, Barbara
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Application of a Health Service Utilization Model to a Low Income, Ethnically Diverse Sample of Women

Description: A model for health care utilization was applied to a sample of low income women. Demographic Predisposing, Psychosocial Predisposing, Illness Level, and Enabling indicators were examined separately for African American (n = 266), Anglo American (n = 200), and Mexican American (n = 210) women. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that for African American and Anglo American women, Illness Level, the only significant path to Utilization, had a mediating effect on Psychosocial Predisposing indicators. The model for Mexican Americans was the most complex with Enabling indicators affecting Illness Level and Utilization. Psychosocial Predisposing indicators were mediated by Illness Level and Enabling indicators which both directly affected Utilization. Implications of the results for future research are addressed.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Keenan, Lisa A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validation Of The Facet Satisfaction Scale (Fss): An Evaluative Approach To Assessing Facet Job Satisfaction

Description: Job satisfaction has, and continues to be an important construct of interest to researchers and practitioners alike. However, conflicting operational definitions and inconsistent measurement systems have reduced the efficacy of the construct in predicting important job-related outcomes for organizations and their employees. The Facet Satisfaction Scale (FSS) was designed to overcome these deficiencies by creating a facet-based measure that assesses job satisfaction in accordance with recent definitions of the construct. Reliability and validity analyses were conducted on both the complete and shortened version of the scale. The FSS exhibited evidence of reliability (ranging from .52 to .93 for the shortened FSS, and .53 to .96 for the complete FSS). Evidence of scale validity was also obtained through the use of construct, content, and criterion-related validity measures. Implications of the study on future research on job satisfaction are discussed.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Yeoh, Terence Eng Siong
Partner: UNT Libraries

Antecedents of Commitment to and Support of a Proposed Change Initiative in a Southern Baptist Congregation.

Description: This study extends research findings directed at a micro-focus of change by assessing individual organizational members' perspectives and psychological constructs influencing change efforts by an organization. The change initiative in question regards the construction of a new facility and subsequent relocation to said facility. Moral commitment to the organization (negative), change initiative's fit with organizational vision, and social influence significantly contributed to variance in members' affective commitment to change. Trust in leadership and normative commitment to the organization (NCO) significantly contributed to variance in members' normative commitment to change. Continuance commitment to the organization and participation (negative) significantly contributed to variance in members' continuance commitment to change. NCO, change initiative's fit with organizational vision, and participation significantly contributed to variance in support of the proposed change initiative. Affective commitment to the organization (negative), NCO (negative), trust in leadership (negative), and disruption of influence significantly contributed to variance in members' intent to leave the organization.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Lee, Audra
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship between Fortune 500 companies with regulatory violations and/or criminal offenses and resulting stock values.

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether publicly disclosed violations by U.S corporations, resulting in convictions or settlements, erode shareholder investment in the offending organizations. This study was designed to assess whether or not the shareholders' reactions to corporations' violations were related to a decline in organizations' stock valuations across sectors. In addition, this study attempted to assess whether or not shareholder support, expressed by stock prices, declined more after a corporation was prosecuted or reached a settlement for violations, as compared to corporations that disclosed earnings disappointments. Also, this study investigated the stock prices of violating corporations compared to the non-offending corporations from within the same business sector, as well as considered the percentage decline for repeat offenders for violation two compared to violation one. Opposite to hypothesis, results showed that stock prices for the violating companies were significantly greater 12 months after the violation compared to the other months and no significant differences in percent decline between the eight sectors on any of the five decline measures. There were also no differences between violating companies and their matched companies. Companies with a violation had significantly greater stock prices overall than those without a violation.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Bhagwat, Tanya A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Web-Based Support as an Adjunct to a Self-Help Smoking Cessation Program

Description: For the past quarter century, the public has been educated and warned about the dangers of smoking, and both smokers and health researchers have been in search of cost-effective, smoking cessation programs that will lead to long-term cessation. This study used a randomized experimental design to investigate the effectiveness of adding Web-based support materials to a nationally sponsored self-help smoking intervention. There was no significant increase in abstinence rates nor progression through the stages of change by those participants who had access to the Web site. However, there were some overall significant trends that suggested these self-help interventions were successful at decreasing daily rates of smoking and nicotine dependency, as well as tended to encourage repeated quit attempts. Although Web-based supports did not appear to increase the effectiveness of the nationally sponsored self-help intervention, this study demonstrated overall 12 week follow-up abstinence rates of 30-32%--greater than what might be expected, given average success rates of other self-help interventions. This study also supports the notion that women may face additional barriers to smoking cessation. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Importance of Staff Cohesiveness in Treatment Effectiveness as Demonstrated by Client Self-Disclosure

Description: Much research has studied cohesiveness within client groups in terms of making therapeutic gains. These studies have defined cohesiveness in terms of a) attraction of the group as perceived by a group member, b) how clearly each member sees his/her role within the group, and c) the effectiveness of one's skills in attaining group goals. Little research has dealt with the role of staff cohesiveness in developing an effective treatment program. Effectiveness, in this study, is defined as the degree to which clients are willing to disclose personal information to the staff. The results show a positive correlation between staff's perceived effectiveness with clients and the clients' willingness to self-disclose. On-hand experience with clients seems important in involving clients in therapy.
Date: December 1984
Creator: MacMullan, Peter Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries

Magical Contagion and AIDS Scale: Development and Validation

Description: A Magical Contagion and AIDS Scale was developed to address problems with existing Contagion and AIDS measures. Magical Contagion is an influence that exists after contact is terminated. It is comprised of Permanence, Holographic Effects, Moral Germ Conflation and Backward Action. Data from 280 undergraduates revealed low mean levels of Magical Contagion and AIDS. Contagion effects did not differ on demographic variables. Content validity, criterion-related validity, discriminate validity, and internal consistency were evaluated. Significant correlations were found between the Contagion Scale and Merging/Separation and Homophobia Scales. Negative correlations were found between the Contagion scale and the AIDS knowledge and social desirability scales. Alpha reliabilities were high (a > .93) for the Contagion scale and subscales. Factor analysis suggested the existence of a single factor and mixed support for three factors.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Oizumi, Joelle J. (Joelle Julienne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Helping Among Children

Description: This study investigated the effect of cost-of-escape on helping among children. Forty-four children between the approximate ages of six and twelve served as subjects. The experiment was performed in a natural setting using an ice cream truck. The driver (experimenter) manipulated the cost-of-escape and then had an "accident." The easy-to-escape group received their ice cream before the driver spilled 300 spoons on the ground. The difficult-to-escape group had paid for their ice cream but had not received it before the "accident" occurred. The number of spoons picked up by each condition and the lapse time before a member of each group began to help was recorded. No differences were found between the groups (all ps > .05). Implications for cost-of-escape were discussed.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Russell, Sue Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nonverbal Power Cues

Description: Studies investigating aspects of social influence or power in counseling settings have examined the relationship between nonverbal cues and social influence or power. This study investigated perceptions of power, responsiveness, attractiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness by manipulating posture, facial expression and sex of therapist. After viewing photographs of stimulus therapists and listening to audio tapes, 96 male and 98 female undergraduates completed the Counselor Rating Form and a questionnaire measuring therapists' power and responsiveness. Results indicated that facial expression was more salient than posture. Smiling decreased ratings of power and increased ratings of attractiveness, responsiveness, and trustworthiness. Open posture was seen as more attractive and more powerful than closed posture. Surprisingly, females were viewed as more powerful than males. Other gender differences were found only in interaction with other variables.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Young, Merrie Lauren
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Selected Personality Factors to Turnover Among Restaurant Managers

Description: This study investigated the relationship between turnover and personality measures through the application of discriminant analysis in a split sample cross validation design. Four personality tests measuring 34 dimensions of personality were administered to 300 Caucasian male job applicants. The tests were the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior, the Vocational Preference Inventory, a shortened version of the DF-Opinion Survey, and the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey. Ten of the dimensions were initially found to be significantly related to turnover. The shrinkage of the coefficient after cross validation was enough for the loss of statistical significance. It is suggested that personality measures are moderately associated with turnover and that investigations examining methods to reduce turnover should focus on other variables.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Daughtry, Perry
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Male and Female Speech Styles on the Perceptions of Clinical Psychologists

Description: Previous research suggests that gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate use of sex-linked linguistic markers alters subjects' perceptions of the speaker. The present study examined the effects of male and female speech styles on clients' perceptions,. Undergraduates (N = 160) listened to audiotapes of clinical psychologists introducing the same client to psychotherapy. Clinician gender and sex-linked linguistic markers were manipulated. The results suggested that sex-stereotypes of males, females, and occupations played an important role in altering clients' perceptions of clinical psychologists. Sex-stereotypes did not, however, determine the desirability of the speaker as a therapist. The use of female speech styles increased the clinician's perceived femininity and desirability as a therapist.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Sager, Beatrice W. (Beatrice Wynne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Changing People's Reaction to Terrorism

Description: Two hundred and fifty-three subjects were used in an experiment to try to determine how differences in news media presentations affect the reader's view of terrorism. Two stories about a terrorist attack were used, one describing a bombing, the other a hijacking. Both stories had two versions using no one injured or eight innocent people injured. One group of subjects was given no additional information about terrorism. The second group was given information after the description that emphasized the salience of terrorism. The third group received information that de-emphasized the seriousness of terrorism. Subjects were also given a questionnaire designed to measure authoritarianism and one to measure conservatism. It was found that subjects scoring high on authoritarianism or conservativism favored more severe punishment for terrorists than did those scoring lower on the two scales. Findings did not support the hypothesis that providing people with information about terrorism could lessen the impact of terrorist events.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Nagley, Andrew Guy
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Stress, Cognitive Appraisal and Dating Violence

Description: The purpose of the present study was to test a specific path model. It was hypothesized that the relationship between the impact (amount and valence) of stress and an outcome (expressing violence toward a partner) would be mediated by an individual's cognitive appraisal of stressful events. Multiple regression procedures were used to test the model. Standardized beta coefficients indicated the strength of the relationships among the variables. Significant findings indicated that the strength of specific relationships among the ten variables (impact of events, three types of primary appraisal, four types of secondary appraisal and the expression of threats and acts of physical violence toward a partner) differed depending upon subject sex and whether the impact of the events was perceived as positive or negative.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Vitanza, Stephanie A. (Stephanie Andrea)
Partner: UNT Libraries