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Impurity transport in a quiescent tokamak plasma

Description: Short bursts of aluminum were injected into the Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor (ATC) Tokamak, and measured the time evolution of the radial distributions of highly ionized states of aluminum. The results are compared with a computer code describing neoclassical impurity diffusion and good agreement is found. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1975
Creator: Cohen, S.A.; Cecchi, J.L. & Marmar, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR

Description: Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection ( lithiumization'). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li[sup +] line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li[sup +] emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from [approximately]0.3 to [approximately]7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Marmar, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal desorption measurements of hydrogen-isotope retention in Alcator-A

Description: Results are presented for deuterium retention measurements in type 304 stainless steel exposed in the edge plasma of the Alcator-A tokamak. Stainless steel samples, at 300K, with surface conditions characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, were introduced into the limiter shadow region for exposure to deuterium plasmas, and then withdrawn into an appended UHV chamber for thermal desorption measurements. For unoxidized samples exposed at the vacuum vessel wall radius, 1 x 10/sup 15/Dcm/sup -2/ was retained after exposure to high density (anti n/sub e/ = 3 x 10/sup 14/cm/sup -3/) discharges. Exposure to consecutive series of N discharges produced retention proportional to N/sup 1/2/.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Razdow, A.M.; Marmar, E.S.; Cohen, S.A. & Dylla, H.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical and Mechanical Design of C-Mod Motional Stark Effect Diagnostic

Description: A Motional Stark Effect (MSE) instrument is being installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. This MSE diagnostic will provide measurements of the spatial profile of the internal poloidal magnetic field. The MSE has its primary collection optics inside the vacuum vessel. The light collected by the internal optics passes through a vacuum window and is relayed to a fiber optic array. The MSE optics are shared by a Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic which measures electron density fluctuations and their spatial correlations. This optical system requires high throughput and spatial resolution of less than 1 cm at the focal plane in the plasma. The design requirements for the internal optics also include the effects associated with plasma impingement, plasma disruptions, and thermal excursions. The parameters that affect polarization measurement include the location and orientation of optical elements, the choice of substrates and optical materials. These unique design requirements led to a number of interesting optical and mechanical design features which are presented here.
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Simon, D.I.; Marmar, E.; Bretz, N.L.; Bravenec, R. & Parsells, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2l-nl{prime} x-ray transitions from neonlike charge states of the row 5 metals with 39 {le} Z {le} 46

Description: X-ray spectra of 2l-2l{prime} transitions with 3 {le} n {le} 12 in the row five transition metals zirconium (Z = 40), niobium (Z = 41), molybdenum (Z = 42) and palladium (Z = 46) from charge states around neonlike have been observed from Alcator C-Mod plasmas. Accurate wavelengths ({+-} .2 m{angstrom}) have been determined by comparison with neighboring argon, chlorine and sulfur lines with well known wavelengths. Line identifications have been made by comparison to ab initio atomic structure calculations, using a fully relativistic, parametric potential code. For neonlike ions, calculated wavelengths and oscillator strengths are tabulated for 2p-nd transitions in Y (Z = 39), Tc (Z = 43), Ru (Z = 44) and Rh (Z = 45) with n = 6 and 7. The magnitude of the configuration interaction between the (2p{sup 5}){sub 1/2}6d{sub 3/2} J = 1 level and the (2p{sup 5}){sub 3/2}7D{sub 5/2} J = 1 levels is demonstrated as a function of atomic number for successive neonlike ions. Measured spectra of selected transitions in the aluminum-, magnesium-, sodium- and fluorine like isosequences are also shown.
Date: March 18, 1996
Creator: Rice, J. E.; Terry, J. L.; Marmar, E. S.; Fournier, K. B.; Goldstein, W. H.; Finkenthal, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the Effects of Neutrals in Alcator C-Mod Plasmas

Description: Recently, much effort has been dedicated to understanding the bifurcation involved in the transition from a low to high confinement regime. While several theories have been brought forward, many factors remain to be elucidated, one of which involves the role played by neutral particles in the evolution of a transport barrier near the edge of the plasma. Alcator C-Mod is especially well suited for the study of neutral particle effects, mainly because of its high plasma and neutral densities, and closed divertor geometry. Alcator C-Mod employs ICRF as auxiiiary heating for obtaining a high confinement regime, although ohmic H-modes are routinely obtained as well. The neutrals can enter the edge dynamics through the particle, momentum and energy balance. In the particle balance, the source of neutrals has to be evaluated vis-8-vis the formation of the edge density pedestal. It is widely believed that plasma rotation is an important factor in reducing transport. In this case, neutrals could act as a momentum sink, through the charge-exchange process. That same process can also modify the energy balance of the plasma near the edge by increasing the cross-field heat flux. These effects are quite difficult to measure experimentally, in large part because neutral particle diagnosis is not an easy task, and because of the inherent 3-dimensional aspect of the problem. Consequently, the neutral´┐Żs spatial and energy distributions are usually not well known. In Alcator C-Mod, we recently implemented a series of diagnostics for the purpose of measuring these distributions. They include measurements of the neutral pressure at many locations around the tokamak, and spatially resolved measurements of Lyman-a and charge-exchange power emission. A high-resolution multichord (20 channels) tangential view of neutral deuterium emission (Lyman-a) has been recently installed near the midplane. The viewing area covers approximately 4 cm across the separatrix, with a ...
Date: June 14, 1999
Creator: Boivin, R.L.; Boswell, C.; Goetz, J.A.; Hubbard, A.E.; Irby, J.; LaBombard, B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The LHCD Launcher for Alcator C-Mod - Design, Construction, Calibration and Testing

Description: MIT and PPPL have joined together to fabricate a high-power lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system for supporting steady-state AT regime research on Alcator C-Mod. The goal of the first step of this project is to provide 1.5 MW of 4.6 GHz rf [radio frequency] power to the plasma with a compact launcher which has excellent spectral selectivity and fits into a single C-Mod port. Some of the important design, construction, calibration and testing considerations for the launcher leading up to its installation on C-Mod are presented here.
Date: June 27, 2005
Creator: Hosea, J.; Beals, D.; Beck, W.; Bernabei, S.; Burke, W.; Childs, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpha particle diagnostics using impurity pellet injection

Description: We have proposed using impurity injection to measure the energy distribution of the fast confined alpha particles in a reacting plasma. The ablation cloud surrounding the injected pellet is thick enough that an equilibrium fraction F{sub o}{sup {infinity}}(E) of the incident alphas should be neutralized as they pass through the cloud. By observing neutrals created in the large spatial region of the cloud which is expected to be dominated by the helium-like ionization state, e.g., Li{sup +} ions, we can determine the incident alpha distribution dn{sub He}2+/dE from the measured energy distribution of neutral helium atoms. Initial experiments were performed on TEXT in which we compared pellet penetration with our impurity pellet ablation model, and measured the spatial distribution of various ionization states in carbon pellet clouds. Experiments have recently begun on TFTR with the goal of measuring the alpha particle energy distribution during D-T operation in 1993--94. A series of preliminary experiments are planned to test the diagnostic concept. The first experiments will observe neutrals from beam-injected deuterium ions and the high energy {sup 3}He tail produced during ICH minority heating on TFTR interacting with the cloud. We will also monitor by line radiation the charge state distributions in lithium, boron, and carbon clouds.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Fisher, R.K.; McChesney, J.M.; Howald, A.W.; Parks, P.B. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)); Snipes, J.A.; Terry, J.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ICRF stabilization of sawteeth on TFTR

Description: Results obtained from experiments utilizing high power ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency) heating to stabilize sawtooth oscillations on TFTR are reviewed. The key observations include existence of a minimum ICRF power required to achieve stabilization, a dependence of the stabilization threshold on the relative size of the ICRF power deposition profile to the q=1 volume, and a peaking of the equilibrium pressure and current profiles during sawtooth-free phases of the discharges. In addition, preliminary measurements of the poloidal magnetic field profile indicate that q on axis decreases to a value of 0.55{plus minus}0.15 after a sawtooth-stabilized period of {approximately}0.5 sec has transpired. The results are discussed in the context of theory, which suggests that the fast ions produced by the ICRF heating suppress sawteeth by stabilizing the m=1 MHD instabilities believed to be the trigger for the sawtooth oscillations. Though qualitative agreement is found between the observations and the theory, further refinement of the theory coupled with more accurate measurements of experimental profiles will be required in order to complete quantitative comparisons.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Phillips, C.K.; Hosea, J.; Stevens, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Bitter, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department