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Data quality objectives for gas and liquid samples from sealed K Basin canisters

Description: Data Quality Objectives (DQOS) for gas and liquid sampling from the sealed canisters in K West Basin have been developed and are presented in this document. The scope of this document is limited primarily to the initial sampling effort. This sampling campaign either supports the selection of canisters to provide fuel for hotcell examinations, supports the demonstration of sampling equipment capabilities or provides an initial assessment of gas/liquid chemistry for comparison to the results of fuel element hotcell examinations. No sampling of canisters has occurred since 1983. It is proposed here that samples of gas and water be analyzed for constituents such as cesium, fission gases, and hydrogen which are markers for corrosion of uranium in a water environment. These data will allow an assessment of the risks involved when particular canisters are opened to retrieve fuel. This sampling campaign will also ensure that canisters with some failed fuel elements are included in the population that is opened for retrieval of fuel for hotcell examinations. Additionally, valuable correlations between the macroscopic visible condition of fuel, hotcell examinations, and the gases generated in canisters will be possible. The analysis of other chemical species in the gas and liquid will allow assessments of the performance of the previously added corrosion inhibitor and possibly assessments of radiolysis. Sampling of canisters will be performed with equipment that opens the valves in the canister lid and draws a 15 ml sample of either gas or water. This work will most likely be performed in one of the pits-associated with the K West Basin.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Makenas, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Choices of canisters and elements for the first fuel shipment from K West Basin

Description: Twenty-two canisters (10 prime and 12 backup candidates) in the K West Basin have been identified as containing fuel which, when examined, will satisfy the Data Quality Objectives for the first fuel shipment from this basin. These were chosen as meeting criteria such as containing relatively long fuel elements, locking bar integrity, and the availability of gas/liquid interface level measurements for associated canister gas traps. Two canisters were identified as having reported broken fuel on initial loading. Usage and interpretation of canister cesium concentration measurements have also been established and levels of maximum and minimum acceptable cesium concentration (from a data optimization point of view) for decapping have been determined although other operational cesium limits may also apply. Criteria for picking particular elements, once a canister is opened, are reviewed in this document. A pristine, a slightly damaged, and a badly damaged element are desired. The latter includes elements with end caps removed but does not include elements which have large amounts of swelling or split cladding that might interfere with handling tools. Finally, operational scenarios have been suggested to aid in the selections of canisters and elements in a way that utilizes anticipated canister gas sampling and leads to a correct and quick choice of elements which will supply the desired data.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Makenas, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Issues and Characterization for Fuel and Sludge in Hanford K Basins

Description: Technical Issues for the interim dry storage of N Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are discussed. Characterization data from fuel, to support resolution of these issues, are reviewed and new results for the oxidation of fuel in a moist atmosphere and the drying of whole fuel elements are presented. Characterization of associated K basin sludge is also discussed in light of a newly adopted disposal pathway.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: MAKENAS, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

Description: Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.
Date: March 15, 1999
Creator: MAKENAS, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data quality objectives for sampling of sludge from the K West and K East Basin floor and from other Basin areas

Description: This document addresses the characterization strategy for those types of sludge not previously characterized or discussed in previous DQO documents. It seeks to ascertain those characteristics of uncharacterized Sludge which are unique with respect to the properties already determined for canister and K East Basin floor Sludge. Also recent decisions have resulted in the need for treatment of the Sludge prior to its currently identified disposal path to the Hanford waste tanks. This has resulted in a need for process development testing for the treatment system development.
Date: October 21, 1998
Creator: MAKENAS, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cladding dimensional changes in mixed oxide fuel pins

Description: Several types of stainless steel (304, 316, 316-20% Cold Worked, and 316 Titanium stabilized 20% CW) have been used as cladding for mixed oxide (U, Pu)O/sub 2/ fuel pins irradiated in EBR-II. All of the materials have performed satisfactorily in their respective experimental subassemblies but significant differences in swelling and inelastic strain behavior have been found at high fast fluences among the different materials and among different heats of the same material. Cladding diameter increases were measured for 622 developmental and FFTF reference design fuel pins which were irradiated in 19 experimental subassemblies. Fuel pin diameters were determined from multiangle axial trace profilometry measurements.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Makenas, B.J.; Jost, J.W. & Hales, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technique for examining the fuel/cladding interface by TEM. [LMFBR]

Description: Fuel and fission-product interactions with the fuel-pin cladding is an area of concern and has been evaluated in the past principally by in-cell optical metallographic and electron-microprobe examinations. The applicability of three techniques for preparing specimens to reveal the microstructural details and local microchemistry of the fuel/cladding interface under conditions of high-resolution-scanning transmission-electron microscopy has been investigated. The specimen preparation techniques were designed to preserve the fuel/cladding interface and provide and maintain a specimen surface free from smearable alpha contamination. One of the techniques, Ni plating of a fuel cladding sample, preserved the entire cladding cross-section for examination. An Fe-oxide layer on the cladding inner surface was found in specimens prepared by this method. All three techniques of specimen preparation are described in some detail, along with their advantages and disadvantages.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Yang, W.J.S.; Makenas, B.J. & Thomas, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of sludge from K East basin floor and weasel pit

Description: Sludge samples from the floor of the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and possibly assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements.
Date: May 4, 1996
Creator: Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling and analysis of sludge from the Hanford K East basin

Description: Sludge samples from the floor of the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool has been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and possibly assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements.
Date: March 13, 1996
Creator: Makenas, B. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin

Description: This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J. & Trimble, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations during the first K West fuel shipping campaign

Description: Three fuel elements were shipped to the 300 Area hotcells during the first characterization shipping campaign from K West Basin. This document summarizes observations made during this campaign including the gas, liquid, and sludge content of the observed canisters. Included in an appendix is a detailed evaluation of fuel element condition for each canister opened
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Makenas, B. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategy for analysis of coatings and subsurface sludge recovered during hot cell examinations of N Reactor elements from Hanford K Basins

Description: Subsurface sludge and/or surface coating material have been collected for four N Reactor fuel elements from K West Basin and one element from K East Basin. It is proposed that examinations of the fairly small volumes of recovered material proceed in order to identify the constituents and their potential impacts on fuel and sludge processing. Lists of potential examination techniques and material allocations are given in this report.
Date: September 22, 1997
Creator: Makenas, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data quality objectives for K West canister sludge sampling

Description: Data Quality Objectives have been developed for a limited campaign of sampling K Basin canister sludge. Specifically, samples will be taken from the sealed K West Basin fuel canisters. Characterization of the sludge in these canisters will address the needs of fuel retrieval which are to collect and transport sludge which is currently in the canisters. Data will be gathered on physical properties (such as viscosity, particle size, density, etc.) as well as on chemical and radionuclide constituents and radiation levels of sludge. The primary emphasis will be on determining radionuclide concentrations to be deposited on Ion Exchange Modules (IXMS) during canister opening and fuel retrieval. The data will also be useful in determining whether K West Basin sludge meets the waste acceptance criteria for Hanford waste tanks as a backup disposal concept and these data will also supply information on the properties of sludge material which will1403 accompany fuel elements in the Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOS) as envisioned in the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS).
Date: December 11, 1996
Creator: Makenas, B. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Hanford K basin fuel and sludge: A second look

Description: Characterization of N Reactor metal spent fuel and associated sludge stored in the two Hanford K Basins has entered a more mature stage. Previous campaigns had consisted of top-view visual surveys of-open fuel canisters, limited collection of gas and liquid from sealed canisters, detailed examinations of only a few-fuel elements and collection of sludge from the floor of only one basin. More recent work has included lifting fuel elements from both Basins to ascertain bottom end and circumferential cracks. Sludge collection has now been performed for material residing inside of spent fuel canisters in both Basins. Finally the number of gas and liquid samples from sealed canisters has been greatly expanded leading to a maximum observed cesium-137 content ten times higher than previous reports. Characterization has been a challenge because of the age of the fuel materials, the water environment, and the radiation field.
Date: January 31, 1997
Creator: Makenas, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Choices of canisters and elements for the first fuel and canister sludge shipment from K East Basin

Description: The K East Basin contains open-top canisters with up to fourteen N Reactor fuel assemblies distributed between the two barrels of each canister. Each fuel assembly generally consists of inner and outer concentric elements fabricated from uranium metal with zirconium alloy cladding. The canisters also contain varying amounts of accumulated sludge. Retrieval of sample fuel elements and associated sludge for examination is scheduled to occur in the near future. The purpose of this document is to specify particular canisters and elements of interest as candidate sources of fuel and sludge to be shipped to laboratories.
Date: March 22, 1996
Creator: Makenas, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data quality objectives for gas and liquid samples from sealed K West basin canisters (second campaign)

Description: Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for gas and liquid sampling from the sealed canisters in K West Basin have been developed and are presented in this document. This sampling campaign supports the selection of canisters to provide fuel for hot cell examinations and provides an assessment of gas/liquid chemistry for comparison to the results of fuel element hot cell examinations. It also provides information applicable to water cleanup and air permits for the fuel handling associated with moving fuel to dry storage.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Makenas, B. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Hanford N Reactor spent fuel and K Basin sludges

Description: Characterization is in progress for the N Reactor fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins. These activities` support the strategy for removal of fuel from the basins and storage of fuel in a dry condition at an area remote from the Columbia River. This strategy currently consists of placing fuel in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), drying the fuel while it resides in the MCO and conditioning some portion of the fuel to reduce its chemical reactivity. Characterization includes the examination of fuel, canisters, and associated sludge. It consists firstly of in-basin activities such as visual examination, sludge depth measurements, and sampling of gas and liquid in canisters. Secondly characterization ecompasses the examination of samples of fuel and sludge which have been removed from the basins and shipped to laboratories. This paper presents observations made in the basins during the most recent attempts to ship samples from the basins and data obtained in the laboratory hotcells.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Makenas, B.J.; Omberg, R.P.; Trimble, D.J. & Baker, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modulated ordering Nb-H alloys

Description: Ordering reactions in ..cap alpha..' and ..beta..-NbH alloys have been investigated using elastic theory. The ..cap alpha..'-..beta.. and ..beta..-lambda phase transformations are driven by the elastic interaction in the niobium lattice distorted by the protons on the t-site interstitials. The ..beta.. phase is shown to have a three dimensional structure. The fundamental period of the long range modulation along the c-axis in the lambda-phase, an incommensurated ..beta.. phase, is approximately 5 lattice constants.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Kajitani, T.; Brun, T.O.; Mueller, M.H.; Birnbaum, H.K. & Makenas, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations of in-reactor strain for fueled and unfueled FTR cladding

Description: It has been demonstrated that equations derived from in-reactor creep and swelling in unfueled pressurized tubes of 20% CW AISI 316 stainless steel can be used to predict strains in prototypic FTR mixed-oxide (UO/sub 2/--PuO/sub 2/) fuel pins. For fast neutron fluences below 6 x 10/sup 22/n/cm/sup 2/ the strains were small (less than one percent) and good agreement was found (within 0.1 percent diametral strain) between the equations and the fuel pin strains. This paper describes an extension of the earlier study to fast neutron fluences up to 11 x 10/sup 22/n/cm/sup 2/.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Gilbert, E. R.; Makenas, B. J. & Wilson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SP-100 fuel pin performance: Results from irradiation testing

Description: A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pin are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Makenas, B. J.; Paxton, D. M.; Vaidyanathan, S. & Hoth, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ characterization of metal fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins

Description: The Hanford K Basins contain roughly 2,000 tons of uranium metal fuel previously irradiated in N Reactor. Current plans call for the fuel to be moved to a new storage location in the next few years. This paper describes near term activities to gather data on the mechanical condition and chemical state of the fuel and associated sludge. These on-going in-situ, nondestructive, examinations are intended to complement hot cell examinations which are planned for the near future. Characterization data will feed decisions on interim storage, long term storage and the environmental documentation process as the fuel is relocated. Several techniques have been, or are planned to be, employed during the conduct of examinations in the K Basins. (1) A video survey using underwater cameras has been made for the open top canisters which hold fuel in the K East Basin. These data have given early assessments of cladding degradation, canister corrosion, fuel swelling, and canister/fuel interactions; (2) Ultrasonic measurements of the water level in gas traps connected to sealed canisters have been used to provide indications of gas generation in or water leakage into the canisters; (3) Sampling of gas and water from closed canisters of fuel in the K West Basin will furnish indications of fuel corrosion, fission product release, and canister integrity and will guide choices of fuel to be retrieved for detailed hot cell examinations; (4) Depth measurements and qualitative properties assessments for the sludge on the floor of the basins and in the bottom of canisters have been made using underwater video techniques.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Makenas, B. J.; Omberg, R. P. & Lawrence, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerated characterization of metal fuel stored in the Hanford K basins

Description: Efforts are under way to gather data on the condition of the metal fuel and associated sludge stored in the water-filled Hanford K Basins. Most of the current data gathering activities are being performed in the basins without fuel movement. These techniques include a video survey of open storage canisters, determination of water/gas levels in sealed canisters, sampling of gas and water from sealed canisters (for chemical analysis) and measurement of sludge depth and sludge volume.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Makenas, B. J.; Omberg, R. P.; Lawrence, L. A.; Marschman, S. C. & Abrefah, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Canister choices for sampling of fuel and sludge from K West basin canisters (second characterization campaign)

Description: The Characterization of Spent Nuclear Fuel in the sealed K West canisters involves four steps, (1) sampling of gas/liquid, (2) ``Lift-and-Look`` visual examinations of fuel elements, (3) sampling of canister sludge, and (4) retrieving fuel for hot cell examinations. This document indicates the choices of particular canisters that were examined during the second characterization campaign in the Hanford K West Basin.
Date: March 13, 1997
Creator: Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.; Pitner, A.L.; Baker, R.B. & Lawrence, L.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department