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S@M, a Mathematica Implementation of the SpinorFormalism

Description: In this paper we present the package S@M (Spinors@Mathematica) which implements the spinor formalism in Mathematica. The package allows the use of complex-spinor algebra along with the multi-purpose features of Mathematica. The package defines the spinor objects with their basic properties along with functions to manipulate them. It also offers the possibility of evaluating the spinorial objects numerically at every computational step. The package is therefore well suited to be used the context of on-shell technology, in particular for the evaluation of scattering amplitudes at tree- and loop-level.
Date: November 2, 2007
Creator: Maitre, D. & Mastrolia, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Master Integrals for Fermionic Contributions to Massless Three-Loop Form Factors

Description: In this letter we continue the calculation of master integrals for massless three-loop form factors by giving analytical results for those diagrams which are relevant for the fermionic contributions proportional to N{sub F}{sup 2}, N{sub F} {center_dot} N, and N{sub F}/N. Working in dimensional regularization, we express one of the diagrams in a closed form which is exact to all orders in {epsilon}, containing {Lambda}-functions and hypergeometric functions of unit argument. In all other cases we derive multiple Mellin-Barnes representations from which the coefficients of the Laurent expansion in {epsilon} are extracted in an analytical form. To obtain the finite part of the three-loop quark and gluon form factors, all coefficients through transcendentality six in the Riemann {zeta}-function have to be included.
Date: November 28, 2007
Creator: Heinrich, G.; Huber, T. & Maitre, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-Loop Fermionic Corrections to Heavy-Quark Pair Production: theQuark-Antiquark Channel

Description: We evaluate the fermionic two-loop QCD corrections to the heavy-quark pair production process in the quark-antiquark channel. We obtain analytic results which are valid for any value of the Mandelstam invariants s and t, and of the heavy quark mass m. Our findings confirm previous results for the analytic evaluation in the small-mass limit and numerical results for the exact amplitude. We furthermore provide the expansion of the two-loop amplitude at the production threshold s {approx}> 4m{sup 2}.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Bonciani, R.; Ferroglia, A.; Gehrmann, T.; U., /Zurich; Maitre, D.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precise Predictions for Z + 4 Jets at Hadron Colliders

Description: We present the cross section for production of a Z boson in association with four jets at the Large Hadron Collider, at next-to-leading order in the QCD coupling. When the Z decays to neutrinos, this process is a key irreducible background to many searches for new physics. Its computation has been made feasible through the development of the on-shell approach to perturbative quantum field theory. We present the total cross section for pp collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV, after folding in the decay of the Z boson, or virtual photon, to a charged-lepton pair. We also provide distributions of the transverse momenta of the four jets, and we compare cross sections and distributions to the corresponding ones for the production of a W boson with accompanying jets.
Date: December 9, 2011
Creator: Ita, H.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Kosower, D.A. & Maitre, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One-Loop Calculations with BlackHat

Description: We describe BlackHat, an automated C++ program for calculating one-loop amplitudes, and the techniques used in its construction. These include the unitarity method and on-shell recursion. The other ingredients are compact analytic formulae for tree amplitudes for four-dimensional helicity states. The program computes amplitudes numerically, using analytic formula only for the tree amplitudes, the starting point for the recursion, and the loop integrals. We make use of recently developed on-shell methods for evaluating coefficients of loop integrals, in particular a discrete Fourier projection as a means of improving numerical stability. We illustrate the good numerical stability of this approach by computing six-, seven- and eight-gluon amplitudes in QCD and comparing against known analytic results.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Berger, C.F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Forde, D.; Ita, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-jet Cross Sections at NLO with BlackHat and Sherpa

Description: In this talk, we report on a recent next-to-leading order QCD calculation of the production of a W boson in association with three jets at hadron colliders. The computation is performed by combining two programs, BlackHat for the computation of the virtual one-loop matrix elements and Sherpa for the real emission part. The addition of NLO corrections greatly reduces the factorization and renormalization scale dependence of the theory prediction for this process. This result demonstrates the applicability of unitarity-based methods for hadron collider physics.
Date: May 20, 2009
Creator: Berger, C.F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Driving Missing Data at Next-to-Leading Order

Description: The prediction of backgrounds to new physics signals in topologies with large missing transverse energy and jets is important to new physics searches at the LHC. Following a CMS study, we investigate theoretical issues in using measurements of {gamma} + 2-jet production to predict the irreducible background to searches for missing energy plus two jets that originates from Z + 2-jet production where the Z boson decays to neutrinos. We compute ratios of {gamma} + 2-jet to Z + 2-jet production cross sections and kinematic distributions at next-to-leading order in {alpha}{sub s}, as well as using a parton shower matched to leading-order matrix elements. We find that the ratios obtained in the two approximations are quite similar, making {gamma} + 2-jet production a theoretically reliable estimator for the missing energy plus two jets background. We employ a Frixione-style photon isolation, but we also show that for isolated prompt photon production at high transverse momentum the difference between this criterion and the standard cone isolation used by CMS is small.
Date: June 22, 2011
Creator: Bern, Z.; Diana, G.; Dixon, L. J.; Febres Cordero, F.; Hoeche, S.; Ita, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NLO Jet Physics with BlackHat

Description: We present several results obtained using the BLACKHAT next-to-leading order QCD program library, in conjunction with SHERPA. In particular, we present distributions for vector boson plus 1,2,3-jet production at the Tevatron and at the asymptotic running energy of the Large Hadron Collider, including new Z + 3-jet distributions. The Z + 2-jet predictions for the second-jet P{sub T} distribution are compared to CDF data. We present the jet-emission probability at NLO in W + 2-jet events at the LHC, where the tagging jets are taken to be the ones furthest apart in pseudorapidity. We analyze further the large left-handed W{sup {+-}} polarization, identified in our previous study, for W bosons produced at high P{sub T} at the LHC.
Date: February 15, 2010
Creator: Berger, C. F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L. J.; Cordero, F. Febres; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precise Predictions for W + 3 Jet Production at Hadron Colliders

Description: We report on the first next-to-leading order QCD computation of W + 3-jet production in hadronic collisions including all partonic subprocesses. We compare the results with CDF data from the Tevatron, and find excellent agreement. The renormalization and factorization scale dependence is reduced substantially compared to leading-order calculations. The required one-loop matrix elements are computed using on-shell methods, implemented in a numerical program, BlackHat. We use the SHERPA package to generate the real-emission contributions and to integrate the various contributions over phase space. We use a leading-color (large-N{sub c}) approximation for the virtual part, which we confirm in W + 1,2-jet production to be valid to within three percent. The present calculation demonstrates the utility of on-shell methods for computing next-to-leading-order corrections to processes important to physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NLO Vector Boson Production With Light Jets

Description: In this contribution we present recent progress in the computation of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections for the production of an electroweak vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders. We focus on results obtained using the virtual matrix element library BlackHat in conjunction with SHERPA, focusing on results relevant to understanding the background to top production. The production of a vector boson in association with several jets at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is an important background for other Standard Model processes as well as new physics signals. In particular, the production of a W boson in association with many jets is an important background for processes involving one or more top quarks. Precise predictions for the backgrounds are crucial to measurement of top-quark processes. Vector boson production in association with multiple jets is also a very important background for many SUSY searches, as it mimics the signatures of many typical decay chains. Here we will discuss how polarization information can be used as an additional handle to differentiate top pair production from 'prompt' W-boson production. More generally, ratios of observables, for example for events containing a W boson versus those containing a Z boson, are expected to be better-behaved as many uncertainties cancel in such ratios. Precise calculation of ratios, along with measurement of one of the two processes in the ratio, can be used in data-driven techniques for estimating backgrounds.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Bern, Z.; Diana, G.; Dixon, L.J.; Febres Cordero, F.; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One-Loop Multi-Parton Amplitudes with a Vector Boson for the LHC

Description: In this talk, we present the first, numerically stable, results for the one-loop amplitudes needed for computing W; Z + 3 jet cross sections at the LHC to next-to-leading order in the QCD coupling. We implemented these processes in BlackHat, an automated program based on on-shell methods. These methods scale very well with increasing numbers of external partons, and are applicable to a wide variety of problems of phenomenological interest at the LHC.
Date: August 11, 2008
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Next-to-Leading Order Predictions for W + 3-Jet Distributions at Hadron Colliders

Description: We present next-to-leading order QCD predictions for a variety of distributions in W + 3-jet production at both the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. We include all subprocesses and incorporate the decay of the W boson into leptons. Our results are in excellent agreement with existing Tevatron data and provide the first quantitatively precise next-to-leading order predictions for the LHC. We include all terms in an expansion in the number of colors, confirming that the specific leading-color approximation used in our previous study is accurate to within three percent. The dependence of the cross section on renormalization and factorization scales is reduced significantly with respect to a leading-order calculation. We study different dynamical scale choices, and find that the total transverse energy is significantly better than choices used in previous phenomenological studies. We compute the one-loop matrix elements using on-shell methods, as numerically implemented in the BlackHat code. The remaining parts of the calculation, including generation of the real-emission contributions and integration over phase space, are handled by the SHERPA package.
Date: December 9, 2009
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Left-Handed W bosons at the LHC

Description: The production of W bosons in association with jets is an important background to new physics at the LHC. Events in which the W carries large transverse momentum and decays leptonically lead to large missing energy and are of particular importance. We show that the left-handed nature of the W coupling, combined with valence quark domination at a pp machine, leads to a large left-handed polarization for both W{sup +} and W{sup -} bosons at large transverse momenta. The polarization fractions are very stable with respect to QCD corrections. The leptonic decay of the W{sup +-} bosons translates the common left-handed polarization into a strong asymmetry in transverse momentum distributions between positrons and electrons, and between neutrinos and anti-neutrinos (missing transverse energy). Such asymmetries may provide an effective experimental handle on separating W +jets from top quark production, which exhibits very little asymmetry due to C invariance, and from various types of new physics.
Date: May 20, 2011
Creator: Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Diana, G.; /Saclay, SPhT; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC, /CERN et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Proposal for a Standard Interface Between Monte Carlo Tools And One-Loop Programs

Description: Many highly developed Monte Carlo tools for the evaluation of cross sections based on tree matrix elements exist and are used by experimental collaborations in high energy physics. As the evaluation of one-loop matrix elements has recently been undergoing enormous progress, the combination of one-loop matrix elements with existing Monte Carlo tools is on the horizon. This would lead to phenomenological predictions at the next-to-leading order level. This note summarises the discussion of the next-to-leading order multi-leg (NLM) working group on this issue which has been taking place during the workshop on Physics at TeV Colliders at Les Houches, France, in June 2009. The result is a proposal for a standard interface between Monte Carlo tools and one-loop matrix element programs.
Date: November 11, 2011
Creator: Binoth, T.; Boudjema, F.; Dissertori, G.; Lazopoulos, A.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vector Boson Jets with BlackHat and Sherpa

Description: We review recent NLO QCD results for W, Z + 3-jet production at hadron colliders, computing using BlackHat and SHERPA, and including also some new results for Z + 3-jet production for the LHC at 7 TeV. We report new progress towards the NLO cross section for W + 4-jet production. In particular, we show that the virtual matrix elements produced by BlackHat are numerically stable. We also show that with an improved integrator and tree-level matrix elements from BlackHat, SHERPA produces well-behaved real-emission contributions. As an illustration, we present the real-emission contributions - including dipole-subtraction terms - to the p{sub T} distribution of the fourth jet, for a single subprocess with the maximum number of gluons.
Date: August 25, 2010
Creator: Berger, C.F.; /MIT, LNS; Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department