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Elimination of 'ghost'-effect-related systematic error in metrology of X-ray optics with a long trace profiler

Description: A data acquisition technique and relevant program for suppression of one of the systematic effects, namely the ''ghost'' effect, of a second generation long trace profiler (LTP) is described. The ''ghost'' effect arises when there is an unavoidable cross-contamination of the LTP sample and reference signals into one another, leading to a systematic perturbation in the recorded interference patterns and, therefore, a systematic variation of the measured slope trace. Perturbations of about 1-2 {micro}rad have been observed with a cylindrically shaped X-ray mirror. Even stronger ''ghost'' effects show up in an LTP measurement with a mirror having a toroidal surface figure. The developed technique employs separate measurement of the ''ghost''-effect-related interference patterns in the sample and the reference arms and then subtraction of the ''ghost'' patterns from the sample and the reference interference patterns. The procedure preserves the advantage of simultaneously measuring the sample and reference signals. The effectiveness of the technique is illustrated with LTP metrology of a variety of X-ray mirrors.
Date: April 28, 2005
Creator: Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C. & MacDowell, Alastair A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air convection noise of pencil-beam interferometer for long traceprofiler

Description: In this work, we investigate the effect of air convection onlaser-beam pointing noise essential for the long trace profiler (LTP). Wedescribe this pointing error with noise power density (NPD) frequencydistributions. It is shown that the NPD spectra due to air convectionhave a very characteristic form. In the range of frequencies from ~;0.05Hz to ~;0.5 Hz, the spectra can be modeled with an inverse-power-lawfunction. Depending on the intensity of air convection that is controlledwith a resistive heater of 100 to 150 mW along a one-meter-long opticalpath, the power index lies between 2 and 3 at an overall rms noise of~;0.5 to 1 microradian. The efficiency of suppression of the convectionnoise by blowing air across the beam optical path is also discussed.Air-blowing leads to a white-noise-like spectrum. Air blowing was appliedto the reference channel of an LTP allowing demonstration of thecontribution of air convection noise to the LTP reference beam. Theability to change (with the blowing technique presented) the spectralcharacteristics of the beam pointing noise due to air convection allowsone to investigate the contribution of the convection effect, and thusmake corrections to the power spectral density spectra measured with theLTP.
Date: July 12, 2006
Creator: Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R. & Takacs, Peter Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete toImprove its Durability

Description: New and advanced methodologies have been developed to characterize the nano and microstructure of cement paste and concrete exposed to aggressive environments. High resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging in the water window is providing new insight on the nano scale of the cement hydration process, which leads to a nano-optimization of cement-based systems. Hard X-ray microtomography images of ice inside cement paste and cracking caused by the alkali?silica reaction (ASR) enables three-dimensional structural identification. The potential of neutron diffraction to determine reactive aggregates by measuring their residual strains and preferred orientation is studied. Results of experiments using these tools are shown on this paper.
Date: January 13, 2009
Creator: Monteiro, P.J.M.; Kirchheim, A.P.; Chae, S.; Fischer, Peter; MacDowell, Alastair; Schaible, Eirc et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two Dimensional Power Spectral Density Measurements of X-Rayoptics With the Micromap Interferometric Microscope

Description: A procedure and software have been developed to transform the area distribution of the residual surface heights available from the measurement with the Micromap interferometric microscope into a two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distribution of the surface height. The procedure incorporates correction of one of the spectral distortions of the PSD measurement. The distortion appears as a shape difference between the tangential and sagittal PSD spectra deduced from the 2D PSD distribution for an isotropic surface. A detailed investigation of the origin of the anisotropy was performed, and a mathematical model was developed and used to correct the distortion. The correction employs a modulation transfer function (MTF) of the detector deduced analytically based on an experimentally confirmed assumption about the origin of the anisotropy due to the asymmetry of the read-out process of the instrument's CCD camera. The correction function has only one free parameter, the effective width of the gate-shaped apparatus function which is the same for both directions. The value of the parameter, equal to 1.35 pixels, was found while measuring the 2D PSD distribution of the instrument self-noise, independent of spatial frequency. The effectiveness of the developed procedure is demonstrated with a number of PSD measurements with different X-ray optics including mirrors and a grating.
Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Franck, Andrew D.; C., Irick Steve; Howells,Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A. & McKinney, Wayne R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cross-check of different techniques for two-dimensional powerspectral density measurements of X-ray optics

Description: The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.
Date: April 17, 2005
Creator: Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flat-Field Calibration of CCD Detector for Long TraceProfilers

Description: The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasersrequires x-ray optical systems with extremely high-performance,generally, of diffraction limited quality. Fabrication and use of suchoptics requires highly accurate metrology. In the present paper, wediscuss a way to improve the performance of the Long Trace Profiler(LTP), a slope measuring instrument widely used at synchrotron facilitiesto characterize x-ray optics at high-spatial-wavelengths fromapproximately 2 mm to 1 m. One of the major sources of LTP systematicerror is the detector. For optimal functionality, the detector has topossess the smallest possible pixel size/spacing, a fast method ofshuttering, and minimal non-uniformity of pixel-to-pixel photoresponse.While the first two requirements are determined by choice of detector,the non-uniformity of photoresponse of typical detectors such as CCDcameras is around 2-3 percent. We describe a flat-field calibration setupspecially developed for calibration of CCD camera photo-response and darkcurrent with an accuracy of better than 0.5 percent. Such accuracy isadequate for use of a camera as a detector for an LTP with performance of~;0.1 microradian (rms). We also present the design details of thecalibration system and results of calibration of a DALSA CCD camera usedfor upgrading our LTP-II instrument at the ALS Optical MetrologyLaboratory.
Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Franck, Keith D.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bendable X-ray Optics at the ALS: Design, Tuning, Performance and Applications

Description: We review the development at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of bendable x-ray optics widely used for focusing of beams of soft and hard x-rays. Typically, the focusing is divided in the tangential and sagittal directions into two elliptically cylindrical reflecting elements, the so-called Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) pair [1]. Because fabrication of elliptical surfaces is complicated, the cost of directly fabricated tangential elliptical cylinders is often prohibitive. This is in contrast to flat optics, that are simpler to manufacture and easier to measure by conventional interferometry. The figure of a flat substrate can be changed by placing torques (couples) at each end. Equal couples form a tangential cylinder, and unequal couples can approximate a tangential ellipse or parabola. We review the nature of the bending, requirements and approaches to the mechanical design, and describe a technique developed at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory (OML) for optimal tuning of bendable mirrors before installation in the beamline [2]. The tuning technique adapts a method previously used to adjust bendable mirrors on synchrotron radiation beamlines [3]. However, in our case, optimal tuning of a bendable mirror is based on surface slope trace data obtained with a slope measuring instrument--in our case, the long trace profiler (LTP). We show that due to the near linearity of the bending problem, the minimal set of data, necessary for tuning of two benders, consists of only three slope traces measured before and after a single adjustment of each bending couple. We provide an algorithm that was used in dedicated software for finding optimal settings for the mirror benders. The algorithm is based on the method of regression analysis with experimentally found characteristic functions of the benders. The resulting approximation to the functional dependence of the desired slope shape provides nearly final settings for the benders. Moreover, the characteristic ...
Date: September 8, 2008
Creator: Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Church, Matthew N.; Knight, Jason W.; Kunz, Martin; MacDowell, Alastair A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for Focusing Soft X-rays

Description: We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x-rays in grazing incidence reflection. The substrate is bent to an elliptical shape with large curvature and high stresses in the substrate require a strong elastic material. Conventional material choices of silicon or of glass will not withstand the stress required. The use of steel allows the substrates to be polished and installed flat, using screws in tapped holes. The ultra-high-vacuum bender mechanism is motorized and computer controlled. These mirrors are used to deliver focused beams of soft x-rays onto the surface of a sample for experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). They provide an illumination field that can be as small as the mirror demagnification allows, for localized study, and can be enlarged, under computer control,for survey measurements over areas of the surface up to several millimeters. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, which limits the minimum achievable focused spot size is discussed in detail. Comparison is made to a polished, gold coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. Surface measurements are presented as power spectral densities, as a function of spatial frequency. The surface height distributions measured with an interferometric microscope, and complemented by atomic force microscope measurements, are used to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity are verified by soft x-ray measurements.
Date: October 11, 2005
Creator: Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crosscheck of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics

Description: The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.
Date: July 12, 2005
Creator: Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress on PEEM3 - An Aberration Corrected X-Ray PhotoemissionElectron Microscope at the ALS

Description: A new ultrahigh-resolution photoemission electron microscope called PEEM3 is being developed and built at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). An electron mirror combined with a much-simplified magnetic dipole separator is to be used to provide simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations. It is installed on an elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) beamline, and will be operated with very high spatial resolution and high flux to study the composition, structure, electric and magnetic properties of complex materials. The instrument has been designed and is described. The instrumental hardware is being deployed in 2 phases. The first phase is the deployment of a standard PEEM type microscope consisting of the standard linear array of electrostatic electron lenses. The second phase will be the installation of the aberration corrected upgrade to improve resolution and throughput. This paper describes progress as the instrument enters the commissioning part of the first phase.
Date: May 20, 2006
Creator: MacDowell, Alastair A.; Feng, J.; DeMello, A.; Doran, A.; Duarte,R.; Forest, E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Beamline for High-Pressure Studies at the Advanced Light Sourcewith a Superconducting Bending Magnet as the Source

Description: A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/DE {approx}7000) and a W/B4C multilayers (E/DE {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.
Date: June 30, 2005
Creator: Kunz, Martin; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Cambie, Daniella; Celestre, Richard S.; Domning, Edward E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SIBYLS - A SAXS and protein crystallography beamline at the ALS

Description: The new Structurally Integrated BiologY for Life Sciences (SIBYLS) beamline at the Advanced Light Source will be dedicated to Macromolecular Crystallography (PX) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). SAXS will provide structural information of macromolecules in solutions and will complement high resolution PX studies on the same systems but in a crystalline state. The x-ray source is one of the 5 Tesla superbend dipoles recently installed at the ALS that allows for a hard x-ray program to be developed on the relatively low energy Advanced Light Source (ALS) ring (1.9 GeV). The beamline is equipped with fast interchangeable monochromator elements, consisting of either a pair of single Si(111) crystals for crystallography, or a pair of multilayers for the SAXS mode data collection (E/{Delta}E {approx} 1/110). Flux rates with Si(111) crystals for PX are measured as 2 x 10{sup 11} hv/sec/400 mA through a 100 {micro}m pinhole at 12.4 KeV. For SAXS the flux is up to 3 x 10{sup 13} photons/sec at 10 KeV with all apertures open when using the multilayer monochromator elements. The performance characteristics of this unique beamline will be described.
Date: August 22, 2003
Creator: Trame, Christine; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Padmore, Howard A.; Cambie, Daniella; Domning, Edward E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A dedicated superbend x-ray microdiffraction beamline for materials, geo-, and environmental sciences at the advanced light source

Description: A new facility for microdiffraction strain measurements and microfluorescence mapping has been built on beamline 12.3.2 at the advanced light source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This beamline benefits from the hard x-radiation generated by a 6 T superconducting bending magnet (superbend) This provides a hard x-ray spectrum from 5 to 22 keV and a flux within a 1 mu m spot of ~;;5x109 photons/ s (0.1percent bandwidth at 8 keV). The radiation is relayed from the superbend source to a focus in the experimental hutch by a toroidal mirror. The focus spot is tailored bytwo pairs of adjustable slits, which serve as secondary source point. Inside the lead hutch, a pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors placed in a vacuum tank refocuses the secondary slit source onto the sample position. A new KB-bending mechanism with active temperature stabilization allows for more reproducible and stable mirror bending and thus mirror focusing. Focus spots around 1 um are routinely achieved and allow a variety of experiments, which have in common the need of spatial resolution. The effective spatial resolution (~;;0.2 mu m) is limited by a convolution of beam size, scan-stage resolution, and stage stability. A four-bounce monochromator consisting of two channel-cut Si(111) crystals placed between the secondary source and KB-mirrors allows for easy changes between white-beam and monochromatic experiments while maintaining a fixed beam position. High resolution stage scans are performed while recording a fluorescence emission signal or an x-ray diffraction signal coming from either a monochromatic or a white focused beam. The former allows for elemental mapping, whereas the latter is used to produce two-dimensional maps of crystal-phases, -orientation, -texture, and -strain/stress. Typically achieved strain resolution is in the order of 5x10-5 strain units. Accurate sample positioning in the x-ray focus spot is achieved with a commercial laser-triangulation unit. ...
Date: March 24, 2009
Creator: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Advanced Light Source.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suite of three protein crystallography beamlines with single superconducting bend magnet as the source

Description: At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), three protein crystallography (PX) beamlines have been built that use as a source one of the three 6 Tesla single pole superconducting bending magnets (superbends) that were recently installed in the ring. The use of such single pole superconducting bend magnets enables the development of a hard x-ray program on a relatively low energy 1.9 GeV ring without taking up insertion device straight sections. The source is of relatively low power, but due to the small electron beam emittance, it has high brightness. X-ray optics are required to preserve the brightness and to match the illumination requirements for protein crystallography. This was achieved by means of a collimating premirror bent to a plane parabola, a double crystal monochromator followed by a toroidal mirror that focuses in the horizontal direction with a 2:1 demagnification. This optical arrangement partially balances aberrations from the collimating and toroidal mirrors such that a tight focused spot size is achieved. The optical properties of the beamline are an excellent match to those required by the small protein crystals that are typically measured. The design and performance of these new beamlines are described.
Date: August 1, 2004
Creator: MacDowell, Alastair A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Howells, Malcolm; McKinney, Wayne; Krupnick, James; Cambie, Daniella et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department