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Variation of laser energy transfer efficiency with well pool depth

Description: A series of CO{sub 2} laser welds were made at a constant beam irradiance of 6 MW/cm{sup 2} on 304 stainless steel with travel speeds selected to produce welds with varying levels of weld penetration. Using a Seebeck envelope calorimeter, the net heat input to the part was measured for each weld. It was found that the energy transfer efficiencies varied from 0.29 to 0.86, and decreased at high travel speeds where the weld penetration depth was as shallow as 0.13 mm. The decrease in beam absorption with decreasing weld pool depth is consistent with an absorption mechanism that requires multiple internal reflections within the weld pool. Equations have been developed which conn -ct the keyhole cavity dimensions with the energy transfer efficiency, and correlations with the experimental data have determined the keyhole cavity radius to be 0.1 mm for a focused laser beam with a spot radius of 0.059 mm.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Fuerschbach, P. W. & MacCallum, D. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spot size and effective focal length measurements for a fast axial flow CO{sub 2} laser

Description: An evaluation of the variation in focal plane position and spot size for a 1,650 W fast axial flow CO{sub 2} laser was performed. Multiple measurements of the focused beam were taken at stepped intervals along the beam axis to create a composite representation of the focus region. Measurements were made at several power levels from low to full power for each of five nominally identical lenses. It was found that as laser output power increases, the minimum focused spot radius increases, and the position of minimum focus shifts toward the laser resonator. These effects were attributed to observed variations in the diameter of the beam entering the focusing lens. For the ZnSe (f = 127 mm) lenses examined, variations in spot radius and focal plane position were seen. Lenses with high rated absorption had a larger variation in spot size and effective focal length than those with low absorption. Lenses that had previously been degraded by welding had the greatest variation.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Steele, R.J.; Fuerschbach, P.W. & MacCallum, D.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis and validation of laser spot weld-induced distortion

Description: Laser spot welding is an ideal process for joining small parts with tight tolerances on weld size, location, and distortion, particularly those with near-by heat sensitive features. It is also key to understanding the overlapping laser spot seam welding process. Rather than attempting to simulate the laser beam-to-part coupling (particularly if a keyhole occurs), it was measured by calorimetry. This data was then used to calculate the thermal and structural response of a laser spot welded SS304 disk using the finite element method. Five combinations of process parameter values were studied. Calculations were compared to experimental data for temperature and distortion profiles measured by thermocouples and surface profiling. Results are discussed in terms of experimental and modeling factors. The authors then suggest appropriate parameters for laser spot welding.
Date: December 9, 1999
Creator: Knorovsky, G.A.; Kanouff, M.P.; Maccallum, D.O. & Fuerschbach, P.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transformation kinetics in controlled-power and controlled-temperature cycle testing

Description: On-heating transformation kinetics were investigated for several steels by using a Gleeble capable of programmable power input as well as programmable temperature cycling. Transformation kinetics determined in both modes are reported. The temperature cycles are significantly different between the two modes due to the latent heat associated with the phase transformations. Both diffusion rates and transformation driving force increase with temperature above the eutectoid temperature, therefore the latent heat can potentially have a significant impact on the transformation kinetics. Experiments with plain carbon steels illustrate that the latent heat of austenite formation causes an appreciable temperature arrest during transformation, and the dilatation response is similarly altered. A kinetic transformation model, based on the decomposition of pearlite and the diffusional growth of austenite, reproduced the transient dilatation data obtained from both control modes reasonably well using the same kinetic parameter values.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Robino, C.V.; Knorovsky, G.; Dykhuizen, R.C.; MacCallum, D.O. & Damkroger, B.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement and calculation of recoil pressure produced during CO{sub 2} laser interaction with ice

Description: Evaporation is a classical physics problem which, because of its significant importance for many engineering applications, has drawn considerable attention by previous researchers. Classical theoretical models [Ta. I. Frenkel, Kinetic Theory of Liquids, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1946] represent evaporation in a simplistic way as the escape of atoms with highest velocities from a potential well with the depth determined by the atomic binding energy. The processes taking place in the gas phase above the rapidly evaporating surface have also been studied in great detail [S.I.Anisimov and V. A. Khokhlov, Instabilities in Lasser-Matter Interaction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995]. The description of evaporation utilizing these models is known to adequately characterize drilling with high beam intensity, e.g., >10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2}. However, the interaction regimes when beam intensity is relatively low, such as during welding or cutting, lack both theoretical and experimental consideration of the evaporation. It was shown recently that if the evaporation is treated in accordance with Anisimov et.al.'s approach, then predicted evaporation recoil should be a substantial factor influencing melt flow and related heat transfer during laser beam welding and cutting. To verify the applicability of this model for low beam intensity interaction, the authors compared the results of measurements and calculations of recoil pressure generated during laser beam irradiation of a target. The target material used was water ice at {minus}10 C. The displacement of a target supported in a nearly frictionless air bearing under irradiation by a defocused laser beam from a 14 kW CO{sub 2} laser was recorded and Newton's laws of motion used to derive the recoil pressure.
Date: December 9, 1999
Creator: Semak, V.V.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Maccallum, D.O.; Noble, D.R. & Kanouff, M.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dilatometry in the Gleeble: What did you really measure?

Description: The Gleeble is an oft-used tool for welding metallurgy research. Besides producing synthetic weld specimens, it is used to determine phase transformation temperatures and kinetics via dilatometry. Experimental data and an FEM model are used to examine measured dilatation errors because of non-uniform heating of the dilatometer and other sources such as sample elastic and plastic deformation. Both isothermal and constant heating/cooling rate scenarios are considered. Further errors which may be introduced when the dilatation is incorrectly assumed to be linearly related to the volume fraction transformed are also discussed.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Knorovsky, G.A.; Robino, C.V.; Dykhuizen, R.C. & MacCallum, D.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department