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Increased strengthening of austenitic alloys through dual aging

Description: A study of the effect of solution treatment, single and duplex isothermal aging heat treatments on an Fe-Ni-Ti-Al austenitic alloy hardened by ..gamma..' precipitation is reported. Sequential heat treatments were performed and studied in order to develop a systematic process for achieving very high strength austenite through thermal processing alone. Room temperature tensile tests were carried out. Alloys receiving double aging treatments were found to achieve mechanical properties superior to those aged at a given temperature. An optimum level of yield strength (172 Ksi) along with good elongation (20%) was obtained from a two-step aging process. Structural examination indicated that overaging was retarded by secondary aging. The formation and growth of cellular precipitates were suppressed. Resistivity changes were measured on wire specimens to study the early stages of precipitation. Resistivity peaks were observed during secondary aging indicating evidence of secondary precipitation.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Ma, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy technologies at Sandia National Laboratories: Past, Present, Future

Description: We at Sandia first became involved with developing energy technology when the nation initiated its push toward energy independence in the early 1970s. That involvement continues to be strong. In shaping Sandia's energy programs for the 1990s, we will build on our track record from the 70s and 80s, a record outlined in this publication. It contains reprints of three issues of Sandia's Lab News that were devoted to our non-nuclear energy programs. Together, they summarize the history, current activities, and future of Sandia's diverse energy concerns; hence my desire to see them in one volume. Written in the fall of 1988, the articles cover Sandia's extremely broad range of energy technologies -- coal, oil and gas, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, rechargeable batteries, and combustion.
Date: August 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Assessment for US Department of Energy support of an Iowa State University Linear Accelerator Facility at Ames, Iowa

Description: The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action is financial and technical support of construction and initial operation of an agricultural commodity irradiator (principally for meat), employing a dual mode electron beam generator capable of producing x-rays, at the Iowa State University Linear Accelerator located at Ames, Iowa. The planned pilot commercial-scale facility would be used for the following activities: conducting irradiation research on agricultural commodities, principally meats; in the future, after the pilot phase, as schedules permit, possibly conducting research on other, non-edible materials; evaluating effects of irradiation on nutritional and sensory quality of agricultural products; demonstrating the efficiency of the process to control or eliminate pathogens, and/or to prolong the commodities' post-harvest shelf-life via control or elimination of bacteria, fungi, and/or insects; providing information to the public on the benefits, safety and risks of irradiated agricultural commodities; determining consumer acceptability of the irradiated products; providing data for use by regulatory agencies in developing protocols for various treatments of Iowa agricultural commodities; and training operators, maintenance and quality control technicians, scientists, engineers, and staff of regulatory agencies in agricultural commodity irradiation technology. 14 refs., 5 figs.
Date: May 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radar imagery interpretation to provide information about several geothermal sites in the Philippines

Description: The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nation-wide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential geothermal and petroleum prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 7 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: November 17, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Executive summary: Radar imagery interpretation to assess the hydrocarbon potential of four sites in the Phillipines

Description: The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nationwide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential petroleum and geothermal prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: November 17, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radar imagery interpretation to assess the hydrocarbon potential of four sites in the Philippines

Description: The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nationwide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential petroleum and geothermal prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 29 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.
Date: November 17, 1988
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

Description: The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.
Date: June 26, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1989

Description: This paper discusses: accelerator physics and special projects; experiments and injectors; magnetic optics and beam diagnostics; accelerator design and engineering; radio-frequency technology; accelerator theory and simulation; free-electron laser technology; accelerator controls and automation; and high power microwave sources and effects.
Date: June 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benchmarking of energy time series

Description: Benchmarking consists of the adjustment of time series data from one source in order to achieve agreement with similar data from a second source. The data from the latter source are referred to as the benchmark(s), and often differ in that they are observed at a lower frequency, represent a higher level of temporal aggregation, and/or are considered to be of greater accuracy. This report provides an extensive survey of benchmarking procedures which have appeared in the statistical literature, and reviews specific benchmarking procedures currently used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The literature survey includes a technical summary of the major benchmarking methods and their statistical properties. Factors influencing the choice and application of particular techniques are described and the impact of benchmark accuracy is discussed. EIA applications and procedures are reviewed and evaluated for residential natural gas deliveries series and coal production series. It is found that the current method of adjusting the natural gas series is consistent with the behavior of the series and the methods used in obtaining the initial data. As a result, no change is recommended. For the coal production series, a staged approach based on a first differencing technique is recommended over the current procedure. A comparison of the adjustments produced by the two methods is made for the 1987 Indiana coal production series. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Date: April 1, 1990
Creator: Williamson, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron-beam braze welding of beryllium

Description: Electron-beam braze welds were made in beryllium by using less than the recommended amount of aluminum filler metal. The welds exhibited a tendency to form microcracks prior to the termination of solidification; however, these microcracks were healed by the backfilling action of the aluminum/beryllium eutectic present in the fusion zone. Adverse effects attributable to the prior microcracking condition were not found.
Date: September 19, 1978
Creator: Perkins, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on the HYLIFE liquid-first-wall concept for future laser-fusion reactors. Final report No. 5

Description: It has been proposed to protect the structural walls of a future laser fusion reactor with a curtain or fluid-wall of liquid lithium jets. As part of the investigation of this concept, experiments have been performed on planar sheet water jets issuing vertically downward from slit nozzles. The nozzles were subjected to transverse forced harmonic excitation to simulate the vibrational environment of the laser fusion reactor, and experiments were run at both 1 atm and at lower ambient pressures. Linear temporal stability theory is shown to predict the onset of the unstable regime and the initial spatial growth rates quite well for the cases where the amplitudes of the nozzle vibration are not too large and the waveform is nearly sinusoidal. In addition, both the linear theory and a simplified trajectory theory are shown to predict the initial wave envelope amplitudes very well. For larger amplitude nozzle excitation, the waveform becomes highly nonlinear and non-sinusoidal and can resemble a sawtooth waveform in some cases; these latter experimental results can only be partially explained by existing theories at the present time.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Hoffman, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on the HYLIFE liquid-first-wall concept for future laser-fusion reactors: liquid jet impact experiments. Final report No. 8

Description: The goal of this initial scoping study was to evaluate the transient and steady state drag of a single bar and of some selected arrays of bars and to determine the momentum removed from impacting liquid slugs. In order to achieve this aim, use has been made of both the published literature and experimental data obtained from a small-scale experimental apparatus. The implications of two possible scaling laws for use in designing the small-scale experiment are discussed. The use of near-universal curves to evaluate the momentum removed during the initial transient period is described. The small-scale apparatus used to obtain steady-state drag data is described. Finally, these results are applied to the HYLIFE fusion reactor.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Hoffman, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on the HYLIFE liquid-first-wall concept for future laser-fusion reactors. Final report No. 6

Description: Experiments were performed on planar sheet jets of water flowing vertically downward. The nozzles were vibrated transversely to excite the sinuous mode of instability, and the sheet jets were photographed from the edge view to obtain data on the wave growth parameters. The data are compared to a second-order nonlinear theory. Qualitative agreement is obtained with regard to the stabilizing nature of the second-order terms, and reasonably quantitative agreement is obtained on the fall distance for the maximum wave amplitude.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Hoffman, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basis for calculations in the topological expansion

Description: Investigations aimed at putting the topological theory of particles on a more quantitative basis are described. First, the incorporation of spin into the topological structure is discussed and shown to successfully reproduce the observed lowest mass hadron spectrum. The absence of parity-doubled states represents a significant improvement over previous efforts in similar directions. This theory is applied to the lowest order calculation of elementary hadron coupling constant ratios. SU(6)/sub W/ symmetry is maintained and extended via the notions of topological supersymmetry and universality. Finally, efforts to discover a perturbative basis for the topological expansion are described. This has led to the formulation of off-shell Feynman-like rules which provide a calculational scheme for the strong interaction components of the topological expansion once the zero-entropy connected parts are known. These rules are shown to imply a topological asymptotic freedom. Even though the nonlinear zero-entropy problem cannot itself be treated perturbatively, plausible general assumptions about zero-entropy amplitudes allow immediate qualitative inferences concerning physical hadrons. In particular, scenarios for mass splittings beyond the supersymmetric level are described.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Levinson, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tormac concept. [Start-up problems]

Description: Some of the problems of tokamaks and mirrors are mentioned. The advantages and disadvantages of the Tormac concept are described. The ''puffer'' experiment to alleviate start-up problems with the Tormac is discussed. (MOW)
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Levine, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculational tools for the evaluation of nuclear cross-section and spectra data

Description: A technique based on discrete energy levels rather than energy level densities is presented for nuclear reaction calculations. The validity of the technique is demonstrated via theoretical and experimental agreement for cross sections, isomer-ratios and gamma-ray strength functions. 50 refs., 7 figs. (WRF)
Date: May 7, 1985
Creator: Gardner, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SRC-I naphtha hydrotreating study pilot plant and oxygen analytical studies. Final technical report

Description: The first part of this study covered second-stage pilot plant hydrotreating using a UOP nickel-molybdenum (-moly) catalyst and first-stage product from earlier pilot plant work as feedstock. Results from this study indicate that the nickel-moly catalyst is less active than the cobalt-moly catalyst used during original studies over the lower end of the temperature range tested (250 to 280/sup 0/C average bed temperature (ABT)), but should produce satisfactory product contaminant levels at the temperature range of commercial interest (335 to 345/sup 0/C ABT). The second part of the study covered oxygen analysis comprising two separate programs. The first was aimed at determining the effect of various molecular sieve drying techniques on SRC-I hydrotreated naphtha. This resulted in the recommendation that 3A molecular sieves be left in contact with the naphtha before analysis to assure that the sample remains relatively dry (approx. 20 wt-ppM water), and therefore minimize water interference during analysis. The second program was conducted to determine if different oxygen concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 wt-ppM. The results showed that scatter in the analytical data was too large to permit conclusions relative to the type of oxygen compound. Further combustion/GC analytical method development is recommended. In general, the results from the oxygen analytical study are very beneficial to the ongoing effort to develop an accurate method for total oxygen analysis in the 10 to 100 wt-ppM range. 3 figures, 12 tables.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Ulowetz, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron energy loss spectroscopy of CH/sub 3/N/sub 2/CH/sub 3/ adsorbed on Ni(100), Ni(111), Cr(100), Cr(111)

Description: A study of the adsorption of CH/sub 3/N/sub 2/CH/sub 3/ on Ni(100), Ni(111), Cr(100), and Cr(111) using high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is presented. Under approximately the same conditions of coverage, the vibrational spectra of CH/sub 3/N/sub 2/CH/sub 3/ on these four surfaces are quite distinct from one another, implying that the CH/sub 3/N/sub 2/CH/sub 3/-substrate interaction is very sensitive to the physical and electronic structure of each surface. In addition to the room temperature studies, the evolution of surface species on the Ni(100) surface in the temperature range 300 to 425 K was studied. Analysis of the Ni(100) spectra indicates that molecular adsorption, probably through the N lone pair, occurs at room temperature. Spectra taken after annealing the CH/sub 3/N/sub 2/CH/sub 3/-Ni(100) surfaces indicate that CH and CN bond scission occurred at the elevated temperatures. Decomposition of CH/sub 3/N/sub 2/CH/sub 3/ takes place on the Ni(111), Cr(100), and Cr(111) surfaces at room temperature, as evidenced by the intensity of the carbon-metal stretch in the corresponding spectra. Possible identities of coadsorbed dissociation products are considered. The stable coverage of surface species on all four surfaces at 300 K is less than one monolayer. A general description of an electron energy loss (EEL) spectrometer is given. Followed by a more specific discussion of some recent modifications to the EEL monochromator assembly used in this laboratory. Both the previous configuration of our monochromator and the new version are briefly described, as an aid to understanding the motivation for the changes as well as the differences in operation of the two versions. For clarity, the new monochromator design is referred to as variable pass, while the previous design is referred to as double pass. A modified tuning procedure for the new monochromator is also presented. 58 refs., 11 figs.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Schulz, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health, Safety, and Environment Division: Annual progress report 1987

Description: The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environment protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Many disciplines are required to meet the responsibilities, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health and safety problems arise occasionally from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory. Research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed to study specific problems for the Department of Energy and to help develop better occupational health and safety practices.
Date: April 1, 1988
Creator: Rosenthal, M.A. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR

Description: The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Firestone, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of brines relevant to nuclear waste experimentation

Description: The ionic compositions of 18 brines used in nuclear waste-related laboratory tests or obtained from field tests are described and compared. Also described are the origin of each brine, its predominant use for laboratory testing, and its relavancy for future testing. The brines include Brines A and B (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)/generic), Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) Composite Permian Brine P and Equilibrated Permian P No. 2, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)-Sandia High-Level Waste (HLW) package interactions test brines (flow and downhole), ERDA-6 brines (flow and downhole), WIPP Inclusions No. 1 and No. 2, Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brine, German quinare Brine Q, US Geological Survey bittern NBT-6a, saturated NaCl (20/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/C), and standard seawater.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Molecke, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inertia and friction welding of type 1100 aluminum to type 316 stainless steel

Description: The inertia and friction-welding processes were evaluated for joining Type 1100-H14 aluminum to Type 316 VIM VAR stainless steel. While both processes consistently produce joints whose strength exceed the aluminum base metal, 100 percent bonding has not been reliably achieved. This deficiency points out the need for the development of nondestructive testing techniques for this type of joint. Additionally, solid state volume diffusion did not appear to be a satisfactory explanation for the inertia and friction-welding bonding mechanism.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Perkins, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department