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Report on Rocket Power Plants Based on T-Substance

Description: In the search for an energy source independent of air for the propulsion of underwater craft, attention was early concentrated on T-substance. It was possible to convince the OKM [NACA comment: Navy High Command] very quickly of the importance of this material. In 1934, the first experiments were undertaken. A difficulty was at once presented by the limited concentration that had been attained. At first only 60 percent T-substance could be supplied; this amount was later increased to as much as 85 percent. Decomposition and combustion experiments conducted on the grounds of the CPVA in Kiel-Dietrichsdorf led to the first practical information as to the technical feasibility of the use of T-substance. New perspectives soon developed because a method of concentrated energy production had been found here, which was capable of many applications. The idea of using this energy for the propulsion of missiles either in guns or as rockets suggested itself and appropriate proposals, which quickly led to the construction of the first experimental devices, were made to the official quarters concerned. In January 1937, the first flight of a DVL aircraft with T-substance auxiliary propulsion took place at Alimbsmuhle in the presence of Colonel Udet, who piloted the third flight. In June 1937, the first T-substance rockets were fired (Altenwalde). Then in rapid succession take-off auxiliary, main propulsion, and other rocket drives were brought out in experimental versions. Hydrogen peroxide is a well known chemical, which is widely used in the textile industry. Its chemical and physical properties as well as the processes of manufacture and use are familiar and have been described in voluminous books and papers, Nevertheless, much developmental work was required to open the way for T-substance as a usable oxygen carrier. In fact the utilization of hydrogen peroxide as the oxygen carrier for energy ...
Date: July 1, 1947
Creator: Walter, Hellmuth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of compressibility on the pressure reading of a Prandtl pitot tube at subsonic flow velocity

Description: Errors arising from yawed flow were also determined up to 20 degrees angle of attack. In axial flow, the Prandtl pitot tube begins at w/a approx. = 0.8 to give an incorrect static pressure reading, while it records the tank pressure correctly, as anticipated, up to sonic velocity. Owing to the compressibility of the air, the Prandtl pitot tube manifests compression shocks when the air speed approaches velocity of sound. This affects the pressure reading of the instrument. Because of the increasing importance of high speed in aviation, this compressibility effect is investigated in detail.
Date: November 1939
Creator: Walchner, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 5- by 7-meter wind tunnel of the DVL

Description: The report contains a description of the DVL wind tunnel. According to the cones fixed, an elliptical stream with axes 5 by 7 meters and length 9 meters, or a stream 6 by 8 meters in cross section and 11 meters in length is available. The top speed with the smaller cone is 65 meters per second. The testing equipment consists of an automatic six-component balance and a test rig for propellers and engines up to 650 horsepower.
Date: March 1936
Creator: Kramer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Single Stage Axial Fans

Description: The following investigations are connected with experiments on fans carried out by the author in the Gouttingen Aerodynamic Laboratory within the framework of the preliminary experiments for the new Gouttingen wind-tunnel project. A fan rotor was developed which had very high efficiency at the design point corresponding to moderate pressure and which, in addition, could operate at a proportionally high pressure, rise. To establish the determining operating factors the author carried out extensive theoretical investigation in Hannover. In this it was necessary, to depart from the usual assumption of vanishing radial velocities. The calculations were substantially lightened by the introduction of diagrams. The, first part of the.report describes the theoretical investigations; the second, the experiments carried out at Gouttingen.
Date: April 1944
Creator: Ruden, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contribution to the problem of airfoils spanning a free jet

Description: After a brief discussion of the work done up to now on an unwarped wing of constant chord spanning a free jet, the computation of the circulation and lift distribution for different forms of warped wings spanning rectangular and circular jets was carried out. The computed values are compared with test values and the agreement is found to be good. The effect of placing the wing eccentrically is slight and may be applied as a correction factor to the data obtained for wing placed in middle of jet.
Date: June 1936
Creator: Stüper, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for the determination of the spanwise lift distribution

Description: The method for determination of the spanwise lift distribution is based on the Fourier series for the representation of the lift distribution. The lift distribution, as well as the angle of attack, is split up in four elementary distributions. The insertion of the angle-of-attack distribution in the Fourier series for the lift distribution gives a compound third series which is of particular advantage for the determination of the lift distribution. The method is illustrated in an example and supplemented by a graphical method. Lastly, the results of several comparative calculations with other methods are reported.
Date: October 1935
Creator: Lippisch, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of aerodynamic design on glider performance

Description: The performance of a glider is determined by means of the velocity polar, which represents the connection between horizontal and sinking speed. The mean sinking speed for a given speed range can be determined on the basis of the velocity polar. These data form the basis for the most propitious design of a performance-type glider with a view to long-distance flight.
Date: January 1935
Creator: Lippisch, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiences with flow-direction instruments

Description: "The method of recording the direction of flows on the basis of the hydrodynamic zero-point measurement has now reached a certain limit, in spite of the good results achieved. While the available flow-direction devices are accurate enough for many purposes, they are all insufficient for perfectly exact prediction of the flow direction. The next problem will be to achieve a point-by point flow-direction record, whereby the test procedure must be simplified, accelerated, and the degree of accuracy of the test data improved" (p. 1).
Date: March 1941
Creator: Eckert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The stress criterion of a tension member with graded flexural stiffness: contribution to the problem of "clamping effect" outside of the elastic range

Description: The approximate size of the stress criterion of a bar on two supports stressed beyond the elastic range is assessed by an approximation. The calculation proceeds from the premise of "substitute flexural stiffness" so defined that the part stressed beyond the elastic range may be considered as following Hooke's law when determining the flexural deformation quantities. For the determination of the substitute flexural stiffness, it is presumed that the material is already stressed so much beyond the yield point as to be strain-hardened. The data are directly applicable to materials having no definite yield point. For the rest, von Karman's method for compressed and subsequently deflected bars serves as basis for the calculation.
Date: September 1936
Creator: Kaul, Hans W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Buckling tests on eccentrically loaded beam columns

Description: Formulas are obtained for computing the buckling load of rods eccentrically loaded at each end, the computation being extended in particular to the inelastic range. The test results are graphically presented on three sets of curves. Two of these, at least for the elastic range, are independent of the material tested. The third set, which is independent of the material, possesses greater clearness and is therefore used for comparing the test results with the theoretical.
Date: October 1941
Creator: Cassens, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Dornier wind tunnel

Description: After completion of the required calibrations, the Dornier open-throat tunnel is now in operation. With an elliptic test section of 3 by 4 m (9.84 by 3.12 ft.), its length is 7 m (22.97 ft.), its maximum horsepower 800, and its maximum air speed 60 m/s (134.2 mph). As to local uniformity of velocity, static pressure as well as jet direction, and turbulence factor, this tunnel is on par with those of the good German and foreign research labs.
Date: June 1938
Creator: Schlichting, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contribution to the ideal efficiency of screw propellers

Description: From Summary: "The stipulation of best thrust distribution is applied to the annular elements of the screw propeller with infinitely many blades in frictionless, incompressible flow and an ideal jet propulsion system derived possessing hyperbolic angular velocity distribution along the blade radius and combining the advantage of uniform thrust distribution over the section with minimum slipstream and rotation losses. This system is then compared with a propeller possessing the same angular velocity at all blade elements and the best possible thrust distribution secured by means of an induced efficiency varying uniformly over the radius. Lastly, the case of the lightly loaded propeller also is discussed."
Date: January 1942
Creator: Hoff, Wilhelm
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The stability of laminar flow past a sphere

Description: As a contribution to the problem of turbulence on a surface of rotation, the method of small oscillation is applied to the flow past a sphere. It was found that the method developed for two-dimensional flow is applicable without modifications. The frictional layer in the vicinity of the stagnation point of a surface of rotation is less stable against small two-dimensional disturbances than in the stagnation point itself, as proved from an analysis of the velocity distribution made by Homann.
Date: June 1942
Creator: Pretsch, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The stress distribution in shell bodies and wings as an equilibrium problem

Description: This report treats the stress distribution in shell-shaped airplane components (fuselage, wings) as an equilibrium problem; it includes both cylindrical and non-cylindrical shells. In particular, it treats the stress distribution at the point of stress application and at cut-out points.
Date: February 1937
Creator: Wagner, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The design of floats

Description: Following a summary of the multiplicity of domestic and foreign floats and a brief enumeration of the requirements of floats, the essential form parameters and their effect on the qualities of floats are detailed. On this basis a standard float design is developed which in model families with varying length/beam ratio and angle of dead rise is analyzed by an experimental method which permits its best utilization on any airplane.
Date: April 1938
Creator: Sottorf, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New method of extrapolation of the resistance of a model planing boat to full size

Description: "The previously employed method of extrapolating the total resistance to full size with lambda(exp 3) (model scale) and thereby foregoing a separate appraisal of the frictional resistance, was permissible for large models and floats of normal size. But faced with the ever increasing size of aircraft a reexamination of the problem of extrapolation to full size is called for. A method is described by means of which, on the basis of an analysis of tests on planing surfaces, the variation of the wetted surface over the take-off range is analytically obtained. The friction coefficients are read from Prandtl's curve for turbulent boundary layer with laminar approach. With these two values a correction for friction is obtainable" (p. 1).
Date: March 1942
Creator: Sottorf, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of propeller slipstream on wing and tail

Description: The results of wind tunnel tests for the determination of the effect of a jet on the lift and downwash of a wing are presented in this report. In the first part, a jet without rotation and with constant velocity distribution is considered - the jet being produced by a specially designed fan. Three-component, pressure distribution, and downwash measurements were made and the results compared with existing theory. The effect of a propeller slipstream was investigated in the second part. In the two cases the jet axis coincided with the undisturbed wind direction. In the third part the effect of the inclination of the propeller axis to the wing chord was considered, the results being obtained for a model wing with running propeller.
Date: August 1938
Creator: Stüper, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Wing Loading, Aspect Ratio, and Span Loading of Flight Performances

Description: "An investigation is made of the possible improvements in maximum, cruising, and climbing speeds attainable through increase in the wing loading. The decrease in wing area was considered for the two cases of constant aspect ratio and constant span loading. For a definite flight condition, an investigation is made to determine what loss in flight performance must be sustained if, for given reasons, certain wing loadings are not to be exceeded. With the aid of these general investigations, the trend with respect to wing loading is indicated and the requirements to be imposed on the landing aids are discussed" (p. 1).
Date: January 1940
Creator: Göthert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Drag of Airplane Radiators With Special Reference to Air Heating (Comparison of Theory and Experiment)

Description: This report contains a survey of past radiator research. This report also is intended as a systematic comparison of theoretical and experimental radiator drag, with the object of ascertaining the most important loss sources and their interaction in different cases of installation, and to separate the radiator systems which are amenable to calculation, both as regards axial flow and drag. The sources of loss due to the diffuser are to be looked into closely as in many cases they can be of preeminent magnitude and their customary appraisal, according to Fliegner's formula, does not meet actual conditions.
Date: May 1939
Creator: Göthert, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Behavior Under Shearing Stress of Duralumin Strip With Round, Flanged Holes

Description: "This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the behavior of dural strip with flanged holes in the center when subjected to shear stresses. They buckle under a certain load just as a flat sheet. There is one optimum hole spacing and a corresponding buckling load in shear for each sheet width, sheet thickness, and flange form. Comparison with non-flanged sheets revealed a marked increase of buckling load in shear due to the flanging and a slightly greater displacement" (p. 1).
Date: October 1934
Creator: Schüssler, Karl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of Static Pressure Heads at High Speeds

Description: "Memorandum presenting the development of a static pressure head for high speeds. These tests proved the practicability of static pressure heads at speeds up to 400 km/h (248.5 mph). It weighs 6.5 kg or 2.5 times as much as the old head. The position of the pressure head below the airplane was determined by bearing method at different speeds and for different lengths of suspension" (p. 1).
Date: June 1938
Creator: Danielzig, Helmut
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Interdependence of Profile Drag and Lift With Joukowski Type and Related Airfoils

Description: "On the basis of a systematic investigation of Gottingen wind-tunnel data on Joukowski type and related airfoils, it is shown in what manner the profile drag coefficient is dependent on the lift coefficient. The individual factors for the construction of the profile drag polars are given. They afford a more accurate calculation of the performance coefficients of airplane designs than otherwise attainable with the conventional assumption of constant drag coefficient" (p. 1).
Date: March 1935
Creator: Muttray, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department