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Research Opportunities for Studies of Contaminant Transport in Fluvial Systems at the TIMS Branch - Steed Pond System, Savannah River Site

Description: A workshop to identify the scientific issues associated with contamination in riparian, fluvial, and hyporheic systems was held in March 2003 at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The workshop examined the general scientific remediation challenges and research opportunities in such systems and on Tims Branch - Steed Pond, a specific uranium- and heavy-metal-contaminated riparian system at SRS. A diverse group of scientists representing a wide range of scientific disciplines came from academia, national laboratories, and research centers to develop recommendations for future ERSD research opportunities. There was agreement among the workshop participants that riparian, fluvial, and hyporheic systems represent a unique opportunity to advance science and to enable progress on DOE's environmental cleanup of contaminated sites. The participants at this workshop documented both the critical need and the great promise for research on hydrological and biogeochemical processes controlling contaminant transport and fate in contaminated surface and near-surface systems. The approach of the workshop was to assess the Tims Branch - Steed Pond system at the SRS as an appropriate site to identify research needs that support potential remediation strategies.
Date: August 13, 2003
Creator: Looney, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation: A Line of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents

Description: The Department of Energy is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation(EPR) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management Alternative Project, focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EPR. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council and the Environmental Protection Agency. The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EPR Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, we are publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry. The following report - documenting our Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation - is one of those supplemental documents.
Date: January 7, 2004
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

Description: Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells.
Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

Description: Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies.
Date: August 18, 2000
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultralow Concentration Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

Description: Field, laboratory and engineering data confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping as an ultralow concentration mercury treatment concept for water containing Hg(II). The simple process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride (Sn(II)) to cover the mercury to Hg degrees. This mercury species can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging.
Date: May 21, 2001
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applied environmental technology development at the Savannah River Site: A retrospective on the last half of the 20th century

Description: Fifty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. These operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a strong commitment to environmental stewardship. The site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major DOE facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early example sets the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS have proactively identified environmental problems as they occurred and have skillfully developed elegant and efficient solutions.
Date: March 13, 2000
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Assistance to Ohio Closure Sites - Technologies to Address Excavated VOC Contaminated Soil from Areas 3A/4A and Plant 6 at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

Description: Evaluation, recommendation, development, and application of a process to treat approximately 1,800 cubic yards of soil/sediment contaminated with organic solvents and with U in Area 3A and 4A by a technical assistance team.
Date: December 2, 2002
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Targets - A Tool to Support Strategic Planning in the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area

Description: The Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is supported by a lead laboratory consisting of technical representatives from DOE laboratories across the country. This broadly representative scientific group has developed and implemented a process to define Technical Targets to assist the SCFA in strategic planning and in managing their environmental research and development portfolio. At an initial meeting in Golden Colorado, an initial set of Technical Targets was identified using a rapid consensus based technical triage process. Thirteen Technical Targets were identified and described. Vital scientific and technical objectives were generated for each target. The targets generally fall into one of the following five strategic investment categories: Enhancing Environmental Stewardship, Eliminating Contaminant Sources, Isolating Contaminants, Controlling Contaminant Plumes, Enabling DOEs CleanUp Efforts. The resulting targets and the detail they comprise on what is, and what is not, needed to meet Environmental Management needs provide a comprehensive technically-based framework to assist in prioritizing future work and in managing the SCFA program.
Date: February 11, 2002
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Assistance to Kansas City Plant: Mitigation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Discharges

Description: Soil and storm water discharges from the Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP) contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) resulting from past spills and discharges. KCP has implemented a range of actions to mitigate the soil contamination and to reduce the measured PCB releases.
Date: April 21, 2003
Creator: Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation: A Line of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents

Description: The Department of Energy is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation(EPR) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management Alternative Project, focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EPR. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council and the Environmental Protection Agency. The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EPR Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, we are publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry. The following report - documenting our Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation - is one of those supplemental documents.
Date: January 7, 2004
Creator: Looney, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation: A Line of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents

Description: As requested by the Savannah River Technology Center, Groundwater Services, Inc. (GSI), has conducted a historical analysis of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) application at chlorinated solvent sites. The objective of the analysis was to document trends, characteristics, successes, and barriers in the use of MNA as a remedy at chlorinated solvent sites. The analysis consisted of the following: (1) a review of recent literature regarding application of natural attenuation at chlorinated solvent sites, (2) a review of regulatory and industry guidance directing evaluation and implementation of MNA as a remedy at chlorinated solvent sites, and (3) a historical survey distributed to MNA experts, which requested data relating to the evaluation and implementation of MNA at chlorinated solvent sites.
Date: April 15, 2004
Creator: Looney, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the anomalous scale-dependent behavior of dispersivity using straightforward analytical equations: Flow variance vs. dispersion

Description: Recent field and laboratory data have confirmed that apparent dispersivity is a function of the flow distance of the measurement. This scale effect is not consistent with classical advection dispersion modeling often used to describe the transport of solutes in saturated porous media. Many investigators attribute this anomalous behavior to the fact that the spreading of solute is actually the result of the heterogeneity of subsurface materials and the wide distribution of flow paths and velocities available in such systems. An analysis using straightforward analytical equations confirms this hypothesis. An analytical equation based on a flow variance approach matches available field data when a variance description of approximately 0.4 is employed. Also, current field data provide a basis for statistical selection of the variance parameter based on the level of concern related to the resulting calculated concentration. While the advection dispersion approach often yielded reasonable predictions, continued development of statistical and stochastic techniques will provide more defendable and mechanistically descriptive models.
Date: Spring 1988
Creator: Looney, B. B. & Scott, M. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field demonstration of in-situ air stripping using horizontal wells

Description: Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The 139 day long test was designed to remove volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 90m long and 45m deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 50m long and 20m deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Looney, B.B. & Kaback, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report for demonstration of in situ oxidation of DNAPL using the Geo-Cleanse technology

Description: At large industrial sites like the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), undissolved dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in soil and groundwater is the most significant barrier to successful clean up. DNAPL acts as a reservoir that will continue to generate contaminant levels far above remediation concentration goals well into the future.
Date: September 23, 1997
Creator: Jerome, K.M.; Riha, B. & Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the quarterly tritium survey of Fourmile Branch and its seeplines in the F {ampersand} H areas of SRS: December 1994

Description: The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) established a quarterly monitoring program of the Fourmile Branch (FMB) stream and its associated seepline located down gradient from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The primary focus of this program was to survey and track changes in tritium levels; however, specific conductivity, and pH were also surveyed and tracked. The measurements from the tenth scheduled survey (December 1994) exhibited similar tritium levels, conductivity measurements, and pH values to data from previous sampling events. The overall results of the tritium survey and stream monitoring data (Looney et al., 1993) indicates that the tritium plume resulting from the operation of the seepage basins continues to flush from the Fourmile Branch wetland system.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Koch, J.W. II; Dixon, K.L. & Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the quarterly tritium survey of Fourmile Branch and its seeplines in the F and H areas of SRS: June 1994

Description: The Environmental Sciences Sections (ESS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) established a quarterly monitoring program of the Fourmile Branch (FMB) stream and its associated seepline down gradient from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. The program surveys and tracks changes in tritium, specific conductivity, and pH primarily for seepline water, but a few stream locations have been added. Measurements from the ninth quarterly survey (June 1994) showed similar tritium, conductivity, measurements, and pH values comparing measurements from previous studies. Increased tritium concentrations, compared to the previous survey, are attributed to lower rainfall and seasonal drop in the water table since the March 1994 sampling event. However, overall results of the tritium survey and stream monitoring data suggest that the tritium plume that resulted from operation of the seepage basins is flushing from the FMB system.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Rogers, V.A.; Dixon, K.L. & Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating the Extent and Thickness of DNAPL within the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site

Description: The objective of this study is to refine the current conceptual model for the extent, character, and thickness of DNAPL contamination in the A/M Area. The evaluation is based upon historical records of operations and waste management and on detailed screening of historical groundwater concentrations against solubility limits. The topology of the Green Clay confining zone is used as the primary factor determining DNAPL pool thickness and resulting migration paths.
Date: December 20, 1996
Creator: Jackson, D. G.; Payne, T. H.; Looney, B. B. & Rossabi, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the quarterly tritium survey of Fourmile Branch and its seeplines in the F- and H-Areas of SRS: March 1994

Description: The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) established a quarterly monitoring program of the Fourmile Branch (FMB) stream and its associated seepline down gradient from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. The program surveys and tracks changes in tritium, specific conductivity, and pH primarily for seepline water; however, a few stream locations have been added. Measurements from the eighth quarterly survey (March 1994) showed similar to slightly lower tritium and conductivity measurements and similar pH values compared to previous studies. Decreased tritium concentrations and conductivity values, as compared to the previous survey, are attributed to the seasonal rise in the water table since the December 1993 sampling event. However, overall results of the tritium survey and stream monitoring data suggest that the tritium plume resulting from the operation of the seepage basins is flushing from the FMB system.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Rogers, V.A.; Dixon, K.L. & Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the quarterly tritium survey of Fourmile Branch and its seeplines in the F and H areas of SRS: December 1993

Description: The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) established a quarterly monitoring program of the Fourmile Branch (FMB) stream and its associated seepline down gradient from the F- and H- Area seepage basins. The program surveys and tracks changes in tritium, specific conductivity, and pH for the seepline water. Measurements from the seventh quarterly survey (December 1993) showed similar to slightly lower tritium and conductivity measurements and similar pH values compared to measurements from previous studies. Changes in tritium concentrations and conductivity values, as compared to previous surveys, are attributed to the flushing of tritium from the system and the seasonal rise in the water table since the September 1993 sampling event. Overall results of the tritium survey and related stream monitoring data continue to indicate that the tritium plume that resulted from operation of the seepage basins in flushing from the FMB system.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Rogers, V.A.; Dixon, K.L. & Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Vertical Recirculation Well System for the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site

Description: The objective of this work is to examine and develop a remediation scenario to provide long term hydraulic control and remediation of the dissolved chlorinated solvent plume within the Western and Southern Sectors of the A/M Area. This scope includes the development and siting of a remediation system that will contain the 500 part per billion trichloroethylene isoconcentration contour within each sector.
Date: September 13, 1996
Creator: Jackson, D. G., Jr. & Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors for assessment of human health risk associated with remedial action at hazardous waste sites

Description: A risk assessment strategy that is cost effective and minimized human health risks was developed for closure of hazardous waste sites at the Savannah River Plant. The strategy consists of (1) site characterization, (2) contaminant transport modeling, and (3) determination of relative merits of alternative remedial actions according to the degree of health protection they provide.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Stephenson, D E; King, C M; Looney, B B; Holmes, W G & Gordon, D E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full scale field test of the in situ air stripping process at the Savannah River integrated demonstration test site

Description: Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. This demonstration was performed as Phase I of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration of sites contaminated with organic contaminants. The demonstration utilized two directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. The resulting in situ air stripping process was designed to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The 139 day long test successfully removed volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using the two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 300 ft (90m) long and 165 ft (50m) deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 175 ft (53m) long and 75 ft (23m) deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. Pretest and posttest characterization data and monitoring data during the demonstration were collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restoration that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems. Contaminant concentration data and microbiological monitoring data are summarized in this report; the characterization data and geophysical monitoring data are documented in a series of related project reports.
Date: June 29, 1991
Creator: Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S. & Eddy, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department