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Field-Integrated Studies of Long-Term Sustainability of Chromium Bioreduction at Hanford 100H Site

Description: The objectives of the project are to investigate coupled hydraulic, geochemical, and microbial conditions, and to determine the critical biogeochemical parameters necessary to maximize the extent of Cr(VI) bioreduction and minimize Cr(III) reoxidation in groundwater. Specific goals of the project are as follows: (1) Field testing and monitoring of Cr(VI) bioreduction in ground water and its transformation into insoluble species of Cr(III) at the Hanford 100H site, to develop the optimal strategy of water sampling for chemical, microbial, stable isotope analyses, and noninvasive geophysical monitoring; (2) Bench-scale flow and transport investigations using columns of undisturbed sediments to obtain diffusion and kinetic parameters needed for the development of a numerical model, predictions of Cr(VI) bioreduction, and potential of Cr(III) reoxidation; and (3) Development of a multiphase, multi-component 3D reactive transport model and a code, TOUGHREACT-BIO, to predict coupled biogeochemical-hydrological processes associated with bioremediation, and to calibrate and validate the developed code based on the results of bench-scale and field-scale Cr(VI) biostimulation experiments in ground water at the Hanford Site.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Long, Philip E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field-Integrated Studies of Long-Term Sustainability of Chromium Bioreduction at Hanford 100H Site

Description: The objectives of the project are to investigate coupled hydraulic, geochemical, and microbial conditions, and to determine the critical biogeochemical parameters necessary to maximize the extent of Cr(VI) bioreduction and minimize Cr(III) reoxidation in groundwater. Specific goals of the project are as follows: (1) Field testing and monitoring of Cr(VI) bioreduction in ground water and its transformation into insoluble species of Cr(III) at the Hanford 100H site, to develop the optimal strategy of water sampling for chemical, microbial, stable isotope analyses, and noninvasive geophysical monitoring; (2) Bench-scale flow and transport investigations using columns of undisturbed sediments to obtain diffusion and kinetic parameters needed for the development of a numerical model, predictions of Cr(VI) bioreduction, and potential of Cr(III) reoxidation; and (3) Development of a multiphase, multi-component 3D reactive transport model and a code, TOUGHREACT-BIO, to predict coupled biogeochemical-hydrological processes associated with bioremediation, and to calibrate and validate the developed code based on the results of bench-scale and field-scale Cr(VI) biostimulation experiments in ground water at the Hanford Site.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Long, Philip E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Work Plan: Hanford 100-D Area Treatability Demonstration - In Situ Biostimulation for Reducing Barrier

Description: This work plan supports a new, integrated approach to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This new approach will provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the ISRM barrier by directly treating chromium and other oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen), thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier and protecting the ecological receptors and human health at the river boundary.
Date: May 31, 2006
Creator: Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R. & Long, Philip E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

Description: The primary activities accomplished during this quarter were continued efforts to develop plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the evolving operational planning for IODP Expedition 311, which will use the JOIDES Resolution to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, offshore Vancouver Island. IODP Expedition 311 has been designed to further constrain the models for the formation of marine gas hydrate in subduction zone accretionary prisms. The objectives include characterizing the deep origin of the methane, its upward transport, its incorporation in gas hydrate, and its subsequent loss to the seafloor. The main attention of this expedition is on the widespread seafloor-parallel layer of dispersed gas hydrate located just above the base of the predicted stability field. In a gas hydrate formation model, methane is carried upward through regional sediment or small-scale fracture permeability, driven by the tectonic consolidation of the accretionary prism. The upward moving methane is incorporated into the gas hydrate clathrate as it enters the methane hydrate stability zone. Also important is the focusing of a portion of the upward methane flux into localized plumes or channels to form concentrations of near-seafloor gas hydrate. The amount of gas hydrate in local concentrations near the seafloor is especially important for understanding the response of marine gas hydrate to climate change. The expedition includes coring and downhole measurements at five sites across the Northern Cascadia accretionary prism. The sites will track the history of methane in an accretionary prism from (1) its production by mainly microbiological processes over a thick sediment vertical extent, (2) its upward transport through regional or locally focused fluid flow, (3) its incorporation in the regional hydrate layer above the BSR or in local concentrations at or near the seafloor, (4) methane loss from the hydrate by upward diffusion, and ...
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Rack, Frank R.; Francis, Tim; Schultheiss, Peter; Long, Philip E. & Freifeld, Barry M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

Description: Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi ...
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T. & Bradley, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection of hexavalent uranium with inline and field-portable immunosensors

Description: An antibody that recognizes a chelated form of hexavalent uranium was used in the development of two different immunosensors for uranium detection. Specifically, these sensors were utilized for the analysis of groundwater samples collected during a 2007 field study of in situ bioremediation in a aquifer located at Rifle, CO. The antibody-based sensors provided data comparable to that obtained using Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA). Thus, these novel instruments and associated reagents should provide field researchers and resource managers with valuable new tools for on-site data acquisition.
Date: October 2, 2008
Creator: Melton, Scott J.; Yu, Haini; Ali, Mehnaaz F.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

Description: This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.
Date: October 26, 2007
Creator: Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

Description: This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.
Date: July 21, 2007
Creator: Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle methods for simulation of subsurface multiphase fluid flow and biogeological processes

Description: A number of particle models that are suitable for simulating multiphase fluid flow and biogeological processes have been developed during the last few decades. Here we discuss three of them: a microscopic model - molecular dynamics; a mesoscopic model - dissipative particle dynamics; and a macroscopic model - smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Particle methods are robust and versatile, and it is relatively easy to add additional physical, chemical and biological processes into particle codes. However, the computational efficiency of particle methods is low relative to continuum methods. Multiscale particle methods and hybrid (particle–particle and particle–continuum) methods are needed to improve computational efficiency and make effective use of emerging computational capabilities. These new methods are under development.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Redden, George; Long, Philip E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle methods for simulation of subsurface multiphase fluid flow and biogeological processes

Description: A number of particle models that are suitable for simulating multiphase fluid flow and biogeological processes have been developed during the last few decades. Here we discuss three of them: a microscopic model - molecular dynamics; a mesoscopic model - dissipative particle dynamics; and a macroscopic model - smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Particle methods are robust and versatile, and it is relatively easy to add additional physical, chemical and biological processes into particle codes. However, the computational efficiency of particle methods is low relative to continuum methods. Multiscale particle methods and hybrid (particle–particle and particle–continuum) methods are needed to improve computational efficiency and make effective use of emerging computational capabilities. These new methods are under development.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Scheibe, Tim; Tartakovsky, Daniel; Redden, Georgr; Long, Philip E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of ammonium availability on expression of nifD and amtB genes during biostimulation of a U(VI) contaminated aquifer: implications for U(VI) removal and monitoring the metabolic state of Geobacteraceae

Description: The influence of ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the physiological status of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by 2 orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 ?M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences suggested that ammonium may have been one factor influencing the community composition prior to acetate amendment with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species with higher ammonium and Dechloromonas species dominating at the site with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to acetate concentrations rather than ammonium levels. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium transporter gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during uranium reduction. The abundance of amtB was inversely correlated to ammonium levels, whereas nifD transcript levels were similar across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB transcript expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of subsurface Geobacter species. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical and physiological interactions at the field scale in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes during bioremediation.
Date: March 25, 2009
Creator: Mouser, Paula J.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Elifantz, Hila; Holmes, Dawn E.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In Situ Microbial Community Control of the Stability of Bio-reduced Uranium

Description: In aerobic aquifers typical of many Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites, uranium is present in the oxidized U(VI) form which is more soluble and thus more mobile. Field experiments at the Old Rifle UMTRA site have demonstrated that biostimulation by electron donor addition (acetate) promotes biological U(VI) reduction (2). However, U(VI) reduction is reversible and oxidative dissolution of precipitated U(IV) after the cessation of electron donor addition remains a critical issue for the application of biostimulation as a treatment technology. Despite the potential for oxidative dissolution, field experiments at the Old Rifle site have shown that rapid reoxidation of bio-reduced uranium does not occur and U(VI) concentrations can remain at approximately 20% of background levels for more than one year. The extent of post-amendment U(VI) removal and the maintenance of bioreduced uranium may result from many factors including U(VI) sorption to iron-containing mineral phases, generation of H2S or FeS0.9, or the preferential sorption of U(VI) by microbial cells or biopolymers, but the processes controlling the reduction and in situ reoxidation rates are not known. To investigate the role of microbial community composition in the maintenance of bioreduced uranium, in-well sediment incubators (ISIs) were developed allowing field deployment of amended and native sediments during on-going experiments at the site. Field deployment of the ISIs allows expedient interrogation of microbial community response to field environmental perturbations and varying geochemical conditions.
Date: March 28, 2008
Creator: Baldwin, Brett, R.; Peacock, Aaron, D.; Resch, Charles, T.; Arntzen, Evan; Smithgall, Amanda, N.; Pfiffner, Susan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsurface Biogeochemical Heterogeneity (Field-scale removal of U(VI) from groundwater in an alluvial aquifer by electron donor amendment)

Description: Determine if biostimulation of alluvial aquifers by electron donor amendment can effectively remove U(VI) from groundwater at the field scale. Uranium contamination in groundwater is a significant problem at several DOE sites. In this project, the possibility of accelerating bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) as a means of decreasing U(VI) concentrations in groundwater is directly addressed by conducting a series of field-scale experiments. Scientific goals include demonstrating the quantitative linkage between microbial activity and U loss from groundwater and relating the dominant terminal electron accepting processes to the rate of U loss. The project is currently focused on understanding the mechanisms for unexpected long-term ({approx}2 years) removal of U after stopping electron donor amendment. Results obtained in the project successfully position DOE and others to apply biostimulation broadly to U contamination in alluvial aquifers.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.; N’Guessan, A. L.; Nevin, Kelly; Resch, C. T.; Arntzen, Evan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department