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Surveillance of Foreigners Outside the United States Under Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)

Description: This report discusses the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Amendments Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-261), which created separate procedures for targeting non-U.S. persons and U.S. persons reasonably believed to be outside the United States under a new Title VII of FISA.
Date: April 13, 2016
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flood Insurance Requirements for Stafford Act Assistance

Description: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) imposes flood insurance requirements upon eligibility for disaster assistance in two general cases: (1) if the entity seeking disaster assistance has received disaster assistance in the past, or (2) if the entity seeking disaster assistance is a state or local government or private nonprofit located in a federally designated special flood hazard area (SFHA) as determined under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968. The requirements imposed by the Stafford Act operate independently of each other, and a potential applicant for disaster assistance may fall into both categories. This report will discuss the specific requirements imposed in each situation after briefly discussing the history of flood insurance and the relevant types of disaster assistance.
Date: September 5, 2008
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Memorandum: Summary of the Substantive Provisions of S. 2010, the FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017 and H.R. 3989, The USA Liberty Act of 2017

Description: This report summarizes the substantive provisions of S. 2010, the FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017, as reported by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on October 25, 2017, and H.R. 3989, the USA Liberty Act of 2017, as ordered to be reported by the House Judiciary Committee on November 8, 2017. Both bills primarily amend and reauthorize Title VII of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA).
Date: November 16, 2017
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2011

Description: This report discusses the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) which provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. Authorization for such activities is typically obtained via a court order from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), a specialized court created to act as a neutral judicial decision maker in the context of FISA.
Date: February 10, 2011
Creator: Liu, Edward, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire May 27, 2011

Description: This report discusses the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) which provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. Authorization for such activities is typically obtained via a court order from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), a specialized court created to act as a neutral judicial decision maker in the context of FISA.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Liu, Edward, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supreme Court Nominee Elena Kagan: Defamation and the First Amendment

Description: This report discusses prior writings by Supreme Court nominee Elena Kagan on the interaction of defamation law and the First Amendment of the Constitution. It is based on two articles on defamation law written by Kagan during her academic career at the University of Chicago Law School and the Harvard Law School. The most recent of these articles is from 2000, and Kagan has not revisited this topic in any published writings since then. Thus, these two articles appear to represent her most extensive examination of the interaction between the First Amendment and defamation law.
Date: June 10, 2010
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information

Description: This report provides an overview of the protections afforded to government organizations and officials by the state secrets privilege. The state secrets privilege, derived from common law, is an evidentiary privilege that allows the government to resist court-ordered disclosure of information during litigation if there is a reasonable danger that such disclosure would harm the national security of the United States.
Date: May 28, 2009
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act

Description: This report describes the changes that were made by the Foreign Intelligence Suveillance Act (FISA) Amendments Act within the context of the government's authority to conduct surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes.
Date: January 2, 2013
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire

Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation,1 obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance2 or physical searches,3 utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices,4 or access specified business records and other tangible things. Authorization for such activities is typically obtained via a court order from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), a specialized court created to act as a neutral judicial decision maker in the context of FISA.
Date: May 27, 2011
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire May 27, 2011

Description: This report discusses the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) which provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. Authorization for such activities is typically obtained via a court order from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), a specialized court created to act as a neutral judicial decision maker in the context of FISA.
Date: May 20, 2011
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Employment-Based Health Coverage and Health Reform: Selected Legal Considerations

Description: It is estimated that nearly 170 million individuals have employer-based health coverage. As part of a comprehensive health care reform effort, there has been support (including from the Obama Administration) in enacting comprehensive health insurance reform that retains the employer-based system. This report presents selected legal considerations inherent in amending two of the primary federal laws governing employer-sponsored health care: the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and the Internal Revenue Code (IRC).
Date: June 12, 2009
Creator: Staman, Jennifer & Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities

Description: This report focuses on two main National Security Agency (NSA) collection activities approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) established under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. The first is the bulk collection of telephony metadata for domestic and international telephone calls. The second involves the interception of Internet-based communications.
Date: May 21, 2015
Creator: Liu, Edward C. & Nolan, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax-Exempt Section 501(c)(3) Hospitals: Community Benefit Standard and Schedule H

Description: This report examines the standards under which hospitals qualify for tax-exempt charitable status under federal law, recent inquiries made by Congress and the IRS into whether hospitals are conducting sufficient activities to justify their exemption, and the new Schedule H. It ends with a brief discussion of H.R. 973 (110th Congress) and H.R. 6420 (109th Congress).
Date: July 31, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika & Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The State Secrets Privilege: Preventing the Disclosure of Sensitive National Security Information During Civil Litigation

Description: This report presents an overview of the protections afforded by the state secrets privilege; a discussion of some of the many unresolved issues associated with the privilege; and a selection of high-profile examples of how the privilege has been applied in practice.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Garvey, Todd & Liu, Edward, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protecting Classified Information and the Rights of Criminal Defendants: The Classified Information Procedures Act

Description: This report gives an overview of the Classified Information Procedures Act, enacted by the 96th Congress, which provides uniform procedures for prosecutions involving classified information. It provides a background of the act and discusses its various sections.
Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Liu, Edward, C. & Garvey, Todd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department