9 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

Description: Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S. & Lipkin, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Creep of ocean sediments resulting from the isolation of radioactive wastes

Description: Predictive models for the creep of deep ocean sediments resulting from the disposal of radioactive wastes are presented and preliminary observations of a program for evaluation of creep constitutive equation parameters are discussed. The models are used to provide calculated response of sediments under waste disposal conditions.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Dawson, P.R.; Chavez, P.F.; Lipkin, J. & Silva, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Piezometer-probe technology for geotechnical investigations in coastal and deep-ocean environments

Description: Three multisensor piezometer probes were developed and field tested for use in coastal (shallow water) fine-grained Marine soils. Offshore sites were investigated in the Mississippi Delta. Pore water pressure measurements were determined at several depths below the sea floor using both absolute and differential pressure sensors placed in a four inch diameter probe. Pressure sensors were hard-wired to nearby platforms where signals were conditioned and analog recording devices monitored pore water pressure changes in the marine soils. Pore water pressures were monitored for several months. Two single sensor piezometer probes, eight millimeters in diameter, were developed for deep-ocean investigations. These probes use differential pressure sensors and were tested in a hyperbaric chamber pressurized to 55 MPa (8000 psi). Testing was performed for a period of five weeks under high hydrostatic pressure with the probes inserted in reconstituted illitic marine soil. Small differential pore water pressures responded to both mechanically and thermally generated forcing functions. During shallow water investigations and simulated deep-ocean pressure tests, the sensors exhibited excellent sensitivity and stability. These developments in piezometer probe technology provide a means of assessing important geotechnical parameters of fine-grained seabed deposits.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Bennett, R.H.; Burns, J.T.; Lipkin, J. & Percival, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels as a viable demil technology

Description: This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2,600 ppm on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen-containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Baxter, L.; Davis, K.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reapplication of energetic materials at fuels

Description: This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2600 ppM on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Baxter, L.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emissions characterization in the contained underground demilitarization laboratory at Nevada Test Site

Description: The US Departments of Defense and Energy (DOD and DOE) have established a Joint Demilitarization Technology (JDT) Program to demonstrate and validate technologies for resource recovery and recycling, as well as alternative destruction or treatment technologies as appropriate to specific conventional stockpile segments. X-Tunnel at the DOE Nevada Test Site is a facility for emissions characterization from detonation of conventional munitions and burning of rocket motors. We conducted seven detonations of M107, high explosive 155-mm projectiles, four from December 1996 through March 1997 and three during July and August 1999. We also completed three burns of rocket motors from May through June 1997.Standard (DOD) procedures for open detonation (DOD) of ordinance and open burn (OB) of rocket motors were followed in order to establish baseline emissions. Measurements inside the chamber included pressures, temperatures, relative humidity and gas concentrations. Grab samples were collected f or gas, organic, metal and particulate analyses. Results and implications for developing alternative destruction techniques will be presented.
Date: September 20, 1999
Creator: Velsko, C A; Watkins, B E; Pruneda, C O & Lipkin, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cryocycling of energetic materials: Status report for FY94

Description: The Cryocycling of Energetic Materials Project is sponsored by the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on advanced munition technologies. This MOU is an agreement between the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense (Office of Munitions) that facilitates the development of technologies of mutual interest to the two Departments. The cryocycling project is one of several that focus on demilitarization aspects of conventional weapons and weapon systems. During FY94 the project pursued the development of analytical and numerical models that can be used to describe and optimize the cryocycling process for preparing energetic materials for recycle and reuse. In addition, the demilitarization stockpile of the Department of Defense was analyzed to identify candidate munitions for the process, and pilot scale cryocycling operations were begun at an industrial contractor. When a material is cryocycled, it is repeatedly subjected to cycles of rapid cooling in a liquid nitrogen bath at 77 K followed by warming to ambient temperature. In laboratory and pilot scale demonstrations, the authors have shown that cryocycling can dramatically reduce the size of a variety of propellant grains and a number of cast and plastic bonded explosives.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Lipkin, J.; Kasberg, D.; Whinnery, L.; Handrock, J.; Revelli, V.; Weingarten, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geotechnical properties of sediments from North Pacific and Northern Bermuda Rise

Description: Studies of geotechnical properties for the Sub-seabed Disposal Program have been oriented toward sediment characterization related to effectiveness as a containment media and determination of detailed engineering behavior. Consolidation tests of the deeper samples in the North Pacific clays indicate that the sediment column is normally consolidated. The in-situ coefficient of permeability (k) within the cored depth of 25 meters is relatively constant at 10/sup -7/ cm/sec. Consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests indicate stress-strain properties characteristic of saturated clays with effective angles of friction of 35/sup 0/ for smectite and 31/sup 0/ for illite. These results are being used in computer modeling efforts. Some general geotechnical property data from the Bermuda Rise are also discussed.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Silva, A.J.; Laine, E.P.; Lipkin, J.; Heath, G.R. & Akers, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Defense/Department of Energy joint demilitarization technology demonstration program executive summary of Phase II demonstrations: The low-pressure rocket motor burns in X-Tunnel

Description: Three low-pressure rocket motor burn tests were executed in May--June 1997 time frame at the X-tunnel complex located on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Bellow, B. W.; Moeller, A. E.; Steele, D.; Williams, S. M.; Heinle, R. L.; Pruneda, C. O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department