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Current profile modification with electron cyclotron current drive in the DIII-D tokamak

Description: Proof-of-principle experiments on the suitability of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) for active current profile control are reported. Experiments with second harmonic extraordinary mode absorption at power levels near 1 MW have demonstrated ability to modify the current profile. This modification is manifested in changes in the internal inductance and the time at which sawteeth appear. Measurements of the local current density and internal loop voltage using high resolution motional Stark effect spectroscopy to half of the minor radius in discharges with localized deposition clearly demonstrate localized off-axis ECCD at the predicted location. Comparison with theory indicates the detrimental effect of trapped electrons on the current drive efficiency is less than predicted. Modification of the theory for finite collisionality is the leading candidate to explain the observations.
Date: November 1998
Creator: Luce, T. C.; Lin-Liu, Y. R. & Lohr, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ballooning mode stability for self-consistent pressure and current profiles at the H-mode edge

Description: The edge pressure gradient (H-mode pedestal) for computed equilibria in which the current density profile is consistent with the bootstrap current may not be limited by the first regime ballooning limit. The transition to second stability is easier for: higher elongation, intermediate triangularity, larger ratio, pedestal at larger radius, narrower pedestal width, higher q{sub 95}, and lower collisionality.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Miller, R.L.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Osborne, T.H. & Taylor, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current drive and profile control in low aspect ratio tokamaks

Description: The key to the theoretically predicted high performance of a low aspect ratio tokamak (LAT) is its ability to operate at very large plasma current*I{sub p}. The plasma current at low aspect ratios follows the approximate formula: I{sub p} {approximately} (5a{sup 2}B{sub t}/Rq{psi}) [(1 + {kappa}{sup 2})/2] [A/(A {minus} 1)] where A {quadruple_bond} R/a which was derived from equilibrium studies. For constant q{psi} and B{sub t}, I{sub p} can increase by an order of magnitude over the case of tokamaks with A {approx_gt} 2.5. The large current results in a significantly enhanced {beta}{sub t} ({quadruple_bond} {beta}{sub N}I{sub p}/aB{sub t}) possibly of order unity. It also compensates for the reduction in A to maintain the same confinement performance assuming the confinement time {tau} follows the generic form {approximately} HI{sub p}P{sup {minus}1}/{sup 2}R{sup 3}/{sup 2}{kappa}{sup 1}/{sup 2}. The initiation and maintenance of such a large current is therefore a key issue for LATs.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Chan, V.S.; Chiu, S.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Miller, R.L. & Turnbull, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Electron cyclotron current drive is a key option for driving current off-axis in a tokamak, as needed for example for current profile control or for suppression of neoclassical tearing modes. Experiments in DIII-D at low beta have shown that the partial cancellation of the Fisch-Boozer co-current by the Ohkawa counter-current can cause strong deterioration of the current drive efficiency at larger minor radius. However, more recent experiments at higher power have shown that the loss in efficiency can be mostly recovered if the target plasma has higher electron beta, {beta}{sub e}. The improvement in efficiency with beta can be understood from a theoretical viewpoint by applying the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D, which shows excellent agreement with experiment over a wide range of parameters, thereby validating the code as an effective means of predicting the ECCD.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: PRATER, R.; PETTY, C.C.; HARVEY, R.; LIN-LIU, Y.R.; LOHR, J.M. & LUCE, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: OAK B202 A CLASS OF HIGH EBP EQUILIBRIA IN STRONGLY FINITE ASPECT RATIO TOKAMAK PLASMAS. A class of very high poloidal beta ({beta}{sub p}) equilibria is exhibited in which {var_epsilon}{beta}{sub p} ({var_epsilon} is the inverse aspect ratio) exceeds analytic equilibrium limits previously anticipated from simplified large aspect ratio models, as well as previous experimental equilibrium limits. The extension in these limits is shown to be due to a combination of finite aspect ratio effects and strong cross section shaping. In a conventional size configuration, equilibria with {var_epsilon}{beta}{sub p} = 3 exist, which is 50% higher than both the previously observed record and the analytically predicted limit. For very low aspect ratio with {var_epsilon}{sup -1} = 1.4, typical of spherical tori, values of {var_epsilon}{beta}{sub p} = 5 are possible.
Date: August 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transport simulation of negative magnetic shear discharges

Description: In the present work the authors present simulations which show that the hollow current profile can be maintained in quasi-steady state through a self-consistently determined combination of bootstrap current and neutral beam and rf current drive. Controllability of the q profile is demonstrated by eliminating low m/n mode number instabilities from these discharges by maintaining q > 1.5 at all times, starting from appropriate initial conditions. At moderately high {beta}{sub p}, the bootstrap current can be a substantial fraction of the total current and the ability to maintain the proper total current density profile depends on the bootstrap current profile and the availability of suitable localized heating and current drive. In these simulations, they use electron cyclotron heating, ion cyclotron heating, and electron cyclotron and fast wave current drive. The ability to maintain the profiles is demonstrated using several energy transport models. Self-consistent transport simulations are used to model the SSC discharges using the ONETWO transport code coupled to rf heating and current drive packages FASTWAVE and TORAY. To accurately model inductive and driven current profile evolution, the additional source terms that arise in Faraday`s law due to internal flux surface motion are included by coupling the transport calculations to a fixed boundary equilibrium code. To test the sensitivity of the results to the transport model used, they model DIII-D discharges using thermal conductivities consistent with improved confinement DIII-D discharges, and with the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins model of energy transport.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: St. John, H.; Taylor, T. S.; Lin-Liu, Y. R. & Turnbull, A. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of 110 GHz electron cyclotron wave propagation and absorption on DIII-D

Description: In modeling electron cyclotron (EC) waves for heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) applications, the standard approach describes wave propagation using geometric optic ray tracing with cold plasma dispersion and wave absorption using a relativistic warm plasma expression. However, recent vertical O-mode transmission measurements on Tore Supra indicate that wave trajectories near the fundamental resonance frequency can significantly deviate from predictions of cold plasma analysis. The experimental results were attributed to warm plasma refraction effects caused by the anomalous dispersion associated with wave-particle resonance. Here, warm plasma refraction effects on wave propagation and absorption are examined in the context of a slab model in the parameter regime of interest to the upcoming 110 GHz electron cyclotron heating and current drive experiments on DIII-D.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Luce, T.C.; Chiu, S.C.; Miller, R.L. & Prater, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of fast wave in spherical tokamaks

Description: In spherical tokamaks (ST), the magnetic field strength varies over a wide range across the plasma, and at high betas it deviates significantly from the 1/R dependence of conventional tokamaks. This, together with the high density expected in ST, poses challenging problems for RF heating and current drive. In this paper, the authors investigate the various possible applications of fast waves (FW) in ST. The adjoint technique of calculating current drive is implemented in the raytracing code CURRAY. The applicability of high harmonic and subharmonic FW to steady state ST is considered. They find that high harmonic FW tends to be totally absorbed before reaching the core and may be considered a candidate for off axis current drive while the subharmonic FW tends to be absorbed mainly in the core region and may be considered for central current drive. A difficult problem is the maintenance of current at the startup stage. In the bootstrap ramp-up scenario, the current ramp-up is mainly provided by the bootstrap current. Under this condition, the role of rf becomes mainly the sustainment of plasma through electron heating. Using a slab full-wave code SEMAL, the authors find that the ion-ion-hybrid mode conversion scheme is a promising candidate. The effect of possible existence of edge Alfven resonance and high harmonic cyclotron resonance is investigated and regimes of minimization of edge heating identified.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Chiu, S.C.; Chan, V.S.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Miller, R.L.; Prater, R. & Politzer, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarization, propagation, and deposition measurements during ECCD experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

Description: The power deposition profiles for different poloidal and toroidal launch angles have been determined by modulating the ECH power and measuring the electron temperature response. The peak of the measured power density follows the poloidal steering of the ECH launcher, and perpendicular launch gives a narrower deposition profile than does oblique (current drive) launch. The difference in wave refraction between X-mode and O-mode allows positive identification of an unwanted O-mode component of the launched beam.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Lohr, J.; Prater, R. & Austin, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stable bootstrap-current driven equilibria for low aspect ratio tokamaks

Description: Low aspect ratio tokamaks can potentially provide a high ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure {beta} and high plasma current I at a modest size, ultimately leading to a high power density compact fusion power plant. For the concept to be economically feasible, bootstrap current must be a major component of the plasma current. A high value of the Troyon factor {beta}{sub N} and strong shaping are required to allow simultaneous operation at high {beta} and high bootstrap current fraction. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of a range of equilibria at aspect ratio 1.4 is systematically explored by varying the pressure profile and shape. The pressure and current profiles are constrained in such a way as to assure complete bootstrap current alignment. Both {beta}{sub N} and {beta} are defined in terms of the vacuum toroidal field. Equilibria with {beta}{sub N} {ge} 8 and {beta} - 35% to 55% exist which are stable to n = {infinity} ballooning modes, and stable to n = 0, 1,2,3 kink modes with a conducting wall. The dependence of {beta} and {beta}{sub N} with respect to aspect ratio is also considered.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Miller, R.L.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Turnbull, A.D.; Chan, V.S.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Sauter, O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The importance of the radial electric field (E{sub r}) on interpretation of motional Stark effect measurements of the q profile in DIII-D high performance plasmas

Description: The development of enhanced confinement regimes such as negative central magnetic shear (NCS) and VH-mode illustrates the importance of the q profile and ExB velocity shear in improving stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas. Recently, it was realized that the large values of radial electric field observed in these high performance plasmas, up to 200 kV/m in DIII-D, have an effect on the interpretation of motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements of the q profile. It has also been shown that, with additional MSE measurements, one can extract a direct measurement of E{sub r} in addition to the usual poloidal field measurement. During a recent vent on DIII-D, 19 additional MSE channels with new viewing angles were added (for a total of 35 channels) in order to descriminate between the neutral beam v{sub b} x B electric field and the plasma E{sub r} field. In this paper, the system upgrade will be described and initial measurements demonstrating simultaneous measurement of the q and E{sub r} profiles will be presented.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Rice, B.W.; Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H.; Greenfield, C.M. & Lin-Liu, Y.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of Trapped Electron Effects on Electron Cyclotron Current Drive for Recent DIII-D Experiments

Description: Owing to its potential capability of generating localized non-inductive current, especially off-axis, Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) is considered a leading candidate for current profile control in achieving Advanced Tokamak (AT) operation. In recent DIII-D proof-of-principle experiments [1], localized off-axis ECCD has been clearly demonstrated for first time. The measured current drive efficiency near the magnetic axis agrees well with predictions of the bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck theory [2,3]. However, the off-axis current drive efficiency was observed to exceed the theoretical results, which predict significant degradation of the current drive efficiency due to trapped electron effects. The theoretical calculations have been based on an assumption that the effective collision frequency is much smaller than the bounce frequency such that the trapped electrons are allowed to complete the banana orbit at all energies. The assumption might be justified in reactor-grade tokamak plasmas, in which the electron temperature is sufficiently high or the velocity of resonant electrons is much larger than the thermal velocity, so that the influence of collisionality on current drive efficiency can be neglected. For off-axis deposition in the present-day experiments, the effect of high density and low temperature is to reduce the current drive efficiency, but the increasing collisionality reduces the trapping of current-carrying electrons, leading to compensating increases in the current drive efficiency. In this work, we use the adjoint function formulation [4] to examine collisionality effects on the current drive efficiency.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Sauter, O.; Harvey, R. W.; Chan, V. S.; Luce, T. C. & Prater, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A271 ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE IN DIII-D: EXPERIMENT AND THEORY. Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak in which the measured off-axis electron cyclotron current drive has been compared systematically to theory over a broad range of parameters have shown that the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D provides an excellent model of the relevant current drive physics. This physics understanding has been critical in optimizing the application of ECCD to high performance discharges, supporting such applications as suppression of neoclassical tearing modes and control and sustainment of the current profile.
Date: July 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron cyclotron current drive in DIII-D

Description: Clear measurements of the localized current density driven by electron cyclotron waves have been made on the DIII-D tokamak. Direct evidence of the current drive is seen on the internal magnetic field measurements by motional Stark effect spectroscopy. Comparison with theoretical calculations in the collisionless limit shows the experimental current drive exceeds the predictions by a substantial amount for currents driven near the half radius. In all cases the experimental current density profile is broader than the predicted one.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Luce, T.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Lohr, J.M.; Petty, C.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Prater, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: During 1998, the General Atomics (GA) ARIES-Spherical Torus (ST) team examined several critical issues related to the physics performance of the ARIES-ST design, and a number of suggestions were made concerning possible improvements in performance. These included specification of a reference plasma equilibrium, optimization about the reference equilibrium to achieve higher beta limits, examination of three possible schemes for plasma initiation, development of a detailed scenario for ramp-up of the plasma current and pressure to its full, final operating values, an assessment of the requirement for electron confinement, and several suggestions for divertor heat flux reduction. The reference equilibrium was generated using the TOQ code, with the specification of a 100%, self-consistent bootstrap current. The equilibrium has {beta} = 51%, 10% below the stability limit (a margin specified by the ARIES-ST study). In addition, a series of intermediate equilibria were defined, corresponding to the ramp-up scenario discussed. A study of the influence of shaping on ARIES-ST performance indicates that significant improvement in both kink and ballooning stability can be obtained by modest changes in the squareness of the plasma. In test equilibria the ballooning beta limit is increased from 58% to 67%. Also the maximum allowable plasma-wall separation for kink stability can be increased by 30%. Three schemes were examined for noninductive plasma initiation. These are helicity injection (HICD), electron cyclotron heating (ECH)-assisted startup, and inductive startup using only the external equilibrium coils. HICD startup experiments have been done on the HIT and CDX devices. ECH-assisted startup has been demonstrated on CDX-U and DIII-D. External coil initiation is based on calculations for a proposed DIII-D experiment. In all cases, plasma initiation and preparation of an approximately 0.3 MA plasma for ARIES-ST appears entirely feasible.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: CHAN, V.S.; LAO, L.L.; LIN-LIU, Y.R.; MILLER, R.L.; PETRIE, T.W.; POLITZER, P.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neoclassical tearing modes in DIII-D and calculations of the stabilizing effects of localized electron cyclotron current drive

Description: Neoclassical tearing modes are found to limit the achievable beta in many high performance discharges in DIII-D. Electron cyclotron current drive within the magnetic islands formed as the tearing mode grows has been proposed as a means of stabilizing these modes or reducing their amplitude, thereby increasing the beta limit by a factor around 1.5. Some experimental success has been obtained previously on Asdex-U. Here the authors examine the parameter range in DIII-C in which this effect can best be studied.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Prater, R.; La Haye, R.J.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Lohr, J.; Bernabei, S.; Perkins, F.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of electron cyclotron current drive experiments on DIII-D

Description: Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) is considered a leading candidate for current profile control in Advanced Tokamak (AT) operation. Localized ECCD has been clearly demonstrated in recent proof-of-principle experiments on DIII-D. The measured ECCD efficiency near the magnetic axis agrees well with standard theoretical predictions. However, for off-axis current drive the normalized experimental efficiency does not decrease with minor radius as expected from the standard theory; the observed reduction of ECCD efficiency due to trapped electron effects in the off-axis cases is smaller than theoretical predictions. The standard approach of modeling ECCD in tokamaks has been based on the bounce-average calculations, which assume the bounce frequency is much larger than the effective collision frequency for trapped electrons at all energies. The assumption is clearly invalid at low energies. Finite collisionality will effectively reduce the trapped electron fraction, hence, increase current drive efficiency. Here, a velocity-space connection formula is proposed to estimate the collisionality effect on electron cyclotron current drive efficiency. The collisionality correction gives modest improvement in agreement between theoretical and recent DIII-D experimental results.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Chan, V.S.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Sauter, O. & Harvey, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current driven due to localized electron power deposition in DIII-D

Description: Due to spatial localization of electron cyclotron wave injection in DIII-D, electrons heated in an off-axis region must toroidally transit the tokamak 25--50 times before re-entering the heating region. This distance is of the order of the mean free path. The effect of such RF localization is simulated with a time-dependent Fokker-Planck code which is 2D-in-velocity, 1D-in-space-along-B, and periodic in space. An effective parallel electric field arises to maintain continuity of the driven current. Somewhat surprisingly, the localized current drive efficiency remains equal to that for a uniform medium.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Harvey, R.W.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Sauter, O. & Smirnov, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modification of the Current Profile in DIII-D by Off-Axis Electron Cyclotron Current Drive

Description: Localized non-inductive currents due to electron cyclotron wave absorption have been measured on the DIII-D tokamak. Clear evidence of the non-inductive currents is seen on the internal magnetic field measurements by motional Stark effect spectroscopy. The magnitude and location of the non-inductive current is evaluated by comparing the total and Ohmic current profiles of discharges with and without electron cyclotron wave power. The measured current agrees with Fokker-Planck calculations near the magnetic axis, but exceeds the predicted value as the location of the current drive is moved to the half radius.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Luce, T.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Harvey, R.W.; Giruzzi, G.; Lohr, J.M.; Petty, C.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast wave current drive in DIII-D

Description: The non-inductive current drive from fast Alfven waves launched by a directional four-element antenna was measured in the DIII-D tokamak. The fast wave frequency (60 MHz) was eight times the deuterium cyclotron frequency at the plasma center. An array of rf pickup loops at several locations around the torus was used to verify the directivity of the four-element antenna. Complete non-inductive current drive was achieved using a combination of fast wave current drive (FWCD) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in discharges for which the total plasma current was inductively ramped down from 400 to 170 kA. For discharges with steady plasma current, up to 110 kA of FWCD was inferred from an analysis of the loop voltage, with a maximum non-inductive current (FWCD, ECCD, and bootstrap) of 195 out of 310 kA. The FWCD efficiency increased linearly with central electron temperature. For low current discharges, the FWCD efficiency was degraded due to incomplete fast wave damping. The experimental FWCD was found to agree with predictions from the CURRAY ray-tracing code only when a parasitic loss of 4% per pass was included in the modeling along with multiple pass damping.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Petty, C.C.; Callis, R.W.; Chiu, S.C.; deGrassie, J.S.; Forest, C.B.; Freeman, R.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficiency of fast wave current drive for a weakly relativistic plasma

Description: Current drive by fast waves (FWCD) is an important candidate for steady-state operation of tokamaks. Major experiments using this scheme are being carried out on DIII-D. There has been considerable study of the theoretical efficiency of FWCD. In Refs. 4 and 5, the nonrelativistic efficiency of FWCD at arbitrary frequencies was studied. For DIII-D parameters, the results can be considerably different from the Landau and Alfven limits. At the high temperatures of reactors and DIII-D upgrade, relativistic effects become important. In this paper, the relativistic FWCD efficiency for arbitrary frequencies is studied. Assuming that the plasma is weakly relativistic, i.e., T[sub e]/Mc[sup 2] is small, an analytic expression for FWCD is obtained for high resonant energies (U[sub ph]/u[sub Te][much gt]). Comparisons with the results from a numerical code ADJ and the nonrelativistic results shall be made and analytical fits in the whole range of velocities shall be presented.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Chiu, S.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)) & Karney, C.F.F. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast wave current drive system design for DIII-D

Description: DIII-D has a major effort underway to develop the physics and technology of fast wave electron heating and current drive in conjunction with electron cyclotron heating. The present system consists of a four strap antenna driven by one 2 MW transmitter in the 32--60 MHz band. Experiments have been successful in demonstrating the physics of heating and current drive. In order to validate fast wave current drive for future machines a greater power capability is necessary to drive all of the plasma current. Advanced tokamak modeling for DIII-D has indicated that this goal can be met for plasma configurations of interest (i.e. high {beta} VH-mode discharges) with 8 MW of transmitter fast wave capability. It is proposed that four transmitters drive fast wave antennas at three locations in DIII-D to provide the power for current drive and current profile modification. As the next step in acquiring this capability, two modular four strap antennas are in design and the procurement of a high power transmitter in the 30--120 MHz range is in progress. Additionally, innovations in the technology are being investigated, such as the use of a coupled combine antenna to reduce the number of required feedthroughs and to provide for parallel phase velocity variation with a relatively small change in frequency, and the use of fast ferrite tuners to provide millisecond timescale impedance matching. A successful test of a low power fast ferrite prototype was conducted on DIII-D.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: deGrassie, J. S.; Callis, R.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Moeller, C..; Petty, C. C.; Phelps, D. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toroidal Rotation and Core Ion Confinement with RF Heating in DIII-D

Description: Shear in the E x B flow velocity can stabilize turbulent transport [1], and so it is of interest to understand the physics behind electric field generation and modification in the tokamak. In DIII-D the core radial electric field in many regimes is generated by flow velocities driven by momentum input from neutral beam injection (NBI). In a variety of conditions it is observed that direct electron heating is accompanied by a reduction in the NBI driven toroidal rotation velocity, U{sub {phi}}, and the ion temperature, T{sub i}, primarily in the core, {rho} <0.5 (where {rho} is a radial coordinate of the normalized toroidal flux). This electron heating can be done with either electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or fast wave electron heating (FWEH). Both can be accompanied by the reduction in U{sub {phi}} and T{sub i} [2-4]. Details of the parallel wavenumber (k//) spectrum of the launched rf do not seem to be important in either case for the effect to exist. Reductions are observed for EC waves launched with nonzero k// for current drive or launched radially with k//=0; and for FWEH with waves directed either co or counter, using the DIII-D four strap antennas [5], This universality indicates that increased electron temperature, T{sub e}, is increasing ion momentum and thermal transport, at least in the parameter regimes of these experiments. It is also possible that nonambipolar transport of resonantly heated particles is playing a role. To date, the great majority of the DIII-D experiments have been conducted with the rf target discharges driven by co-injected NBI.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: deGrassie, J.S.; Greenfield, C.M.; Baker, D.R.; Burrell, K.H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Lohr, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department