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Pyramidal Defects in GaN:Mg Grown with Ga Polarity

Description: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show formation of different types of Mg-rich defects in GaN. Types of defects strongly depend on crystal growth polarity. For bulk crystals grown with N-polarity, the planar defects are distributed at equal distances (20 unit cells of GaN). For growth with Ga-polarity (for both bulk and MOCVD grown crystals) a different type of defects have been found. These defects are three-dimensional Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids (or trapezoids) with their base on the (0001) plane and six walls formed on 1123 planes. The defects appear in [1120] and [1100] cross-section TEM micrographs as triangular and trapezoidal with sides inclined at 43 and 47 degrees to the base depending on the above observation directions, respectively. The dimension of these pyramids varies depending on growth method (50-1000 Angstrom), but the angle between the base and their sides remain the same. The direction from the tip of the pyramid to its base (and from the shorter to the longer base for trapezoidal defects) is along the Ga to N matrix bond direction. Analysis of the reconstructed exit wave phase image from the pyramid side indicates a shift of Ga atomic column positions from the matrix to the N position within the pyramid. In this way a 0.6{+-}0.2 Angstrom displacement can be measured on the pyramid side between Ga positions in the matrix and within the pyramid.
Date: February 15, 2005
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Tomaszewicz, Tomasz; Zakharov, Dmitri & O'Keefe, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dislocation core in GaN

Description: Light emitting diodes and blue laser diodes grown on GaN have been demonstrated despite six orders of magnitude higher dislocation density than that for III-V arsenide and phosphide diodes. Understanding and determination of dislocation cores in GaN is crucial since both theoretical and experimental work are somewhat contradictory. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been applied to study the layers grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) (under Ga rich conditions) in plan-view and cross-section samples. This study suggests that despite the fact that voids are formed along the dislocation line in HVPE material, the dislocations have closed cores. Similar results of closed core are obtained for the screw dislocation in the MBE material, confirming earlier studies.
Date: February 20, 2002
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Washburn, Jack & O'Keefe, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Erratic Dislocations within Funnel Defects in AlN Templates for AlGaNEpitaxial Layer Growth

Description: We report our transmission electron microscopy observations of erraticdislocation behavior within funnel-like defects in the top of AlN templates filled withAlGaN from an overlying epitaxial layer. This dislocation behavior is observed inmaterial where phase separation is also observed. Several bare AlN templates wereexamined to determine the formation mechanism of the funnels. Our results suggest that they are formed prior to epitaxial layer deposition due to the presence of impuritiesduring template re-growth. We discuss the erratic dislocation behavior in relation to thepresence of the phase-separated material and the possible effects of these defects on the optoelectronic properties.
Date: March 13, 2009
Creator: Hawkridge, Michael E.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Jin Kim, Hee; Choi, Suk; Yoo, Dongwon; Ryou, Jae-Hyun et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Structural Quality of AlxGa1-xN Epitaxial Layers Grown by Digitally-AlloyedModulated Precursor Epitaxy Determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy

Description: Al(x)Ga(1-x)N layers of varying composition (0.5<x(Al)<1.0) grown in the digitally-alloyed modulated precursor epitaxial regime employing AlN and GaN binary sub-layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on AlN templates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy techniques. Fine lamellae were observed in bright field images that indicate a possible variation in composition due to the modulated nature of growth. In higher Ga content samples (x(Al)<0.75), a compositional inhomogeniety associated with thicker island regions was observed, which is determined to be due to large Ga-rich areas formed at the base of the layer. Possible causes for the separation of Ga-rich material are discussed in the context of the growth regime used.
Date: October 13, 2008
Creator: Hawkridge, Michael E; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Suk; Yoo, Dongwon; Ryou, Jae-Hyun et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nucleation and Growth of GaN on GaAs (001) Substrates

Description: The nucleation of GaN thin films on GaAs is investigated for growth at 620 "C. An rf plasma cell is used to generate chemically active nitrogen from N<SUB>2</SUB>. An arsenic flux is used in the first eight monolayer of nitride growth to enhance nucleation of the cubic phase. Subsequent growth does not require an As flux to preserve the cubic phase. The nucleation of smooth interfaces and GaN films with low stacking fault densities is dependent upon relative concentrations of active nitrogen species in the plasma and on the nitrogen to gallium flux ratio.
Date: May 3, 1999
Creator: Drummond, Timothy J.; Hafich, Michael J.; Heller, Edwin J.; Lee, Stephen R.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Ruvimov, Sergei et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TEM characterization of GaN nanowires

Description: Transmission electron microscopy was applied to study GaN nanowires grown on carbon nanotube surfaces by chemical reaction between Ga{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} gas in a conventional furnace. These wires grew in two crystallographic directions, &lt;2{und 11}0&gt; and &lt;01{und 1}0&gt; (fast growth directions of GaN), in the form of whiskers covered by small elongated GaN platelets. The morphology of these platelets is similar to that observed during the growth of single crystals from a Ga melt at high temperatures under high nitrogen pressure. It is thought that growth of nanowires in two different crystallographic directions and the arrangement of the platelets to the central whisker may be influenced by the presence of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (based on the observation of the energy dispersive x-ray spectra), the interplanar spacings in the wire, and the presence of defects on the interface between the central part of the nanowire and the platelets surrounding it.
Date: February 21, 2002
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Gao, Y.H. & Bando, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Screw dislocations in GaN

Description: GaN has received much attention over the past few years because of several new applications, including light emitting diodes, blue laser diodes and high-power microwave transistors. One of the biggest problems is a high density of structural defects, mostly dislocations, due to a lack of a suitable lattice-matched substrate since bulk GaN is difficult to grow in large sizes. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been applied to study defects in plan-view and cross-sections on samples prepared by conventional techniques such as mechanical thinning and precision ion milling. The density of dislocations close to the sample surface of a 1 mm-thick HVPE sample was in the range of 3x109 cm-2. All three types of dislocations were present in these samples, and almost 50 percent were screw dislocations. Our studies suggest that the core structure of screw dislocations in the same material might differ when the material is grown by different methods.
Date: February 15, 2002
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Washburn, Jack & O'Keefe, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on(112_0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

Description: Conventional and high resolution electron microscopy havebeen applied for studying lattice defects in nonpolar a-plane GaN grownon a 4H-SiC substrate with an AlN buffer layer. Samples in plan-view andcross-section configurations have been investigated. Basal and prismaticstacking faults together with Frank and Shockley partial dislocationswere found to be the main defects in the GaN layers. High resolutionelectron microscopy in combination with image simulation supported Drum smodel for the prismatic stacking faults. The density of basal stackingfaults was measured to be ~;1.6_106cm-1. The densities of partialdislocations terminating I1 and I2 types of intrinsic basal stackingfaults were ~;4.0_1010cm-2 and ~;0.4_1010cm-2, respectively. The energyof the I2 stacking fault in GaN was estimated to be (40+-4) erg/cm2 basedon the separation of Shockley partial dislocations. To the best of ourknowledge, the theoretically predicted I3 basal stacking fault in GaN wasobserved experimentally for the first time.
Date: April 5, 2005
Creator: Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Wagner, Brian; Reitmeier,Zachary J.; Preble, Edward A. & Davis, Robert F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructure of laterally overgrown GaN layers

Description: Transmission electron microscopy study of plan-view and cross-section samples of epitaxial laterally overgrown (ELOG) GaN samples is described. Two types of dislocation with the same type of Burgers vector but different line direction have been observed. It is shown that threading edge dislocations bend to form dislocation segments in the c-plane as a result of shear stresses developed in the wing material along the stripe direction. It is shown that migration of these dislocations involves both glide and climb. Propagation of threading parts over the wing area is an indication of high density of point defects present in the wing areas on the ELOG samples. This finding might shed new light on the optical properties of such samples.
Date: April 3, 2001
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna & Cherns, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural properties of free-standing 50 mm diameter GaN waferswith (101_0) orientation grown on LiAlO2

Description: (10{und 1}0) GaN wafers grown on (100) face of {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Despite good lattice matching in this heteroepitaxial system, high densities of planar structural defects in the form of stacking faults on the basal plane and networks of boundaries located on prism planes inclined to the layer/substrate interface were present in these GaN layers. In addition, significant numbers of threading dislocations were observed. High-resolution electron microscopy indicates that stacking faults present on the basal plane in these layers are of low-energy intrinsic I1type. This is consistent with diffraction contrast experiments.
Date: September 27, 2005
Creator: Jasinski, Jacek; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Maruska, Herbert-Paul; Chai, Bruce H.; Hill, David W.; Chou, Mitch M.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department