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Towards quantum information processing with impurity spins insilicon

Description: The finding of algorithms for factoring and data base search that promise substantially increased computational power, as well as the expectation for efficient simulation of quantum systems have spawned an intense interest in the realization of quantum information processors [1]. Solid state implementations of quantum computers scaled to >1000 quantum bits ('qubits') promise to revolutionize information technology, but requirements with regard to sources of decoherence in solid state environments are sobering. Here, we briefly review basic approaches to impurity spin based qubits and present progress in our effort to form prototype qubit test structures. Since Kane's bold silicon based spin qubit proposal was first published in 1998 [2], several groups have taken up the challenge of fabricating elementary building blocks [3-5], and several exciting variations of single donor qubit schemes have emerged [6]. Single donor atoms, e. g. {sup 31}P, are 'natural quantum dots' in a silicon matrix, and the spins of electrons and nuclei of individual donor atoms are attractive two level systems for encoding of quantum information. The coupling to the solid state environment is weak, so that decoherence times are long (hours for nuclear spins, and {approx}60 ms for electron spins of isolated P atoms in silicon [7]), while control over individual spins for one qubit operations becomes possible when individual qubits are aligned to electrodes that allow shifting of electron spin resonances in global magnetic fields by application of control voltages. Two qubit operations require an interaction that couples, and entangles qubits. The exchange interaction, J, is a prime candidate for mediation of two qubit operations, since it can be turned on and off by variation of the wave function overlap between neighboring qubits, and coherent manipulation of quantum information with the exchange interaction alone has been shown to be universal [8]. However, detailed band structure ...
Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Schenkel, T.; Liddle, J.A.; Bokor, J.; Rangelow, I.W.; Park,S.J. & Persaud, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging at high spatial resolution: Soft x-ray microscopy to 15nm

Description: Soft x-ray microscopy has now achieved 15 nm spatial resolution with new zone plates and bending magnet radiation. Combined with elemental sensitivity and flexible sample environment (applied magnetic or electric fields, wet samples, windows, overcoatings) this emerges as a valuable tool for nanoscience and nanotechnology, complimenting common electron and scanning tip microscopies. In this presentation we describe recent advances in spatial resolution, expectations for the near future, and applications to magnetic materials, bio-tomography, etc.
Date: April 5, 2006
Creator: Attwood, D.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.; Liddle, J.A.; Harteneck, B.; Fischer, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: For a number of technologies small substrate contaminants are undesirable, and for one technology in particular, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), they can be a very serious issue. We have demonstrated that the Ion Beam Thin Film Planarization Process, a coating process designed to planarize substrate asperities, can be extended to smooth {approx}70 nm and {approx}80 nm diameter particles on EUVL reticle substrates to a height of {approx}0.5 nm, which will render them noncritical in an EUVL printing process. We demonstrate this smoothing process using controlled nanoscale substrate particles and lines fabricated with an e-beam lithography process. The above smoothing process was also modified to yield an excellent reflectance/wavelength uniformity and a good EUV reflectivity for the multilayer, which is required for EUVL reticles. Cross-sectional TEM on a smoothed substrate line defect shows excellent agreement with results obtained from our multilayer growth model.
Date: October 19, 2004
Creator: Mirkarimi, P B; Spiller, E; Baker, S L; Robinson, J C; Stearns, D G; Liddle, J A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion Implantation with Scanning Probe Alignment

Description: We describe a scanning probe instrument which integrates ion beams with the imaging and alignment function of a piezo-resistive scanning probe in high vacuum. The beam passes through several apertures and is finally collimated by a hole in the cantilever of the scanning probe. The ion beam spot size is limited by the size of the last aperture. Highly charged ions are used to show hits of single ions in resist, and we discuss the issues for implantation of single ions.
Date: July 12, 2005
Creator: Persaud, A.; Liddle, J.A.; Schenkel, T.; Bokor, J.; Ivanov, Tzv. & Rangelow, I.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EUV Binary Phase Gratings: Fabrication and Application to Diffractive Optics

Description: Diffractive optics play an important role in a variety of fields such as astronomy, microscopy, and lithography. For the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region of the spectrum they have been difficult to make due to the extremely precise control required of their surface structure. We have developed a robust fabrication technique that achieves the required topographic control through the deposition of a thin film of Si on a Cr etch stop. We have fabricated binary phase gratings using this approach that have an efficiency of 80% of the theoretical maximum. The technique is applicable to any type of binary phase optical element.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Salmassi, F.; Naulleau, P. P.; Gullikson, E. M.; Olynick, D. L. & Liddle, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and performance of nanoscale ultra-smooth programmed defects for EUV Lithography

Description: We have developed processes for producing ultra-smooth nanoscale programmed substrate defects that have applications in areas such as thin film growth, EUV lithography, and defect inspection. Particle, line, pit, and scratch defects on the substrates between 40 and 140 nm wide 50 to 90 nm high have been successfully produced using e-beam lithograpy and plasma etching in both Silicon and Hydrosilsequioxane films. These programmed defect substrates have several advantages over those produced previously using gold nanoparticles or polystyrene latex spheres--most notably, the ability to precisely locate features and produce recessed as well as bump type features in ultra-smooth films. These programmed defects were used to develop techniques for film defect mitigation and results are discussed.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Olynick, D. L.; Salmassi, F.; Liddle, J. A.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Spiller, E.; Baker, S. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Silicon-Based, Sequential Coat-and-Etch Process to Fabricate Nearly Perfect Substrate Surfaces

Description: For many thin-film applications substrate imperfections such as particles, pits, scratches, and general roughness, can nucleate film defects which can severely detract from the coating's performance. Previously we developed a coat-and-etch process, termed the ion beam thin film planarization process, to planarize substrate particles up to {approx} 70 nm in diameter. The process relied on normal incidence etching; however, such a process induces defects nucleated by substrate pits to grow much larger. We have since developed a coat-and-etch process to planarize {approx}70 nm deep by 70 nm wide substrate pits; it relies on etching at an off-normal incidence angle, i.e., an angle of {approx} 70{sup o} from the substrate normal. However, a disadvantage of this pit smoothing process is that it induces defects nucleated by substrate particles to grow larger. Combining elements from both processes we have been able to develop a silicon-based, coat-and-etch process to successfully planarize {approx}70 nm substrate particles and pits simultaneously to at or below 1 nm in height; this value is important for applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) masks. The coat-and-etch process has an added ability to significantly reduce high-spatial frequency roughness, rendering a nearly perfect substrate surface.
Date: July 5, 2005
Creator: Mirkarimi, P. B.; Spiller, E.; Baker, S. L.; Stearns, D. G.; Robinson, J. C.; Olynick, D. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sculpting the shape of semiconductor heteroepitaxial islands: fromdots to rods

Description: In the Ge on Si model heteroepitaxial system, metal patterns on the silicon surface provide unprecedented control over the morphology of highly ordered Ge islands. Island shape including nanorods and truncated pyramids is set by the metal species and substrate orientation. Analysis of island faceting elucidates the prominent role of the metal in promoting growth of preferred facet orientations while investigations of island composition and structure reveal the importance of Si-Ge intermixing in island evolution. These effects reflect a remarkable combination of metal-mediated growth phenomena that may be exploited to tailor the functionality of island arrays in heteroepitaxial systems.
Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: Robinson, J.T.; Walko, D.A.; Arms, D.A.; Tinberg, D.S.; Evans,P.G.; Cao, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metal-inducd assembly of a semiconductor-island lattice: Getruncated pyramids on Au-patterned Si

Description: We report the two-dimensional alignment of semiconductor islands using rudimentary metal patterning to control nucleation and growth. In the Ge on Si system, a square array of sub-micron Au dots on the Si (001) surface induces the assembly of deposited Ge adatoms into an extensive island lattice. Remarkably, these highly ordered Ge islands form between the patterned Au dots and are characterized by a unique truncated pyramidal shape. A model based on patterned diffusion barriers explains the observed ordering and establishes general criteria for the broader applicability of such a directed assembly process to quantum dot ordering.
Date: August 28, 2005
Creator: Robinson, J.T.; Liddle, J.A.; Minor, A.; Radmilovic, V.; Yi,D.O.; Greaney, P.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integration of scanning probes and ion beams

Description: We report the integration of a scanning force microscope with ion beams. The scanning probe images surface structures non-invasively and aligns the ion beam to regions of interest. The ion beam is transported through a hole in the scanning probe tip. Piezoresistive force sensors allow placement of micromachined cantilevers close to the ion beam lens. Scanning probe imaging and alignment is demonstrated in a vacuum chamber coupled to the ion beam line. Dot arrays are formed by ion implantation in resist layers on silicon samples with dot diameters limited by the hole size in the probe tips of a few hundred nm.
Date: March 30, 2005
Creator: Persaud, A.; Park, S.J.; Liddle, J.A.; Schenkel, T.; Bokor, J. & Rangelow, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical activation and spin coherence of ultra low doseantimony implants in silicon

Description: We implanted ultra low doses (0.2 to 2 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) of Sb ions into isotopically enriched {sup 28}Si, and probed electrical activation and electron spin relaxation after rapid thermal annealing. Strong segregation of dopants towards both Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2} interfaces limits electrical activation. Pulsed Electron Spin Resonance shows that spin echo decay is sensitive to the dopant profiles, and the interface quality. A spin decoherence time, T{sub 2}, of 1.5 ms is found for profiles peaking 25 nm below a Si/SiO{sub 2} interface, increasing to 2.1 ms when the surface is passivated with hydrogen. These measurements provide benchmark data for the development of devices in which quantum information is encoded in donor electron spins.
Date: July 13, 2005
Creator: Schenkel, T.; Tyryshkin, A.M.; de Sousa, R.; Whaley, K.B.; Bokor,J.; Liddle, J.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open questions in electronic sputtering of solids by slow highly charged ions with respect to applications in single ion implantation

Description: In this article we discuss open questions in electronic sputtering of solids by slow, highly charged ions in the context of their application in a single ion implantation scheme. High yields of secondary electrons emitted when highly charged dopant ions impinge on silicon wafers allow for formation of non-Poissonian implant structures such as single atom arrays. Control of high spatial resolution and implant alignment require the use of nanometer scale apertures. We discuss electronic sputtering issues on mask lifetimes, and damage to silicon wafers.
Date: July 16, 2003
Creator: Schenkel, T.; Rangelow, I.W.; Keller, R.; Park, S.J.; Nilsson, J.; Persaud, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department