9 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Long-Term Monitoring of Permeable Reactive Barriers - Progress Report

Description: The purpose of this project is to conduct collaborative research to evaluate and maximize the effectiveness of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with a broad-based working group including representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and its project partner, Battelle, are leading the DoD effort with funding from DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is coordinating the DOE effort with support from Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA), a research program under DOEs Office of Science and Technology. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is leading EPA's effort. The combined effort of these three agencies allows the evaluation of a large number of sites. Documents generated by this joint project will be reviewed by the participating agencies' principal investigators, the Permeable Barriers Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC). The technical objectives of this project are to collect and review existing field data at selected PRB sites, identify data gaps, conduct additional measurements, and provide recommendations to DOE users on suitable long-term monitoring strategies. The specific objectives are to (1) evaluate geochemical and hydraulic performance of PRBs, (2) develop guidelines for hydraulic and geochemical characterization/monitoring, and (3) devise and implement long-term monitoring strategies through the use of hydrological and geochemical models. Accomplishing these objectives will provide valuable information regarding the optimum configuration and lifetime of barriers at specific sites. It will also permit development of site-specific monitoring and performance plans, thus optimizing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs while increasing confidence of both regulators and end users in applying the barrier technology.
Date: April 12, 2001
Creator: Liang, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

Description: Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: West, O.R.; Liang, L. & Holden, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The X-625 Groundwater Treatment Facility: A field-scale test of trichloroethylene dechlorination using iron filings for the X-120/X-749 groundwater plume

Description: The dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents by zero-valence iron has recently become the subject of intensive research and development as a potentially cost-effective, passive treatment for contaminated groundwater through reactive barriers. Because of its successful application in the laboratory and other field sites, the X-625 Groundwater Treatment Facility (GTF) was constructed to evaluate reactive barrier technology for remediating trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The X-625 GTF was built to fulfill the following technical objectives: (1) to test reactive barrier materials (e.g., iron filings) under realistic groundwater conditions for long term applications, (2) to obtain rates at which TCE degrades and to determine by-products for the reactive barrier materials tested, and (3) to clean up the TCE-contaminated water in the X-120 plume. The X-625 is providing important field-scale and long-term for the evaluation and design of reactive barriers at PORTS. The X-625 GTS is a unique facility not only because it is where site remediation is being performed, but it is also where research scientists and process engineers can test other promising reactive barrier materials. In addition, the data collected from X-625 GTF can be used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of replacing the activated carbon units in the pump-and-treat facilities at PORTS.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Liang, L.; West, O.R. & Korte, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Fe and Fe-Pd bimetals in the presence of surfactants and cosolvents

Description: Surfactants and cosolvents are being used to enhance the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) from contaminated soils. However, the waste surfactant solution containing TCE and PCBs must be treated before it can be disposed. This study evaluated the use of zero-valence iron and palladized iron fillings on the dechlorination of TCE and a PCB congener in a dihexylsulfosuccinate surfactant solution. Batch experimental results indicated that TCE can be rapidly degraded by palladized iron filings with a half-life of 27.4 min. PCB was degraded at a slower rate than TCE with a half-life ranging from 100 min to 500 min as the concentration of surfactant increased. In column flow-through experiments, both TCE and PCBs degrade at an enhanced rate with a half-life about 1.5 and 6 min because of an increased solid to solution ratio in the column than in the batch experiments. Results of this work suggest that Fe-Pd filings may be potentially applicable for ex-situ treatment of TCE and PCBs in the surfactant solutions that are generated during surfactant washing of the contaminated soils.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Gu, B.; Liang, L.; West, O.R.; Cameron, P. & Davenport, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colloid transport and retention in fractured deposits. 1998 annual progress report

Description: 'The goal of the DOE project is to identify the chemical and physical factors that control the transport of colloids in fractured formations, and develop a generalized capability to predict colloid attachment and detachment based on hydraulic factors (head, flow rate), physical structure (fracture aperture), and chemical properties (surface properties of colloids and fracture surfaces). The research approach targets multiple scales, including: (a) a theoretical description of colloid dynamics in fractures that extend concepts used for porous media to fracture geometry, with predictions experimentally tested in simplified laboratory fractures; (b) colloid transport experiments in intact geological columns, which provide natural complexity, but mass balance data and experimental control over flow, colloid size, ionic strength and composition; (c) field-scale transport experiments using colloidal tracers to examine realistic scales of fracture connectivity; and (d) modeling of colloid transport in complex fracture networks that include fractures with varying flow rates and permitting colloid diffusion into microfractures. Understanding the processes that control colloid behavior will increase confidence with which colloid-facilitated contaminant transport can be predicted and assessed at contaminated DOE sites. An added benefit is the expectation that this work will yield novel techniques to either immobilize colloid-bound contaminants in-situ, or mobilize colloids for enhancing remedial techniques such as pump-and-treat and bioremediation.'
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: McCarthy, J.F.; Mckay, L.D.; Liang, L.; Ibaraki, Motomu & Reimus, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Front-Side Silver Metallization on Underlying n+-p Junction in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

Description: We report on the effect of front-side Ag metallization on the underlying n+-p junction of multicrystalline Si solar cells. The junction quality beneath the contacts was investigated by characterizing the uniformities of the electrostatic potential and doping concentration across the junction, using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. We investigated cells with a commercial Ag paste (DuPont PV159) and fired at furnace setting temperatures of 800 degrees, 840 degrees, and 930 degrees C, which results in actual cell temperatures ~100 degrees C lower than the setting temperature and the three cells being under-, optimal-, and over-fired. We found that the uniformity of the junction beneath the Ag contact was significantly degraded by the over-firing, whereas the junction retained good uniformity with the optimal- and under-fire temperatures. Further, Ag crystallites with widely distributed sizes from <100 nm to several &#956;m were found at the Ag/Si interface of the over-fired cell. Large crystallites were imaged as protrusions into Si deeper than the junction depth. However, the junction was not broken down; instead, it was reformed on the entire front of the crystallite/Si interface. We propose a mechanism of the junction-quality degradation, based on emitter Si melting at the temperature around the Ag-Si eutectic point during firing, and subsequent recrystallization with incorporation of impurities in the Ag paste and with formation of crystallographic defects during quenching.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Jiang, C. S.; Li, Z. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; Liang, L.; Ionkin, A. & Al-Jassim, M. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. In situ physical/chemical treatment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites: Applicability, developing status, and research needs

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was established in June 1991 to facilitate the development and implementation of in situ remediation technologies for environmental restoration within the DOE complex. Within the ISR IP, four subareas of research have been identified: (1) in situ containment, (2) in situ physical/chemical treatment (ISPCT), (3) in situ bioremediation, and (4) subsurface manipulation/electrokinetics. Although set out as individual focus areas, these four are interrelated, and successful developments in one will often necessitate successful developments in another. In situ remediation technologies are increasingly being sought for environmental restoration due to the potential advantages that in situ technologies can offer as opposed to more traditional ex situ technologies. These advantages include limited site disruption, lower cost, reduced worker exposure, and treatment at depth under structures. While in situ remediation technologies can offer great advantages, many technology gaps exist in their application. This document presents an overview of ISPCT technologies and describes their applicability to DOE-complex needs, their development status, and relevant ongoing research. It also highlights research needs that the ISR IP should consider when making funding decisions.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Siegrist, R. L.; Gates, D. D.; West, O. R.; Liang, L.; Donaldson, T. L.; Webb, O. F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A field trial of novel bifunctional resins for removing pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) from contaminated groundwater

Description: A field trial using a custom-designed bifunctional synthetic resin prepared at the University of Tennessee and designed to selectively remove pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) from groundwater was conducted in summer 1997 at the Northwest Plume Pump-and-Treat Facility at the US Department of Energy`s Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site. The bifunctional resin, RO-02-119, was a copolymer of vinylbenzylchloride and divinylbenzene that had been functionalized with trihexylamine and triethylamine. The experiment was a parallel test of the synthetic resin and a commercial resin, Purolite A-520E, to directly compare the performance of the two resins. Purolite resin is currently used by the treatment facility to remove Tc-99 from the contaminated groundwater containing {approximately}1,000 pCi/L TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. A total of {approximately}692,000 bed volumes of groundwater was passed through the column containing the synthetic resin (RO-02-119) whereas only {approximately}205,000 bed volumes of groundwater were passed through the Purolite resin column because of reduced hydraulic conductivity and clogging within the latter column. Despite less groundwater passing through the Purolite resin column, however, the breakthrough of TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} occurred earlier in the Purolite column than in the RO-02-119 column.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Brown, G. M.; Bonnesen, P. V.; Moyer, B. A.; Alexandratos, S. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ treatment of mixed contaminants in groundwater: Application of zero-valence iron and palladized iron for treatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene and technetium-99

Description: The overall goal of this portion of the project was to package one or more unit processes, as modular components in vertical and/or horizontal recirculation wells, for treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [e.g., trichloroethene (TCE)] and radionuclides [e.g., technetium (Tc){sup 99}] in groundwater. The project was conceived, in part, because the coexistence of chlorinated hydrocarbons and radionuclides has been identified as the predominant combination of groundwater contamination in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Thus, a major component of the project was the development of modules that provide simultaneous treatment of hydrocarbons and radionuclides. The project objectives included: (1) evaluation of horizontal wells for inducing groundwater recirculation, (2) development of below-ground treatment modules for simultaneous removal of VOCs and radionuclides, and (3) demonstration of a coupled system (treatment module with recirculation well) at a DOE field site where both VOCs and radionuclides are present in the groundwater. This report is limited to the innovative treatment aspects of the program. A report on pilot testing of the horizontal recirculation system was the first report of the series (Muck et al. 1996). A comprehensive report that focuses on the engineering, cost and hydrodynamic aspects of the project has also been prepared (Korte et al. 1997a).
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Korte, N.E.; Muck, M.T.; Zutman, J.L.; Schlosser, R.M.; Liang, L.; Gu, B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department