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Solidification behavior and structure of Al-Cu alloy welds

Description: The microsegregation behavior of electron beam (EB) and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds of Al-Cu alloys covering a range from 0.19 to 7.74 wt% Cu were characterized for dendrite core concentrations and fraction eutectic solidification. Although a single weld speed of 12.7 mm/sec was used, some differences were observed in the segregation behavior of the two weld types. The microsegregation behavior was also modeled using a finite differences technique considering dendrite tip and eutectic undercooling and solid state diffusion. Fairly good agreement was observed between measured and calculated segregation behavior although differences between the two weld types could not be completely accounted for. The concept of dendrite tip undercooling was used to explain the formation of a single through thickness centerline grain in the higher alloy content GTA welds.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Brooks, J.A.; Li, M. & Yang, N.C.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural and electrical properties of biaxially textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} thin films on buffered Ni-based alloy substrates.

Description: Oxide high-T{sub c} superconducting wires and tapes with high critical current density (J{sub c}) are essential in future electrical power applications. Recently, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) thin films grown on Ni-based alloy tapes have attracted intense interest because of their promise for these applications. In order to achieve high J{sub c}, buffer layers are necessary for fabricating biaxially aligned YBCO thin films. In our studies, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers were deposited on Ni-based alloy substrate by ion-beam assisted deposition, and CeO{sub 2} buffer layers were subsequently deposited on the YSZ layer by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) or electron beam evaporation. In addition, MgO layers were deposited on Ni-based alloy substrates by inclined substrate deposition. Finally, biaxially textured YBCO thin films were deposited on these buffered metallic substrates by PLD under optimized conditions. The orientation and in-plane textures of YBCO and the buffer layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction {Theta}/2{Theta} scan, {phi}-scan, and pole figure analysis. The superconductive transition features were examined by measuring inductive T{sub c} and transport J{sub c}.
Date: December 7, 2000
Creator: Li, M.; Ma, B.; Jee, Y. A.; Fisher, B. L. & Balachandran, U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Creep rupture testing of alloy 617 and A508/533 base metals and weldments.

Description: The NGNP, which is an advanced HTGR concept with emphasis on both electricity and hydrogen production, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 750-1000 C. Alloy 617 is a prime candidate for VHTR structural components such as reactor internals, piping, and heat exchangers in view of its resistance to oxidation and elevated temperature strength. However, lack of adequate data on the performance of the alloy in welded condition prompted to initiate a creep test program at Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, Testing has been initiated to evaluate the creep rupture properties of the pressure vessel steel A508/533 in air and in helium environments. The program, which began in December 2009, was certified for quality assurance NQA-1 requirements during January and February 2010. Specimens were designed and fabricated during March and the tests were initiated in April 2010. During the past year, several creep tests were conducted in air on Alloy 617 base metal and weldment specimens at temperatures of 750, 850, and 950 C. Idaho National Laboratory, using gas tungsten arc welding method with Alloy 617 weld wire, fabricated the weldment specimens. Eight tests were conducted on Alloy 617 base metal specimens and nine were on Alloy 617 weldments. The creep rupture times for the base alloy and weldment tests were up to {approx}3900 and {approx}4500 h, respectively. The results showed that the creep rupture lives of weld specimens are much longer than those for the base alloy, when tested under identical test conditions. The test results also showed that the creep strain at fracture is in the range of 7-18% for weldment samples and were much lower than those for the base alloy, under similar test conditions. In general, the weldment specimens showed more of ...
Date: January 17, 2012
Creator: Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Soppet, W.K. & Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling Production Plant Forming Processes

Description: Engineering has simulation tools and experience in modeling forming processes. Y-12 personnel have expressed interest in validating our tools and experience against their manufacturing process activities such as rolling, casting, and forging etc. We have demonstrated numerical capabilities in a collaborative DOE/OIT project with ALCOA that is nearing successful completion. The goal was to use ALE3D to model Alcoa's slab rolling process in order to demonstrate a computational tool that would allow Alcoa to define a rolling schedule that would minimize the probability of ingot fracture, thus reducing waste and energy consumption. It is intended to lead to long-term collaboration with Y-12 and perhaps involvement with other components of the weapons production complex. Using simulations to aid in design of forming processes can: decrease time to production; reduce forming trials and associated expenses; and guide development of products with greater uniformity and less scrap.
Date: September 22, 2004
Creator: Rhee, M; Becker, R; Couch, R & Li, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participated in a U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Industrial Technology sponsored research project 'Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery', as a Cooperative Agreement TC-02028 with the Alcoa Technical Center (ATC). The objective of the joint project with Alcoa is to develop a numerical modeling capability to optimize the hot rolling process used to produce aluminum plate. Product lost in the rolling process and subsequent recycling, wastes resources consumed in the energy-intensive steps of remelting and reprocessing the ingot. The modeling capability developed by project partners will be used to produce plate more efficiently and with reduced product loss.
Date: September 24, 2004
Creator: Couch, R; Becker, R; Rhee, M & Li, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of residual stress mitigation in austenitic stainless steel pipe girth weldment

Description: This study provides numerical procedures to model 40-cm-diameter, schedule 40, Type 304L stainless steel pipe girth welding and a newly proposed post-weld treatment. The treatment can be used to accomplish the goal of imparting compressive residual stresses at the inner surface of a pipe girth weldment to prevent/retard the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the piping system in nuclear reactors. This new post-weld treatment for mitigating residual stresses is cooling stress improvement (CSI). The concept of CSI is to establish and maintain a certain temperature gradient across the pipe wall thickness to change the final stress state. Thus, this process involves sub-zero low temperature cooling of the inner pipe surface of a completed girth weldment, while simultaneously keeping the outer pipe surface at a slightly elevated temperature with the help of a certain heating method. Analyses to obtain quantitative results on pipe girth welding and CSI by using a thermo-elastic-plastic finite element model are described in this paper. Results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of CSI for introducing compressive residual stresses to prevent/retard IGSCC. Because of the symmetric nature of CSI, it shows great potential for industrial application.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Li, M.; Atteridge, D. G.; Anderson, W. E. & West, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rate Equation Theory for Island Sizes and Capture Zone Areas in Submonolayer Deposition: Realistic Treatment of Spatial Aspects of Nucleation

Description: Extensive information on the distribution of islands formed during submonolayer deposition is provided by the joint probability distribution (JPD) for island sizes, s, and capture zone areas, A. A key ingredient determining the form of the JPD is the impact of each nucleation event on existing capture zone areas. Combining a realistic characterization of such spatial aspects of nucleation with a factorization ansatz for the JPD, we provide a concise rate equation formulation for the variation with island size of both the capture zone area and the island density.
Date: December 5, 2002
Creator: Evans, J W; Li, M & Bartelt, M C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of a 3-D, Thermo-Mechanically Coupled Model for Multi-Pass Rolling in a Reversing Mill

Description: A three dimensional numerical model simulating multi-pass, hot rolling on a reversing mill has been developed to analyze deformation patterns and shape changes of a rolled ingot. Validation simulations through 15 passes with an 86% reduction have been performed using the thermo-mechanically coupled model to track the evolution of the deformed ingot geometry. The heat transfer coefficient for thermal conduction between the rolls and slab has been estimated in accordance with experimental data, and heat transfer to the air and coolant outside of the roll bite is included. A hyperbolic sine model using the Zener-Hollomon parameter is used to capture the temperature and strain rate dependence of the aluminum alloy. A Coulomb friction model with a flow strength dependent maximum limit on the interfacial shear stress was employed between the rolls and ingot. Results of validation simulations and comparisons with experiments focusing on the ingot shape evolution are discussed.
Date: January 30, 2004
Creator: Rhee, M; Wang, P; Li, M & Becker, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Texture development of MgO buffer layers grown by inclined substrate deposition.

Description: Biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films used as template layers for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO)-coated conductors have been grown efficiently and consistently by inclined substrate deposition (ISD). Further improvement in texture and a decrease in surface roughness were obtained by depositing a homoepitaxial MgO layer on the ISD MgO layer at an elevated temperature and flat angle. The texture of the ISD layer was studied as a function of thickness by X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Surface roughness of the ISD and homoepitaxial layers was investigated by atomic force microscopy. Based on the results, the optimal thickness of the ISD layer was determined.
Date: August 16, 2002
Creator: Koritala, R. E.; Ma, B.; Miller, D. J.; Li, M.; Fisher, B. L. & Balachandran, U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal-mechanical modeling and experimental validation of weld solidification cracking in 6061-T6 aluminum

Description: Finite element simulation using an internal state variable constitutive model coupled with a void growth and damage model are used to study weld solidification cracking of 6061-T6 aluminum. Calculated results are compared with data from an experimental program determining the locations of failure as a function of weld process parameters and specimen geometry. Two types of weld solidification cracking specimen were studied. One specimen, in which cracking did not occur, was used to evaluate finite element simulations of the thermal response and calculations of average strain across the weld. The other specimen type was used to determine the location of crack initiation as a function of weld process parameters. This information was used to evaluate the finite element simulations of weld solidification cracking. A solidification model which includes dendrite tip and eutectic undercooling was used in both thermal and mechanical finite element analyses. A strain rate and temperature history dependent constitutive model is coupled with a ductile void growth damage model in the mechanical analyses. Stresses near the weld pool are examined to explain results obtained in the finite element analyses and correlated with experimental observations. Good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment for locations of crack initiation and extent of cracking. Some effects of uncertainties in material parameters are discussed.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Dike, J.J.; Brooks, J.A.; Bammann, D.J. & Li, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomistic studies of jogged screw dislocations in {gamma}-TiAl alloys

Description: The behavior of jogged screw dislocations in {gamma}-TiAl alloys has been investigated with large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The authors find a new mechanism for formation of pinning points in jogged screw dislocations. They also find that the critical height for the jogs in the {+-}[{bar 1}10] directions on the (001) plane to move nonconservatively is between 3r{sub 0} and 4r{sub 0}, where r{sub 0} is the nearest neighbor distance of aluminum atoms. Interstitials and vacancies are created during the nonconservative motions of the jogs. In addition, the formation of dislocation dipole and loops around the jogs is also observed.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Chen, K.Y.; Li, M. & Zhou, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finite element modeling of weld solidification cracking in 6061-T6 aluminum - applicability of strain-based failure criteria

Description: Finite element simulations using an internal state variable constitutive model are used to study weld solidification cracking of 6061-T6 aluminum. Stress and strain histories at the weld centerline for two types of specimen are studied with regards to application of strain-based failure criteria for predicting weld solidification cracking. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Dike, J.J.; Bammann, D.J.; Brooks, J.A. & Li, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamics of computation and information distance

Description: Applying the tools of algorithmic information theory, we compare several candidates for an asymptotically machine-independent. absolute measure of the informational or cognitive'' distance between discrete objects x and y. The maximum of the conditional Kolmogorov complexities max[l brace]K(y[vert bar]z) K(m[vert bar]y)[r brace], is shown to be optimal, in the sense of being minimal within an additive constant among semicomputable, symmetric, positive semidefinite functions of z and y satisfying a reasonable normalization condition and obeying the triangle intequality. The optimal metric, in turn, differs by at most an additive logarithmic term from the size of the smallest program for a universal reversible computer to transform x into y. This program functions in a 'catalytic'' capacity, being retained in the computer before, during, and after the computation. Similarly, the sum of the conditional complexities. K(y[vert bar]x) + K(x[vert bar]y), is shown to be equal within a logarithmic term to the minimal amount Of information flowing out and in during a reversible computation in which the program is not retained. Finally. using the physical theory of reversible computation, it is shown that the simple difference K(x) - K(y) is an appropriate (ie universal, antisymmetric, and transitive) measure of the amount of thermodynamic work required to transform string x into string y by the most efficient process.
Date: March 12, 1993
Creator: Bennett, C.H.; Gacs, P.; Li, M.; Vitanyi, P.M.B. & Zurek, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

Description: This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the ...
Date: May 16, 2012
Creator: Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M. & Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

Description: This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) and the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM), the ...
Date: May 31, 2012
Creator: Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R. K. & Sham, T.-L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamics of computation and information distance

Description: Applying the tools of algorithmic information theory, we compare several candidates for an asymptotically machine-independent. absolute measure of the informational or ``cognitive`` distance between discrete objects x and y. The maximum of the conditional Kolmogorov complexities max{l_brace}K(y{vert_bar}z) K(m{vert_bar}y){r_brace}, is shown to be optimal, in the sense of being minimal within an additive constant among semicomputable, symmetric, positive semidefinite functions of z and y satisfying a reasonable normalization condition and obeying the triangle intequality. The optimal metric, in turn, differs by at most an additive logarithmic term from the size of the smallest program for a universal reversible computer to transform x into y. This program functions in a `catalytic`` capacity, being retained in the computer before, during, and after the computation. Similarly, the sum of the conditional complexities. K(y{vert_bar}x) + K(x{vert_bar}y), is shown to be equal within a logarithmic term to the minimal amount Of information flowing out and in during a reversible computation in which the program is not retained. Finally. using the physical theory of reversible computation, it is shown that the simple difference K(x) - K(y) is an appropriate (ie universal, antisymmetric, and transitive) measure of the amount of thermodynamic work required to transform string x into string y by the most efficient process.
Date: March 12, 1993
Creator: Bennett, C. H.; Gacs, P.; Li, M.; Vitanyi, P. M. B. & Zurek, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biaxially aligned template films fabricated by inclined-substrate deposition for YBCO-coated conductor applications.

Description: Inclined substrate deposition (ISD) has the potential for rapid production of high-quality biaxially textured buffer layers, which are important for YBCO-coated conductor applications. We have grown biaxially textured MgO films by ISD at deposition rates of 20-100 {angstrom}/sec. Columnar grains with a roof-tile surface structure were observed in the ISD-MgO films. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the (002) planes of the ISD-MgO films are tilted at an angle from the substrate normal. A small {phi}-scan full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of {approx}9{sup o} was observed on MgO films deposited at an inclination angle of 55{sup o}. In-plane texture in the ISD MgO films developed in the first 0.5 {micro}m from the interface, then stabilized with further increases in film thickness. YBCO films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on ISD-MgO buffered Hastelloy C276 substrates were biaxially aligned with the c-axis parallel to the substrate normal. T{sub c} of 91 K with a sharp transition and transport J{sub c} of 5.5 x 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in self-field were measured on a YBCO film that was 0.46-{micro}m thick, 4-mm wide, 10-mm long.
Date: August 12, 2002
Creator: Ma, B.; Li, M.; Koritala, R. E.; Fisher, B. L.; Erck, R. A.; Dorris, S. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predicting weld solidification cracking using damage mechanics -- LDRD summary report

Description: This report summarizes the efforts to develop and validate a finite element based model to predict weld solidification cracking behavior. Such a model must capture the solidification behavior, the thermal behavior in the weld pool region, the material mechanical response, and some failure criteria to determine when solidification cracking will occur. For such a program to be successful, each aspect of the model had to be accurately modeled and verified since the output of one portion of the model served as the input to other portions of the model. A solidification model which includes dendrite tip and eutectic undercooling was developed and used in both the thermal and mechanical finite element analysis. High magnification video techniques were developed to measure strains for validation of the mechanical predictions using a strain rate and temperature dependent constitutive model. This model was coupled with a ductile void growth damage model and correlated with experimental observations to determine capabilities of predicting cracking response. A two phase (solid + liquid) material model was also developed that can be used to more accurately capture the mechanics of weld solidification cracking. In general, reasonable agreement was obtained between simulation and experiment for location of crack initiation and extent of cracking for 6061-T6 aluminum. 35 refs.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Dike, J.J.; Brooks, J.A.; Bammann, D.J.; Li, M.; Krafcik, J.S. & Yang, N.Y.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles

Description: The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme ...
Date: September 30, 2008
Creator: Rao, A.D.; Francuz, D.J.; Maclay, J.D.; Brouwer, J.; Verma, A.; Li, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department