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Neuropsychological Dysfunction Associated with Dental Office Environment

Description: Five chemicals indigenous to the dental office environment that may cause toxic effects are formaldehyde, phenol, acrylic, mercury, and nitrous oxide. These chemicals create abnormal stress on physiological and psychological systems of the body resulting in symptomatology and pathology when the body defenses can no longer maintain homeostasis by adaptation. This study demonstrated serious behavioral consequences of chemical and heavy metal exposure. This study provided evidence that a significant percentage of dental office personnel who are exposed to the dental office chemicals show psycho neurological dysfunction. It was concluded that these individuals suffer adverse reactions to the chemicals in their work environment. The problem areas included perceptual motor difficulty in cognitive functioning, concern with bodily functions, despondency, and interpersonal problems.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Murry, Joe Mitchell
Partner: UNT Libraries

Back Pain Patients' Compliance with Vocational Rehabilitation: Use of the MMPI and HAT to Predict Outcome

Description: The use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Health Attribution Test (HAT) for predicting referral compliance to a state vocational rehabilitation program was evaluated. Subjects included 53 patients (26 males, 27 females) who were chosen at random three to 18 months following discharge from an inpatient chronic and spinal pain center. Subjects were administered the MMPI and HAT upon hospital admission and seven outcome measures of referral compliance were obtained. A discriminant analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that certain items would best discriminate compliance. Most discriminative of compliance was the MMPI validity scale K (Wilks Lambda = .751, p ≤ .033). A regrouping of data into two groups, active and inactive, yielded ego strength (MMPI, ES) and ability to trust others (PA) as significant differentiating variables.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Weisberg, James N. (James Noah)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Health Locus of Control and Available Coping Resources: Do Elderly "Internals" Have an Advantage?

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between health attribution and the availability of organized internal resources and response style as measured by the Four Square of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. Forty-two subjects participated in this study. Six major hypotheses were explored in the study. None of the hypotheses was statistically significant. Several factors may have contributed to these results. The small sample size and the homogeneity of the sample limited the investigator's ability to interpret the results of the study. Statistically, health attribution may not be conceptually related to organized internal resources and response style since physical and emotional distress may require different coping mechanisms.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Houtz, Andrew W. (Andrew William)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Examination Stress on Phagocytic Immune Functioning

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychological stress, specifically examination stress, would decrease immune system functioning. Twenty-five first-year master's and doctoral students who volunteered to participate in the study were psychologically and immunologically assessed during two high- and two low-stress periods. Immunological assessments included a white blood cell differential count and nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT) to measure neutrophil functioning. Psychological instruments administered at each assessment period included Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ), Bender Gestalt Test, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and a Brief Stress Questionnaire. Stepwise discriminant function analysis of data revealed five variables which contributed significantly to change under stress and yielded an average canonical correlation of .79 (p < .002) providing evidence of support for the hypothesis that increased psychological stress will alter immune functioning and heighten psychological responses.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Didriksen, Nancy A. (Nancy Andrews)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Esteem, Sex Roles, and Fundamentalist Religious Belief

Description: Recent sex role research suggested that androgynous subjects demonstrated better adjustment than sex-typed subjects. Fundamentalist religious belief, however, has strongly supported sex role differentiation. This study hypothesized that the effect of appropriate sex role typing or androgyny on self-esteem would depend on religious belief. Although this hypothesis was not supported, a main effect on sex roles for females was obtained; androgynous females had a higher self-esteem level than feminine females. In addition, males in this study had a higher self-esteem level than females.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Zervopoulos, John Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of an Intelligence Scoring System for Human Figure Drawings

Description: This research proposed developing a multivariate intelligence scoring system for human figure drawings. The 115 subjects were drawn from clinical, medical, and noninstitutionalized populations. Initially, 72 of these drawings were analyzed for detail, proportion, perspective, and overall quality. The initial factor analysis revealed two factors corresponding roughly to the WAIS Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Organization factors. DAP items evidencing high colinearity with FSIQ were retained. Two-stage regression of DAP items within subtests onto the WVAIS FSIQ using the data from all 115 subjects yielded the final model (R = 0.85, p < 0.0001). Cronbach's Alpha and mean item commonality were computed as estimates of internal consistency (0.95 to 0.999). A second factor analysis revealed six factors associated with intelligence in the DAP.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Hickox, Sherrie Danene
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interrater Reliability of the Psychological Rating Scale for Diagnostic Classification

Description: The poor reliability of the DSM diagnostic system has been a major issue of concern for many researchers and clinicians. Standardized interview techniques and rating scales have been shown to be effective in increasing interrater reliability in diagnosis and classification. This study hypothesized that the utilization of the Psychological Rating Scale for Diagnostic Classification for assessing the problematic behaviors, symptoms, or other characteristics of an individual would increase interrater reliability, subsequently leading to higher diagnostic agreement between raters and with DSM-III classification. This hypothesis was strongly supported by high overall profile reliability and individual profile reliability. Therefore utilization of this rating scale would enhance the accuracy of diagnosis and add to the educational efforts of technical personnel and those professionals in related disciplines.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Nicolette, Myrna
Partner: UNT Libraries

Dependency in the Clinical Ecology Patient

Description: Dependency is defined as authentic or pathological and is seen as a component important to the treatment of patients with chronic illness. It is hypothesized that a significant portion of ecology patients will meet the criteria for pathological dependence and differ on psychological and physiological parameters from those who do not. This study strongly supports the first two hypotheses but does not find that the two groups differ physiologically. One hundred eleven variables are surveyed. Fifty-two show significant differences between the groups and 29 are significant at greater than the .0001 level. A discriminant analysis was used to determine the least number of orthogonal variables that best discriminate between the groups. These are MMPI Scales 8, 3, subscale Ma2, employment status, and early childhood illness.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Jones, Frances McManemin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Structure: Relationship with the Prediction of Behavior and Life History from Thematic Projections

Description: Slides of TAT cards 1 and 2 were shown to 87 college students asked to write stories about them. Subjects also ranked the importance of 5 attributes in understanding their personalities. Attribute scores from projections and centrality scores from rankings, for achievement and autonomy, were regressed onto college GPA, trail-making, and autonomy by life history. Predictions failed to reach suitably low significance levels. Subscaling the life history questionnaire by factor analysis and subsequently regressing toward subscales resulted in multiple correlation significant at p < .01. Important to the model was the significant (p < .02) improvement in using the attribute by centrality interaction over either variable alone. Results were discussed in terms of a cognitive model for projectives.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Rudolph, Diana Cox
Partner: UNT Libraries

Brain Dysfunction Indication on the Bender-Gestalt Test: a Validation of the Embree/Butler Scoring System

Description: The Embree/Butler scoring system served as criterion for ascertaining brain dysfunction on the protocols of 100 subjects--50 had been diagnosed by health professionals as having brain dysfunction, and 50 had been diagnosed as having no brain dysfunction. In comparing the hospital's diagnoses with those of the Embree/Butler method, the data strongly supported the hypothesis that the Embree/Butler scoring system did effectively discriminate (chi square of 77.99 < .01) between those with organic brain syndrome (or cerebral dysfunction) and those with psychiatric classification. A point-biserial correlation was used to distinguish the relationship between diagnosis and the score. A cutoff score of above 14 produced the least false-negative or false-positive evaluations.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Henderson, J. Louise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effortless Control Processing: A Heuristic Strategy for Reducing Cognitive Bias in Judgments of Control

Description: The present investigation tested the prediction that effortless control processing, the deliberate activation of innate automatic encoding mechanisms, will enable nondepressed persons to accurately judge degree of control. Subjective judgment of control in nondepressed students was examined by a modification of the method developed by Jenkins and Ward (1965). The modification was based on Hasher and Zacks' (1979) version of the method. Several measures were used to assess students' representations of control. Students were asked to judge the degree of control their responses had over outcomes rather than the degree of contingency between responses and outcomes. To facilitate comparison of prior studies on the judgment of contingency with the present study, Jenkins and Ward's (1965) index of the actual degree of control was used. Their index used the magnitude of the difference between the conditional probability of an outcome given the occurrence of one response versus the conditional probability of the outcome given the occurrence of another response as representing degree of control or contingency. In this experiment, students instructed in effortful control processing and effortless control processing were presented with a series of problems in which there was no contingency between their responses and outcomes. The problems differed in the degree of favorable outcome frequency. Students' abilities to detect noncontingency between responses and outcomes under different conditions of outcome frequency was examined.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Evans, Harry Monroe
Partner: UNT Libraries

Phantom Breast Concomitants Among Mastectomy Patients

Description: Thirty-eight mastectomy patients who reported phantom breasts were compared to 23 women who did not experience these sensations for the purpose of developing a predictive psychological profile of the phantom breast patient. The Adjective Check List, WAIS—short form, Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation Scale—Behavior, a social-medical questionnaire, and a Body Image Scale were administered. The Body Image Scale was also given to 25 women who had not had breast cancer. Hemispheric dominance was also assessed by means of conjugate lateral eye movements.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Cofer, Jeanne Brady
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship of MMPI Profile Clusters to Pain Behaviors

Description: The purpose of this study is to replicate and extend earlier work involving cluster analysis of MMPI profiles among persons with chronic low back pain. There are two specific goals. The first goal is to demonstrate the existence in a new sample of four distinct and homogenous profile clusters that have been found in previous research. The second goal is to investigate the relationship of the four profiles to the subjects, self-reported pain history and response to treatment. This study concludes that four distinct MMPI profiles can be identified among chronic low back pain patients. Further, these profiles are the same for males and females, and are the same profiles found in previous research. These profiles are significantly related to subjects' history of behaviors in dealing with pain. However, no relationship to treatment response was found. It was inferred that the MMPI is of value in understanding the nature of patients' pain coping behaviors, but that further research is needed before any statements can be made regarding the utility of the MMPI in understanding their response to treatment.
Date: December 1979
Creator: McGill, Jerry C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relaxation Imagery to Facilitate Endogenous Control of Lymphocytic Function in Humans

Description: Whether an individual's state of mind can influence the body's immune system has been studied for several decades. Historical notions of a homeostatic, self-contained, and self-monitored system have been discarded. Studies have explored conditioning effects and cognitive behavioral methods to affect the immune response. This study is based on the assumption that relaxation imagery can be used as an endogenous means to produce specific physiological change in the immune function. Subjects were instructed to make a directional change in the absolute number of peripheral lymphocytes using relaxation imagery.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Myers, Carol Rae
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Nondirective and Paradoxical Therapist Communication on Core Therapeutic Conditions and Perceived Client Influence

Description: The purpose of this study was first to determine whether or not paradoxical communication could be designed to contain therapeutic levels of the core therapeutic conditions, and, second, to determine how paradoxical counselor communication compared to nondirective communication on the social influence dimensions of attractiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness. For the first phase, four judges rated audiotapes on the level of the core therapeutic conditions on one of four counseling conditions (paradox high or low on core conditions, and nondirective high or low on core conditions). For the second phase, 133 undergraduate college students were asked to listen to the four counseling conditions on audiotapes and to rate the counselor on the social influence dimensions
Date: August 1982
Creator: Beard, Myron Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychiatric Diagnosis: Rater Reliability and Prediction Using Psychological Rating Scale for Diagnostic Classification

Description: This study was designed to assess the reliability of the "Psychological Rating Scale for Diagnostic classification as an instrument for determining diagnoses consistent with DSM-III criteria and nomenclature. Pairs of raters jointly interviewed a total of 50 hospital patients and then independently completed the 70-item rating scale to arrive at Axis I and Axis II diagnoses which were subsequently correlated with diagnoses obtained by standard psychometric methods, interrater agreement was 88 per cent for Axis I and 62 per cent for Axis II, with correlations of .94 and .79 respectively.
Date: August 1982
Creator: McDowell, DeLena Jean
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Alternative Stress Response Training on Bulimic Behaviors

Description: The incidence of bulimia has been increasingly documented in recent years. Treatments have focused on one behavior in the Binge-Purge chain or have combined several treatment components. This study was designed to assess the effect of teaching bulimics alternative responses for dealing with stressful events.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Armstrong, Betty K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ordination and Cognitive Complexity as Related to Endogenous and Exogenous Depression

Description: Personal construct psychology, as formulated by George Kelly (1955), contributed substantial knowledge to the study of psychopathology. The small amount of research in the area of depression has focused generally on the content of self-constructs and the cognitive complexity characteristic. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct system of the depressed patient specifically by investigating the endogenicity, exogenicity, and severity of depressive symptoms in relationship to construct content as applied to others, cognitive complexity, and ordination.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Angelillo, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries

Treatment of Acne Vulgaris by Biofeedback-Assisted Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Guided Cognitive Imagery

Description: The primary purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that acne vulgaris can be reduced by psychological treatment. A cognitive-behavioral adjunctive intervention involving biofeedback-assisted relaxation and cognitive imagery procedures for the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated in this study with 30 patients, already receiving traditional dermatological treatment, as participants. A three-group design was used which consisted of a treatment (relaxation-imagery), a rational behavior group therapy attention-comparison, and a medical intervention control (medication and lesion extraction) group.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Brown, Barry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Total Stress Load Inventory: A Validation Study

Description: The purpose of this study was to validate a stress inventory which would differentiate between a normative group and a patient population suffering from environmental illness. The hypotheses of this study were: (1) the Total Stress Load Inventory would be predictive in discriminating between clinical ecology patients and a normative group; (2) each section or subscale of the Total Stress Load Inventory would be predictive of psychological, cognitive, nutritional, and/or medical factors.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Sherck-O'Connor, Robin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validation of the Spanish Dallas Pain Questionnaire

Description: The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ). Not only does the DPQ offer the potential of statistical and clinical diagnostic value but also is easily interpretable across cultural lines. No such instrument has presently been validated for the Mexican-American population. A total of 81 Spanish speaking subjects participated in this study. Of these subjects, 56 were classified as chronic pain patients by nature of their medical diagnosis and duration of pain. The 25 normal subjects were family members of the chronic pain patients and members of the Northern New Mexico Hispanic community chosen at random. Hypothesis one predicted that reliability would be obtained on Spanish speaking populations based on test-retest with correlation coefficients of the items. The second hypothesis predicted that the Spanish DPQ would have content validity or consistent internal structure on those items that measure the trait or behavior of interest based upon factor analysis approaches and internal consistency measures. Hypothesis three predicted that the Spanish version of the DPQ would significantly correlate with the English version of the DPQ on all four factors. All four hypotheses were supported. The Spanish DPQ showed reliability over time based on test-retest. The statistics revealed an internally reliable test, alpha coefficient analysis and factor analysis. The validity was supported by significant correlations with the English DPQ and discrimination between chronic and nonchronic pain patients. While all four hypotheses were upheld, interpretation of the present findings should be moderated by recognition of the limitations of the studies. Future studies should test larger samples to improve confidence in the psychometric properties of the instrument. Still notable limitations of the questionnaire are that the Spanish DPQ is a form that is more accurately viewed as a global measure.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Keeping, Barbara
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive Coping Strategies with Chronic Back Pain Patients

Description: Low back pain has long been estimated to be the most prevalent and debilitating source of chronic pain. The present study first reviews the literature addressing the various theories of pain, the physiological and psychological variables important in pain research, and the psychotherapeutic approaches that have been used to date to reduce pain. Thirty-seven hospitalized chronic back pain patients were administered the cold-pressor test and a medical pain stimulus procedure which was medically relevant to their back pathology. A card-sort method was utilized in order to assess the coping strategies employed by the patients during these two pain stimulus tasks. These procedures were repeated following treatment. Coping strategies used by patients during the two pain tasks were compared. Results demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the manner in which patients coped with the two types of pain. Cold-pressor measures of pain threshold and tolerance were not significantly different between pretreatment and post-treatment. These measures were also not positively correlated with treatment outcome. A multiple regression approach demonstrated that particular coping strategies were significantly predictive of treatment outcome. The medical pain stimulus procedure was found to provide more significant pedictor variables than the cold-pressor test. At pre-treatment assessment, patients who relied on dramatized coping strategies were less likely to be successful in treatment. Breathing activity and pain acknowledgement were positive coping techniques highly predictive of successful outcome in this study. The use of computers for assessment and other recommendations for future research were discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hinnant, Donald Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Childbirth Preparatory Techniques

Description: Stress reduction techniques have been used to assist people in coping with stressful medical procedures and events. Labor and delivery training classes have utilized techniques to assist women with the childbirth process. The classes generally included basic education of labor and delivery, respiration behavior, relaxation of muscles, and participation of a coach. Reducing the amount of pain experienced in labor and delivery has been suggested for facilitating the process and decreasing the amount of medication received. The painful experience changed from an uncontrollable situation into a positive one, allowing women to feel more resourceful, less anxious, and less threatened.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Lindberg, Cheryl Senf
Partner: UNT Libraries