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The Recovery of Cognitive Functions by Males Diagnosed as Chronically Alcohol Dependent During Increased Periods of Abstinence

Description: The present study addresses questions regarding the cognitive functioning of recently detoxified male alcoholics during increasing time periods of abstinence. Such questions relate to whether alcoholic males between the ages of 30 and 55 demonstrate a recovery to normal cognitive functioning within a six week abstinence period.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Beaty, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Programs and Metaprograms for the Control of Diabetic Symptomatology: A Comparative Treatment Study

Description: Stress has long been reported to play a prominent role in the onset and course of diabetes mellitus. The present study first reviews the literature addressing the impact of stress on this disease, the physiological mechanisms and pathways the stress response might utilize, and psychotherapeutic tacts taken to date to ameliorate this response. A stress management package was then assembled, comprised of relaxation training, hypnosis, stress inoculation training, and imagery induction.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Stevens, Larry Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

Indices of Criminal Thinking: Criminals v. Noncriminals, Males v. Females, and Anglos v. Chicanas/Chicanos

Description: Assessment research of forensic populations has largely dealt with finding differences within criminal types. Fourteen of the studies reviewed found no significant differences between types of criminals on test performance. Two of these fourteen found no differences between criminals and noncriminals . The Criminal Thinking Model developed by Yochelson and Samenow proposed a continuum of criminality with every person falling somewhere between the two poles of responsibility and irresponsibility. Perhaps one reason previous research failed to discriminate differences was because they had failed to first establish if criminals differed from noncriminals.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Diaz, Petra Alvarez
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Irritable Bowel Syndrome a Dietary and Multi-Element Psychological Approach to Its Treatment

Description: The present study sought to determine whether a dietary and multi-element psychological treatment (DMPT) approach in combination with standard medical treatment would offer a more efficacious therapeutic package to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients than would standard medical treatment (SMT) employed alone. The DMPT group (N = 19) received a stress management training package for a 2 week period consisting of relaxation training, imagery, and bowel sound biofeedback training via a stethoscope, in addition to instructions to increase their daily consumption of dietary fiber. They also were to continue the implementation of whatever standard medical treatment they were currently receiving, be it a bulking agent, or anti-anxiety, anti-cholinergic, or anti-depressant medications, etc. The SMT group (N = 19) simply received whatever conventional medical treatment they had been prescribed.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Gray, Steven Garland
Partner: UNT Libraries

Neuropsychological Dysfunction Associated with Dental Office Environment

Description: Five chemicals indigenous to the dental office environment that may cause toxic effects are formaldehyde, phenol, acrylic, mercury, and nitrous oxide. These chemicals create abnormal stress on physiological and psychological systems of the body resulting in symptomatology and pathology when the body defenses can no longer maintain homeostasis by adaptation. This study demonstrated serious behavioral consequences of chemical and heavy metal exposure. This study provided evidence that a significant percentage of dental office personnel who are exposed to the dental office chemicals show psycho neurological dysfunction. It was concluded that these individuals suffer adverse reactions to the chemicals in their work environment. The problem areas included perceptual motor difficulty in cognitive functioning, concern with bodily functions, despondency, and interpersonal problems.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Murry, Joe Mitchell
Partner: UNT Libraries

Back Pain Patients' Compliance with Vocational Rehabilitation: Use of the MMPI and HAT to Predict Outcome

Description: The use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Health Attribution Test (HAT) for predicting referral compliance to a state vocational rehabilitation program was evaluated. Subjects included 53 patients (26 males, 27 females) who were chosen at random three to 18 months following discharge from an inpatient chronic and spinal pain center. Subjects were administered the MMPI and HAT upon hospital admission and seven outcome measures of referral compliance were obtained. A discriminant analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that certain items would best discriminate compliance. Most discriminative of compliance was the MMPI validity scale K (Wilks Lambda = .751, p ≤ .033). A regrouping of data into two groups, active and inactive, yielded ego strength (MMPI, ES) and ability to trust others (PA) as significant differentiating variables.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Weisberg, James N. (James Noah)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Health Locus of Control and Available Coping Resources: Do Elderly "Internals" Have an Advantage?

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between health attribution and the availability of organized internal resources and response style as measured by the Four Square of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. Forty-two subjects participated in this study. Six major hypotheses were explored in the study. None of the hypotheses was statistically significant. Several factors may have contributed to these results. The small sample size and the homogeneity of the sample limited the investigator's ability to interpret the results of the study. Statistically, health attribution may not be conceptually related to organized internal resources and response style since physical and emotional distress may require different coping mechanisms.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Houtz, Andrew W. (Andrew William)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Examination Stress on Phagocytic Immune Functioning

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychological stress, specifically examination stress, would decrease immune system functioning. Twenty-five first-year master's and doctoral students who volunteered to participate in the study were psychologically and immunologically assessed during two high- and two low-stress periods. Immunological assessments included a white blood cell differential count and nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT) to measure neutrophil functioning. Psychological instruments administered at each assessment period included Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ), Bender Gestalt Test, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and a Brief Stress Questionnaire. Stepwise discriminant function analysis of data revealed five variables which contributed significantly to change under stress and yielded an average canonical correlation of .79 (p < .002) providing evidence of support for the hypothesis that increased psychological stress will alter immune functioning and heighten psychological responses.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Didriksen, Nancy A. (Nancy Andrews)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Esteem, Sex Roles, and Fundamentalist Religious Belief

Description: Recent sex role research suggested that androgynous subjects demonstrated better adjustment than sex-typed subjects. Fundamentalist religious belief, however, has strongly supported sex role differentiation. This study hypothesized that the effect of appropriate sex role typing or androgyny on self-esteem would depend on religious belief. Although this hypothesis was not supported, a main effect on sex roles for females was obtained; androgynous females had a higher self-esteem level than feminine females. In addition, males in this study had a higher self-esteem level than females.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Zervopoulos, John Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of an Intelligence Scoring System for Human Figure Drawings

Description: This research proposed developing a multivariate intelligence scoring system for human figure drawings. The 115 subjects were drawn from clinical, medical, and noninstitutionalized populations. Initially, 72 of these drawings were analyzed for detail, proportion, perspective, and overall quality. The initial factor analysis revealed two factors corresponding roughly to the WAIS Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Organization factors. DAP items evidencing high colinearity with FSIQ were retained. Two-stage regression of DAP items within subtests onto the WVAIS FSIQ using the data from all 115 subjects yielded the final model (R = 0.85, p < 0.0001). Cronbach's Alpha and mean item commonality were computed as estimates of internal consistency (0.95 to 0.999). A second factor analysis revealed six factors associated with intelligence in the DAP.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Hickox, Sherrie Danene
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interrater Reliability of the Psychological Rating Scale for Diagnostic Classification

Description: The poor reliability of the DSM diagnostic system has been a major issue of concern for many researchers and clinicians. Standardized interview techniques and rating scales have been shown to be effective in increasing interrater reliability in diagnosis and classification. This study hypothesized that the utilization of the Psychological Rating Scale for Diagnostic Classification for assessing the problematic behaviors, symptoms, or other characteristics of an individual would increase interrater reliability, subsequently leading to higher diagnostic agreement between raters and with DSM-III classification. This hypothesis was strongly supported by high overall profile reliability and individual profile reliability. Therefore utilization of this rating scale would enhance the accuracy of diagnosis and add to the educational efforts of technical personnel and those professionals in related disciplines.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Nicolette, Myrna
Partner: UNT Libraries

Dependency in the Clinical Ecology Patient

Description: Dependency is defined as authentic or pathological and is seen as a component important to the treatment of patients with chronic illness. It is hypothesized that a significant portion of ecology patients will meet the criteria for pathological dependence and differ on psychological and physiological parameters from those who do not. This study strongly supports the first two hypotheses but does not find that the two groups differ physiologically. One hundred eleven variables are surveyed. Fifty-two show significant differences between the groups and 29 are significant at greater than the .0001 level. A discriminant analysis was used to determine the least number of orthogonal variables that best discriminate between the groups. These are MMPI Scales 8, 3, subscale Ma2, employment status, and early childhood illness.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Jones, Frances McManemin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Structure: Relationship with the Prediction of Behavior and Life History from Thematic Projections

Description: Slides of TAT cards 1 and 2 were shown to 87 college students asked to write stories about them. Subjects also ranked the importance of 5 attributes in understanding their personalities. Attribute scores from projections and centrality scores from rankings, for achievement and autonomy, were regressed onto college GPA, trail-making, and autonomy by life history. Predictions failed to reach suitably low significance levels. Subscaling the life history questionnaire by factor analysis and subsequently regressing toward subscales resulted in multiple correlation significant at p < .01. Important to the model was the significant (p < .02) improvement in using the attribute by centrality interaction over either variable alone. Results were discussed in terms of a cognitive model for projectives.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Rudolph, Diana Cox
Partner: UNT Libraries

Brain Dysfunction Indication on the Bender-Gestalt Test: a Validation of the Embree/Butler Scoring System

Description: The Embree/Butler scoring system served as criterion for ascertaining brain dysfunction on the protocols of 100 subjects--50 had been diagnosed by health professionals as having brain dysfunction, and 50 had been diagnosed as having no brain dysfunction. In comparing the hospital's diagnoses with those of the Embree/Butler method, the data strongly supported the hypothesis that the Embree/Butler scoring system did effectively discriminate (chi square of 77.99 < .01) between those with organic brain syndrome (or cerebral dysfunction) and those with psychiatric classification. A point-biserial correlation was used to distinguish the relationship between diagnosis and the score. A cutoff score of above 14 produced the least false-negative or false-positive evaluations.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Henderson, J. Louise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Total Stress Load Inventory: A Validation Study

Description: The purpose of this study was to validate a stress inventory which would differentiate between a normative group and a patient population suffering from environmental illness. The hypotheses of this study were: (1) the Total Stress Load Inventory would be predictive in discriminating between clinical ecology patients and a normative group; (2) each section or subscale of the Total Stress Load Inventory would be predictive of psychological, cognitive, nutritional, and/or medical factors.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Sherck-O'Connor, Robin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validation of the Spanish Dallas Pain Questionnaire

Description: The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ). Not only does the DPQ offer the potential of statistical and clinical diagnostic value but also is easily interpretable across cultural lines. No such instrument has presently been validated for the Mexican-American population. A total of 81 Spanish speaking subjects participated in this study. Of these subjects, 56 were classified as chronic pain patients by nature of their medical diagnosis and duration of pain. The 25 normal subjects were family members of the chronic pain patients and members of the Northern New Mexico Hispanic community chosen at random. Hypothesis one predicted that reliability would be obtained on Spanish speaking populations based on test-retest with correlation coefficients of the items. The second hypothesis predicted that the Spanish DPQ would have content validity or consistent internal structure on those items that measure the trait or behavior of interest based upon factor analysis approaches and internal consistency measures. Hypothesis three predicted that the Spanish version of the DPQ would significantly correlate with the English version of the DPQ on all four factors. All four hypotheses were supported. The Spanish DPQ showed reliability over time based on test-retest. The statistics revealed an internally reliable test, alpha coefficient analysis and factor analysis. The validity was supported by significant correlations with the English DPQ and discrimination between chronic and nonchronic pain patients. While all four hypotheses were upheld, interpretation of the present findings should be moderated by recognition of the limitations of the studies. Future studies should test larger samples to improve confidence in the psychometric properties of the instrument. Still notable limitations of the questionnaire are that the Spanish DPQ is a form that is more accurately viewed as a global measure.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Keeping, Barbara
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive Coping Strategies with Chronic Back Pain Patients

Description: Low back pain has long been estimated to be the most prevalent and debilitating source of chronic pain. The present study first reviews the literature addressing the various theories of pain, the physiological and psychological variables important in pain research, and the psychotherapeutic approaches that have been used to date to reduce pain. Thirty-seven hospitalized chronic back pain patients were administered the cold-pressor test and a medical pain stimulus procedure which was medically relevant to their back pathology. A card-sort method was utilized in order to assess the coping strategies employed by the patients during these two pain stimulus tasks. These procedures were repeated following treatment. Coping strategies used by patients during the two pain tasks were compared. Results demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the manner in which patients coped with the two types of pain. Cold-pressor measures of pain threshold and tolerance were not significantly different between pretreatment and post-treatment. These measures were also not positively correlated with treatment outcome. A multiple regression approach demonstrated that particular coping strategies were significantly predictive of treatment outcome. The medical pain stimulus procedure was found to provide more significant pedictor variables than the cold-pressor test. At pre-treatment assessment, patients who relied on dramatized coping strategies were less likely to be successful in treatment. Breathing activity and pain acknowledgement were positive coping techniques highly predictive of successful outcome in this study. The use of computers for assessment and other recommendations for future research were discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hinnant, Donald Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Childbirth Preparatory Techniques

Description: Stress reduction techniques have been used to assist people in coping with stressful medical procedures and events. Labor and delivery training classes have utilized techniques to assist women with the childbirth process. The classes generally included basic education of labor and delivery, respiration behavior, relaxation of muscles, and participation of a coach. Reducing the amount of pain experienced in labor and delivery has been suggested for facilitating the process and decreasing the amount of medication received. The painful experience changed from an uncontrollable situation into a positive one, allowing women to feel more resourceful, less anxious, and less threatened.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Lindberg, Cheryl Senf
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Perception of Health: A Proposed Explanatory Model and a Test of its Clinical Significance

Description: A multivariate model of health self-perceptions was postulated based upon a comprehensive set of health related variables suggested by previous bivariate research. Components of the model included measures of health attitudes, health practices, health locus of control, a measure of stress/ coping, and a physical health measure. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 8 subjects based upon the external measure of physical health which included categories ranging from disability-severe to symptom free-high energy level. All subjects completed a health questionnaire comprised of measures of the model components, two measures of health self-perceptions, and the Health Resource Task, an author designed instrument measuring a subject's ability to generate flexible health alternatives/resources. Bivariate correlational analysis revealed that the physical health, stress/coping, health practices, and locus of control measures and certain of the health attitude subscales were significantly correlated to general health self-ratings. A multivariate model including these variables accounted for almost 50 percent of the variance in one of the general health self-ratings measures and approximately 38 percent of the variance in the Health Resource Task. Suggestions for refining the proposed model were made.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Scherzer, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mirthful Laughter and Directed Relaxation: a Comparison of Physiological Response

Description: The differences among certain physiological changes occurring in response to mirthful laughter, directed relaxation, and verbal speech were investigated. These changes included amount of muscle tension, as measured with surface electromyography, in the forehead and in the upper body as recorded from the forearms bilaterally, peripheral surface skin temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate. The study sought to determine whether the net effect of laughter, as measured on these five variables after a three-minute refractory period, is a more relaxed state than existed before the laughter. Determination of the similarity between the changes following laughter and the changes following directed relaxation was made in comparison with the changes following verbal speech. Factors of prior anxiety, pre- and post-self-esteem levels, humor level, and laughter intensity were examined. Historical and theoretical perspectives were reviewed, as well as the known information on physiological responses to laughter.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Woods, Barbara Jane Simmons
Partner: UNT Libraries

Health Attribution, Client Motivation, and Problem Imagery in the Rehabilitation Applicant: A Study of Rehabilitation Outcome

Description: One hundred persons applying for services with the Texas Rehabilitation Commission with reported disabilities of alcohol/substance abuse or back injury/pain were selected for study. Subjects were assigned to two groups (alcohol or back) according to their reported disability. They were tested within one week of application and after 60 days were checked to see what rehabilitation status they were in to determine success or failure. Alcohol clients were administered the Health Attribution Test (HAT), 16PF, and an Alcohol Imagery questionnaire developed for this study. Back clients were administered the HAT, 16PF, and Pain Drawings. Statistical procedures including Pearson correlation, stepwise discriminant analysis, and discriminant analysis were performed. The HAT Internal Factor showed a significant relationship to rehabilitation success or failure and the 16PF motivation indices approached significance. The discriminant analysis demonstrated that success or failure could be predicted at a significant level using these measures. Issues of practicality in using these instruments (particularly imagery measures) in a rehabilitation counseling practice were noted.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Drake, Roy Vernon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Personality and Behavioral Correlates of Autonomic Imbalance

Description: Individual differences in autonomic nervous system responsiveness have been linked to a variety of physical disorders and personality and behavioral tendencies. The present study attempted to correlate specific personality characteristics hypothesized to be associated with either sympathetic or parasympathetic dominance based on the work of M. A. Wenger. The Clinical Analysis Questionnaire Personality Inventory, a physical disorders questionnaire, a self-report stress measure, and seven psychophysiologic tests were administered to 60 undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class at North Texas State University. The results provided limited support for the hypotheses. A skewed population with 50 of the 60 subjects achieving scores indicative of sympathetic dominance occurred. Statistical comparison (t-tests) of the CAQ personality traits, and clinical factor scores of these 50 subjects labeled sympathetic dominant with CAQ norms for college students revealed means on five personality traits and three clinical factors were significantly different for the sympathetic dominant group at the .05 or greater level of significance. These findings were interpreted as limited support for Wenger's work and for the positions of Acker and Kagan that individuals with more reactive sympathetic nervous systems tend to have difficulty binding anxiety, poor emotional controls and outlets, ambivalence about interpersonal relationships, and a need for group acceptance.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Sawyer, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Temperature Biofeedback and Visual Imagery in the Treatment of Migraine Headaches

Description: After an initial four week baseline period, during which headache activity and medication consumption were monitored, 28 migraineurs were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (a) the biofeedback temperature warming group, (b) the visual imagery group, (c) the combined treatment group, or (d) the comparison group. All four groups continued to monitor their headache activity and medication consumption during the eight week treatment period and the eight week follow-up period. A two way analysis of variance computed on groups over time indicated a significant decrease in headache activity and medication consumption. During the follow-up period (a) the combined treatment group had significantly fewer headaches than the biofeedback group or the comparison group and (b) the visual imagery group and the combined treatment group had significantly fewer headache hours than the biofeedback group or the comparison group. These results do not appear to be attributable to differences between groups on the amount of time spent in home practice or subjective ratings of relaxation. There was no consistent relationship between increases in finger temperature and headache activity improvement. Decreases in powerful other scores, as measured by the Health Attribution Test, and increases in subjective ratings of internal control were consistent with a reduction in headache activity and medication consumption.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Clark, Susan Matthews
Partner: UNT Libraries