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Voice Onset Time Characteristics of Selected Phonemes in Young and Old Male Speakers

Description: The purpose of the investigation was to compare mean voice onset time in young and old male subjects, as well as to examine variability of VOT productions with age for prevocalic bilabial, alveolar, and velar voiced and voiceless stop consonants. Forty-five Caucasion.males were divided equally into three.age groups. Ten tokens of six stimulus words were recorded and wide band spectrograms were made. Results of an analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in VOT with age when averages of the phonemes were used for analysis; however, a significant interaction between age and voiced phonemes was found when individual trials of phoneme productions were used for analysis.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Thomas, Kathy Wright
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Amount, Type and Self-Perception of Vocal Use in University Voice Students

Description: This investigation explored voice use and perception of use in singers as compared with non-singers at the university. Students recorded the amount and type of their voice use for forty-eight hours. They made judgments about their use and whether a voice disturbance was present. Each student was taped, and tapes were judged for disturbances. It was hypothesized that singers would have greater voice use and awareness than non-singers and experienced singers would have greater voice use and awareness than less experienced singers. Singers used their voices more than non-singers, but there were no differences in awareness. No differences between singer groups were noted. There was a high incidence of voice disturbances in all groups. Suggestions for future research were made.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Dovalina, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparison of Selected Pure-Tone and Speech Tests in Predicting Hearing Handicap

Description: This study assessed the effective use of pure-tone testing versus speech testing as used to predict the degree of hearing handicap experienced by an individual. Twenty-one subjects over the age of 65 were tested. Each subject was administered the following test battery: spondee threshold; a pure-tone evaluation, including air and bone conduction; Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN) test; Synthetic Sentence Identification (SSI) test; NU-6 for speech discrimination; establishment of most comfortable listening level (MCL) and loudness discomfort listening level (LDL); immittance testing including tympanograms, acoustic reflex thresholds, and reflex decay.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Dye, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Measures of Signal-To-Noise Ratio, Jitter, Shimmer, and Speaking Fundamental Frequency in Smoking and Nonsmoking Females

Description: Fifteen nonsmoking and fifteen smoking females 19 to 36 years of age were evaluated on measures of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), jitter, shimmer, and speaking fundamental frequency (F0). The results indicated that: 1) there is a significant difference between female smokers and nonsmokers on measures of SNR, mean, and maximum F0 and, 2) there is no significant difference between female smokers and nonsmokers on measures of jitter, shimmer and minimum F0 . The SNR was found to be a powerful tool which is capable of distinguishing subtle vocal characteristics between the subject groups. It would appear that cigarette smoking may have an impact on the voice before distinct laryngeal pathologies are present.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Coy, Kelly (Kelly Bishop)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Central Auditory Processing in Severely Language Delayed Children: Six Case Study Presentations

Description: Responses of six severely language delayed (SLD) children were obtained on three measures of central auditory processing and one measure of language proficiency. The results of these measures were compared to the results obtained from six normal-hearing children, matched in age and Performance IQ on the WISC-R. The 12 children were tested with the Pitch Pattern Sequence Test (PPST), the Dichotic Digit Tests (DDT), and the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility Test (PSI). Differences in the central auditory abilities as well as the history of each child were presented in .a case study format. The results of the history information demonstrated no unusual problems among these 12 subjects. Ten out of 12 subjects demonstrated abnormal results on at least one measure of the central auditory battery.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Bracken-Ward, Lana J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparative Study of the Bel Canto Teaching Styles and their Effects on Vocal Agility

Description: This thesis examines the historical significance of the vocal methods employed from the middle of the seventeenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth century in what became known as the bel canto era. It provides further exploration into the pedagogical procedures of the bel canto technique through a study of the premier instructors and singers from this period. The resurgence of interest in this tradition is addressed along with its impact on current vocal pedagogy. The vital role that vocal agility played as one of its most distinguishing traits is the primary factor under investigation. A discussion of the bel canto teaching styles in relation to their approach to agility is a major point of inquiry. By maintaining a link between present artists and pedagogues and the old Italian school, it helps the singer understand the historical implications of vocal agility as an integral part of healthy vocal development.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Harper, Portia
Partner: UNT Libraries

Discrimination of Time-Compressed Speech Stimuli: a Comparison Study Using a Closed-Set Task With Older Adults

Description: Use of time-compressed speech stimuli has been found to be clinically effective in differential diagnosis of lesions of the temporal lobe. However, notably absent from the literature is information concerning performance of adults on time-compressed closed-set speech discrimination tasks. The goal of this study mas to compare performance of 12 males and 12 females between age 50 and age 70 on a time-compressed closed-set speech discrimination test against the performance of 12 males and 12 females between age 10 and age 28 on the same task. The Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification test (WPI) was presented in both non-compressed and time-compressed conditions to all subjects. Previous research suggests that a difference in performance between age groups and between males and females in the older age group should be expected. Average results indicated negligible differences between age or gender groups under any of the conditions tested. Additionally, the test yielded perfect or near perfect scores for all subjects in the non-compressed condition. Lack of differentiation of results suggests that the Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification CUIPI) may be insensitive to the discrimination disorders expected in older adults, that the subjects included in the study were atypical of older adults in general and therefore such discrimination disorders did not exist in the sample, or that the subjects in the study uiere able to apply some type of compensatory strategies which resulted in the unexpected performance.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Patterson, Karen Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Selected Vocal Exercises and Their Relationship to Specific Laryngeal Conditions: a Description of Seven Case Studies

Description: Good vocal health is a vital concern for those people who use the voice in a professional capacity, such as teachers, singers, actors, clergymen, and lawyers. Research in the area of vocal health reveals the need to determine if specific exercises are beneficial to the voice and if exercises used to train the singing voice might be beneficial to alleviate pathological and/or dysfunctional voice disorders. The purpose of this study was to describe the response of a variety of pathological voices to a selected set of singing exercises. Subjects were selected from the private practice of cooperating physicians who felt that the vocal instruction and exercise program might be helpful to the teachers, students, professional "pop" singers, and housewife-singers who were diagnosed to have muscle tension dysphonia, nodules, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, or iatrogenic dysphonia. Instrumentation for assessing conditions before, during, and after exercise included a brief case history, subject interviews, attending physicians' medical charts, flexible fiberoptic video nasolaryngoscopy, video cassette recorder and video tape segments, three physician/observers, and a specific diagnostic procedure which provided a method of assessing organic, functional, and perceptual variables. For the exercise program the researcher chose seven vocalises from the routine designed by Allan R. Lindquest, whose techniques combined those of the Italian school with those of Swedish studios which produced such singers as Flagstad and Bjoerling. The seven vocalises included a warm up "massage" and exercises for separation and blending of the registers, vowel clarity and modification, tone focus, vocal attack, and flexibility. Since all the subjects showed improvement after exercise in the vocal conditions observed in this study, these vocalises and technique may be helpful to alleviate pathological conditions and/or dysfunctional behavior in other subjects. The researcher further suggests that the voice profession investigate the efficiency of other techniques, exercises, and musical vocalises ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Mathis, Barbara
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessment of Functional Communication Skills in Institutionalized and Non-Institutionalized Elderly Subjects Using the Spontaneous Speech and Auditory Comprehension Subtests of the Western Aphasia Battery

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference in functional communication skills between elderly persons in nursing homes and those living independently in the community. Thirty non-institutionalized elderly subjects were given the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) screening tool. These scores were compared to WAB screening scores obtained from 20 institutionalized subjects. The difference between these scores was statistically significant. The institutionalized subjects' scores were also correlated with a Facilitators Evaluation of Communication Skills (FECS) inventory. Results showed a moderate correlation between the institutionalized subjects' WAB screening score and their FECS rating. The benefits of a screening tool for elderly populations are discussed.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Cutshaw, Laura M. (Laura Marie)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Vocal Self-identification, Singing Style, and Singing Range in Relationship to a Measure of Cultural Mistrust in African-American Adolescent Females

Description: The purpose was to determine the relationship between high or low cultural mistrust and vocal characteristics in African-American adolescent females. The vocal characteristics were vocal self-identification, singing style, and singing range.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Johnson, Beverly Yvonne
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of the Laryngeal Activity of Trumpet Players During the Performance of Selected Exercises

Description: The study's purpose was to describe selected laryngeal activity of brass-wind players during the performance of selected musical exercises. Research problems included the observation and description of three internal areas of activity of ten trumpeters as they performed each exercise. Specific areas of observation were 1) movement of the epiglottis during the performance of each exercise, 2) movement of the vocal folds/arytenoid cartilage which includes changes in the size of the glottis during the performance of each prescribed exercise, and 3) movement of the thyroid cartilage during the performance of each prescribed exercise. Musical exercises performed by each of the subjects included a sound volume change, use of vibrato, single-tonguing, step-wise descending and ascending slurs, descending and ascending lip slurs, register change, and a descending chromatic scale. In addition, each subject performed an excerpt from the second movement of the Haydn Trumpet Concerto. Data were collected through direct observation of subject performances and then described using three different means. Data analyses revealed a prominent amount of highly individual, non-patterned laryngeal activity which played an integral role in the performance of each subject. Individuals including Law (1960), Cramer (1955), Jacobs (Stewart, 1987), and Noble (1964) have advocated an unrestricted airway during brass performance. Contrary to this advice, findings in the present study indicate that a great deal of varying, involuntary restriction is present in the laryngeal area during performance. Further, such activity appears necessary to brass performance. Others, including Farkas (1962), Schuller (1962), and Wick (1971) , have endorsed conscious use of the glottis during brass performance. While findings in the present study imply that there is a presence of voluntary or reflexive glottal activity during brass performance, evidence does not support any theory which suggests conscious use of the laryngeal mechanism.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Bailey, Robert E. (Robert Elwood), 1946-
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of Selected Female Singing- and Speaking-Voice Characteristics Through Comparison of a Group of Pre-Menarcheal Girls to a Group of Post-Menarcheal Girls

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the speaking fundamental frequency, physiological vocal range, singing voice quality, and self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice between two groups of girls ages 11 through 15 years, who were pre-menarcheal by 6 months and post-menarcheal by 10 months or more. Subjects were volunteers who attended a North Texas public school system. Each subject was examined by an otolaryngologist. Age, height, weight, a hearing screening, and information on music classes and/or private music lessons were obtained. The speaking fundamental frequency measure was obtained by having each subject speak for 30 seconds on a subject of choice and read a passage of approximately 100 syllables. The vocal range measure was obtained by having each subject begin at an arbitrary pitch and sing mah and moo up the scale as high as possible and mah and moo down the scale as low as possible. These four measures were repeated with the researcher giving visual gestures. For singing-voice quality, each subject sang "America" in the key of her choice and again in the key of F major. Each subjects singing voice was rated according to breathiness. Data regarding self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice were obtained through a rating assessment of 10 questions and a conversation with each subject. There were no significant differences between the means of the pre-meanarcheal and post-menarcheal girls on speaking fundamental frequency, physiological vocal range, and singing-voice quality. But, more of the post-menarcheal girls exhibited lower speaking pitches, lower singing ranges, and increased breathiness in their singing voices than did the pre-menarcheal girls. Two questions of the perceptions rating assessment were significant, with the post-menarcheal girls citing higher incidences of vocal inconsistencies than the pre-menarcheal girls. The findings of the qualitative data analysis indicated that more post-menarcheal girls had ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Williams, Bonnie Blu
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of the Linguistic Competence of Learning Disabled and Emotionally Disturbed Pupils

Description: The problem of this investigation was to compare the linguistic competence of learning disabled and emotionally disturbed pupils by means of two performance tasks. Sixty subjects, seven-and-eight-year old monolingual public and private school pupils, were assigned to three groups of twenty subjects each, learning disabled, emotionally disturbed and normally achieving children. The majority of those in the learning disabled and the normally achieving groups were from middle-class families, with the majority of fathers owners of small businesses. A majority (17) of the emotionally disturbed group attended the public schools.
Date: June 1981
Creator: Hook, Pauline Pepper
Partner: UNT Libraries