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Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

Description: This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Larson, D.E. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

Description: This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Larson, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

Description: Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Larson, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials and design experience in a slurry-fed electric glass melter

Description: The design of a slurry-fed electric gas melter and an examination of the performance and condition of the construction materials were completed. The joule-heated, ceramic-lined melter was constructed to test the applicability of materials and processes for high-level waste vitrification. The developmental Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) was operated for three years with simulated high-level waste and was subjected to conditions more severe than those expected for a nuclear waste vitrification plant.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Barnes, S.M. & Larson, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved real gas routines for Sandia's NASA Ames flow field program

Description: The real gas subroutines in Sandia's version of the NASA Ames flow field code have been extensively revised. Using these modifications the required computer run time for a difficult high Mach number case has been reduced from 1330 seconds to 151 seconds. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Eaton, R. R. & Larson, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-level waste vitrification by spray calcination/in-can melting

Description: Federal regulations require that high-level liquid waste (HLLW) be converted to a solid for custody in a Federal repository. The Spray Solidification/In-Can Melting process has been developed and is being demonstrated for commercial application. The bases used are similar to those of the NFS plant and to anticipated regulations for waste canister receipt at a Federal repository. The reference NFS flowsheet combines plant HA Column Wastes, Low-Level Wastes, and various HLLW process recycle streams to produce a borosilicate glass. After the canister is filled and sealed, the lid weld will be inspected and decontaminated. Equipment and instrumentation for feed supply to the calciner, calcination, melting, welding, weld inspection, canister decontamination, and in-cell canister storage are being designed and demonstrated. Preliminary facility layouts, equipment design data, and instrumentation needs are provided for major process equipment systems. Additional demonstration work is being performed to verify and complete the plant scale equipment design, including full-scale nonradioactive equipment testing, nonradioactive facility mockup for equipment remote operation and maintenance demonstration, and pilot plant production of waste glass from commercial fuel HLLW. The technology for spray calcination and in-can melting is ready for commercial application. Required additional work is described. A preliminary evaluation is made of materials that may be released from the process from normal and abnormal operations in the facility. 34 figures, 20 tables. (DLC)
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Larson, D. E. & Bonner, W. F. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-level waste immobilization program. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

Description: In hydrothermal environment tests, three simulated high-level waste (HLW) glasses, supercalcine, and SYNROC exhibit similar leaching behavior. Releases from the glasses are lowest at temperatures below 250/sup 0/C (the expected repository temperature range). Corrosion tests of candidate metallic-container materials in 250/sup 0/C Hanford ground water are under way and a group of polymers that shows good resistance to 200/sup 0/C water in autoclave tests is undergoing gamma irradiation. Methods of reducing melt-foaming in ceramic melters were investigated. Inclusion of monoxides of iron, nickel and manganese in the calcine significantly improved melt quality and reduced foaming. The addition of cornstarch to the melt, which inhibits foaming in laboratory studies, continues to be evaluated. A successful pilot-scale test of the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process was done using simulated waste representing the combined contents of the neutralized and Thorex waste tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center. Flexibility of the process for handling high-sodium waste was demonstrated.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Larson, D.E.; Rusin, J.M. & Ross, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool

Description: A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W. & Joyce, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology status of spray calcination--vitrification of high-level liquid waste for full-scale application

Description: Spray calcination and vitrification technology for stabilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been developed to the point that initiation of technology transfer to an industrial-sized facility could begin. This report discusses current process and equipment development status together with additional R and D studies and engineering evaluations needed. Preliminary full-scale process and equipment descriptions are presented. Technology application in a full-scale plant would blend three distinct maintenance design philosophies, depending on service life anticipated: (1) totally remote maintenance with limited viewing and handling equipment, (2) totally remote maintenance with extensive viewing and handling equipment, and (3) contact maintenance.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Keeley, R. B.; Bonner, W. F. & Larson, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of SHAFT 78 with respect to modeling radioactive waste burial in Eleana argillite, including calculations to date

Description: The SHAFT 78 Code (multidimensional, two fluid phases, porous medium) has been used to begin assessment of the consequences of nuclear waste burial in a 1000-acre repository emplaced in argillite. The methodology used can well be applied to other argillaceous rocks as well as to hard rocks in general so long as their in-situ rock permeability can reasonably be assumed to be temperature- and stress-independent. The repository is assumed to contain spent fuel (SF) UO{sub 2} at an initial power loading of 150 kW/acre and located at a depth of 600 m. It was found that with perfect backfill (permeabilty = 1 x 10{sup 7} darcy), a maximum fluid pressure of 770 bars existed in the repository at a time of 55 y after burial. Holding all other input variables constant, the maximum fluid pressure in the repository never exceeded the local lithostatic pressure when the permeability of the backfill material was increased to 1 x 10{sup -1} darcy. The calculated temperature histories are essentially independent of backfill permeability and porosity, indicating that heat transfer is conduction-dominated.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Eaton, R.R.; Sundberg, W.D.; Larson, D.E. & Sherman, M.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

Description: A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Larson, D.E.; Watrous, R.A. & Kruger, O.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface pressure measurements for CFD code validation in hypersonic flow

Description: Extensive surface pressure measurements were obtained on a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. All of the experimental results were obtained in the Sandia National Laboratories Mach 8 hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10{degrees} half-angle cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. The bluntness ratio of the geometry is 10% and the slice begins at 70% of the length of the vehicle. Surface pressure measurements were obtained for angles of attack from {minus}10 to + 18{degrees}, for various roll angles, at 96 locations on the body surface. A new and innovative uncertainty analysis was devised to estimate the contributors to surface pressure measurement uncertainty. Quantitative estimates were computed for the uncertainty contributions due to the complete instrumentation system, nonuniformity of flow in the test section of the wind tunnel, and variations in the wind tunnel model. This extensive set of high-quality surface pressure measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of computational fluid dynamics codes for hypersonic flow conditions.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Henfling, J.F. & Larson, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of rheological studies related to HWVP slurries

Description: Numerous studies (Section 8) have,addressed the Theological properties of simulated process slurries at the Savannah River Laboratory for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and at Pacific Northwest Laboratory`(PNL) for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). These studies were reviewed to summarize existing data applicable to HWVP design. The reviewers determined that the existing data provide important information on the effects of feed variability, solids loading, temperature, formating, pH, and scale-up. However, these data cannot serve as a basis for fundamental slurry transport calculations because data are not reported in sufficient detail over a range of shear rates and in appropriate terms to be sufficient for transport calculations.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Lanning, D.D.; Smith, P.A.; Terrones, G. & Larson, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of HWVP feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- Fiscal Year 1991: Evaluation of offgas generation, reductant requirements and thermal stability: Technical report

Description: The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize pretreated radioactive high-level waste and transuranic waste as glass for permanent disposal. Laboratory studies were conducted to characterize HWVP slurry chemistry during selected processing steps, using pretreated Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) simulant. Laboratory tests were designed to provide bases for determining the potential for hazardous gas generation, making chemical adjustments for glass redox control, and assessing the potential for rapid exothermic reactions of dried NCAW slurry. Offgas generation rates and the total moles of gas released as a function of selected pretreated NCAW components and process variables were measured. An emphasis was placed on identifying conditions that initiate significant H{sub 2} generation. Glass redox measurements, using Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe as an indicator of the glass oxidation state, were made to develop guidelines for HCOOH addition. Thermal analyses of dried NCAW simulant were conducted to assess the potential of a rapid uncontrollable exothermic reaction in the chemical processing cell tanks.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Wiemers, K.D.; Langowski, M.H.; Powell, M.R. & Larson, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AEROPLT: A versatile general purpose plot program

Description: AEROPLT is an interactive, user-friendly, general purpose plot code for plotting tabular data from multiple files. This DISSPLA-based code is convenient and easy to use while permitting great flexibility for users who want to customize their plots. A series of questions leads the user through the program and permits a return to specific portions of the code for plot refinement. Multidevice capability permits the user to plot on the terminal, write to a file for hardcopy plots, or do both simultaneously. An easily modified Setup File is used to store the terminal and hardcopy type codes, plot and text dimensions, and default plot specifications. Parameters for individual plots are written to a Restart File which can easily be edited to change subsequent plots. Additional capabilities are: color plots; a convenient method (similar to TEX) to implement all DISSPLA fonts, character sets, and math alphabets; superscripts, subscripts, underline, and italicize; and plots of the results of mathematical functions of the input data. 12 figs., 21 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1989
Creator: Larson, D.E. & Fuentes, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

Description: In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L. & Treat, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of in-can melting process and equipment, 1979 and 1980

Description: Nonradioactive process testing continued with the in-can melter as part of an investigation into the applicability of this vitrification process to various calcined high-level and incinerator ash radioactive wastes. The investigation in this report concentrated on how waste composition and canister fins affect in-can melter capacity and how waste composition affects glass quality. Process performance proved to be generally satisfactory. Pilot-scale in-can melter runs were performed with synthetic, nonradioactive, high-level wastes to produce eight canisters of glass. The synthetic wastes processed included high-level wastes from Savannah River, West Valley, and ICPP, as well as transuranic ash waste. Full-scale in-can melter runs using nonradioactive materials were also conducted, producing ten canisters of glass. Of the ten canisters, nine contained Savannah River Plant glass and one canister contained glass from synthetic zirconia calcine waste from the ICPP. 11.4 tons of glass was produced in test runs. In the full-scale in-can melter furnace, the baffles separating the six heating zones were removed because of baffle warping. A remotely operated section connecting the spray calciner to the canister was tested. Some problems were encountered with calcine plugging.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Petkus, L.L.; Larson, D.E.; Bjorklund, W.J. & Holton, L.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity of calculated pore fluid pressure to repository fracture geometry

Description: Calculations have been made to predict the sensitivity of pore-fluid pressure to the geometry of rock fracture patterns in the near vicinity of nuclear waste buried in a tuff repository. The SHAFT 79 code (for multi-dimensional, two phase flow in porous medium) has been used. The repository considered contains 1.0, 2.1 and 2.5 kW/can, canisters emplaced in welded tuff with a global repository loading of 75 kW/acre. The resulting calculations show that predicted pore fluid pressures vary from 55 bars for a homogeneous, fracture-free rock mass to 5 bars for a well fractured mass. This order of magnitude variation shows the importance of properly modeling fracture patterns in hard rock repository analysis.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Eaton, R. R.; Larson, D. E. & Korbin, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

Description: The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E. & Abrigo, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

Description: Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N. & Goles, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reaction sequences in simulated neutralized current acid waste slurry during processing with formic acid

Description: The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize high-level and transuranic wastes as glass for permanent disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is supporting the HWVP design activities by conducting laboratory-scale studies using a HWVP simulated waste slurry. Conditions which affect the slurry processing chemistry were evaluated in terms of offgas composition and peak generation rate and changes in slurry composition. A standard offgas profile defined in terms of three reaction phases, decomposition of H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, destruction of NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and production of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} was used as a baseline against which changes were evaluated. The test variables include nitrite concentration, acid neutralization capacity, temperature, and formic acid addition rate. Results to date indicate that pH is an important parameter influencing the N{sub 2}O/NO{sub x} generation ratio; nitrite can both inhibit and activate rhodium as a catalyst for formic acid decomposition to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}; and a separate reduced metal phase forms in the reducing environment. These data are being compiled to provide a basis for predicting the HWVP feed processing chemistry as a function of feed composition and operation variables, recommending criteria for chemical adjustments, and providing guidelines with respect to important control parameters to consider during routine and upset plant operation.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Smith, H. D.; Wiemers, K. D.; Langowski, M. H.; Powell, M. R. & Larson, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design of a nuclear waste vitrification facility

Description: This document describes a conceptual high-level waste immobilization facility. The facility would have the capability to calcine and then vitrify high-level liquid waste (HLLW). The vitrification would be accomplished in a canister which is seal-welded, checked for integrity, and decontaminated for movement to storage. Included in the facility would be the capability to repair faulty canister-lid seal welds, overpack failed canisters, and treat the process off-gas and cell ventilation air prior to release to the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) atmospheric protection system (APS). The nuclear waste vitrification facility (NWVF) would be an integral part of the FRP structure. The operations of the facilities would be centered in the waste vitrification cell (WVC) which performs most of the facility functions. The cell is a reinforced concrete hot cell, lined with stainless steel. Most operation and maintenance activities would be performed remotely using a crane equipped with an impact wrench or yoke. The major facility equipment includes a feed tank, spray calciner, two melters, weld-inspection stations, canister storage rack, and a canister decontamination cubicle. Installation and removal of equipment in the cell would be done through shielding doors. The air lock system of the canister decontamination cubicle would permit placement and removal of the canister. Activities in the cell may be observed through four shielding glass windows and/or up to three periscopes. The operating, service, and pipe galleries which house operating personnel and equipment necessary for cell operations are located adjacent to the cell.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Larson, D.E.; Blair, H.T.; Bonner, W.F.; Garrett, A.A.; Hanson, M.S.; Romero, L.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department