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Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with Children Experiencing Adjustment Difficulties

Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of child-centered group play therapy with children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this study determined the effectiveness of child-centered group play therapy in: (a) improving self-concept, (b) reducing externalizing, internalizing, and overall behavior problems, (c) enhancing emotional and behavioral adjustment to the school environment, and (d) increasing self-control of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Also investigated were child-centered group play therapy effects on reducing parenting stress of the parents of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. The experimental group consisted of 15 kindergarten children who received one 40-minute child-centered group play therapy session per week, for twelve weeks. Group facilitators were play therapists who were doctoral students at the University of North Texas. The control group consisted of the 14 kindergarten students that had been assigned to the control group in Baggerly's (1999) study. Before the group play therapy sessions began and after termination of the sessions: the researchers administered the Joseph Pre-School and Primary Self-Concept Screening Test; parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Report, Self-Control Rating Scale, Filial Problem Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index; and teachers completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher Report, Early Childhood Behavior Scale, and Self-Control Rating Scale. Although the general results of this study did not show statistically significant change due to child-centered group play therapy sessions, positive trends in the children's behavior, self-control, and self-concept were observed by the researcher, play therapists, and teachers. These trends and observations support the continued application of child-centered group play therapy with children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Several factors may have contributed to the lack of statistical significance demonstrated within this study. These factors include a) a small sample size; b) the sample was drawn from only one school; c) a minimum of interactions between therapists and teachers, and therapists and parents; d) two unforeseen and ...
Date: August 2000
Creator: McGuire, Donald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Results of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities and Certain Other Tests Used in Evaluating Children with Learning Disabilities

Description: The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, including its subtests and total test scores, can be used reliably as predictors of achievement on other tests used in the diagnosis of language disorders in children.
Date: June 1970
Creator: Garvin, Susanne B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis and Comparison of Infant's Speech with their Mother's Speech

Description: The present study is an investigation of certain aspects of the relationship which exists between the development of language of a child and the speech of his mother. An attempt was made to investigate the evolving speech pattern of the child as he is influenced by the speech patterns of his mother. Can one determine the age at which infants begin to develop speech similar to the speech patterns (intonation, phonemic content, distinctive feature content, place and manner of articulation) of their mother's speech?
Date: August 1969
Creator: Campbell, Bertha Joyce
Partner: UNT Libraries

Differences between High and Low Creative University Students on an Objective Measure of Personality

Description: This study was conducted to determine if high-creative college students differ from low-creative college students on an objective measure of personality. An additional purpose was to determine if university drama majors are more creative than non-drama majors.
Date: January 1968
Creator: Williams, Jackson D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Concept and Dogmatism as Variables in the Prediction of Internal-External Reward Expectancies

Description: The problem of this study was to determine the relationship between the nature of an individual's self-concept and belief system to his orientation toward internal versus external control of reinforcement. This study was designed to investigate the relationship of two variables, self-concept and open versus closed belief system, to a third variable, locus of control.
Date: May 1968
Creator: Lamb, Kathy Whitaker
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Incidence of Speech Defects among Juveniles Exhibiting Antisocial Aggressive Behavior

Description: The question of maladjustment of individuals with speech defects and its subsequent manifestation is the basic issue of this thesis. The study was conducted to answer the question: "What is the incidence of speech defects among juveniles exhibiting antisocial aggressive behavior?"
Date: January 1968
Creator: Anderson, Samantha G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Non-Offending Parents of Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy as a method of intervention for non-offending parents and their children who have experienced sexual abuse. Filial therapy is a didactic/dynamic approach used by play therapists to train parents to be therapeutic agents with their children. Parents are taught basic child-centered play therapy skills and the utilization of these skills in weekly play sessions with their children. Parents learn to create a special environment which enhances and strengthens the parent-child relationship, thus assisting in personal growth and change for both the parent and child. The purpose of this study was to determine if filial therapy is effective in: (a) increasing the acceptance of non-offending parents of their sexually abused children; (b) reducing the stress level of non-offending parents; (c) improving empathic behaviors of non-offending parents toward their sexually abused child; (d) decreasing the anxiety of sexually abused children; (e) enhancing the self-concept of sexually abused children; (f) decreasing behavior problems of sexually abused children as reported by their non-offending parents; and (g) enhancing the emotional adjustment of sexually abused children.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Costas, Mary Bassett
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Israeli Parents

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an intensive version of the Landreth (2002) 10-week filial therapy model as a method of intervention for children of Israeli parents living in Israel. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of intensive filial therapy training in (a) reducing internalizing behavior problems of Israeli children; (b) reducing externalizing behavior problems of Israeli children; and (c) reducing overall behavior problems of Israeli children. A second purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intensive filial therapy training with Israeli parents in increasing the parents' (a) empathic responsiveness with their children; (b) communication of acceptance to their children; (c) allowance of self-direction by their children; (d) involvement in their children's play activities; (e) feelings of efficacy as parents; and (f) reduction of parental stress. The experimental group consisted of fourteen Israeli children who their parents received nine intensive Filial Therapy training sessions within a five week period and had seven parent-child play sessions. The non-treatment comparison group consisted of thirteen Israeli children whose parents received no treatment. Parents in the study completed the Hebrew version of the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Index, and conducted pre-test and post-test play sessions for the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance revealed the children in the experimental group significantly reduced external behavior problems. The results also revealed the parents in the experimental group significantly reduced parental stress and significantly increased communication of empathy to their children.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Kidron, Michal
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Early Mental Health Intervention for Disadvantaged Preschool Children with Behavior Problems: The Effectiveness of Training Head Start Teachers in Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT)

Description: This study examined the effectiveness of training Head Start teachers and aides in child teacher relationship training (CTRT). CTRT is based on child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) (Landreth & Bratton, 2006), a filial therapy model based on the principles of child-centered play therapy, and was adapted for the classroom. In this quasi-experimental design, 12 teacher/aide pairs (n = 24) were assigned to the experimental (n = 12) or active control group (n = 12). Children who scored in the Borderline or Clinical range on at least one scale of the Child Behavior Checklist-Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) at pretest qualified for the study (n = 54). Nine hypotheses were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures multivariate analysis to determine if the CTRT group and the active control group performed differently across time according to pre-, mid-, and posttest results of the C-TRF. Additionally, effect sizes were calculated to determine practical significance. Five hypotheses were retained at the .05 level of significance. Post hoc analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the two phases of treatment. Results indicated that children in the experimental group made statistically significant improvements in externalizing problems (p = .003). Children of focus made statistically significant improvements in externalizing (p = .003) and total behavior (p = .01) problems. Results are particularly significant for the non-children of focus, who only received the in-classroom intervention. The non-children of focus made statistically significant improvements in externalizing behavior problems (p = .04) and practical significance was large. Results indicate that a school based intervention such as CTRT is a viable treatment option for many children with externalizing behavior problems.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Morrison, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries

School based child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) with low income Black American parents: Effects on children's behaviors and parent-child relationship stress, a pilot study.

Description: This study examined the effectiveness of training low income Black American parents in child parent relationship therapy (CPRT). In response to the cultural values and challenges faced by low income Black American parents, the CPRT manual was adapted slightly for use with parents for this study. In this quasi-experimental design, 14 parents were assigned to the experimental group and 13 parents were assigned to the no treatment control group. Six hypotheses were analyzed. Different analyses were conducted based on the hypotheses. A two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted to determine if the CPRT treatment and the no treatment control group performed differently across time according to pretest and posttest results of the Child Behavior Checklist - Parent Version (CBCL) and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Additionally, partial η2 was calculated to determine practical significance. Five hypotheses were retained at the .025 level of significance. Findings indicated that parents who participated in the CPRT training reported a statistically significant decrease in parent-child relationship stress. Specifically, parents assigned to the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in Child Domain (p < .001), Parent Domain (p < .001), and Total Stress (p < .001) of the PSI when compared to parents assigned to the no treatment control group. Similarly, results indicated that parents assigned to the experimental group reported statistically significant improvements in Total Problems (p < .01) and Externalizing Problems (p = .001) of the CBCL, when compared to parents assigned to the no treatment control group. No statistical significant results were found on Internalizing Problems.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Sheely, Angela
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparative Analysis of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (e) increasing communication of empathy between mothers and child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with child witnesses of domestic violence. The experimental group consisted of 11 child witnesses of domestic violence whose mothers received 12 Intensive Filial Therapy training sessions within a three week period and had 12 mother-child play sessions. The Intensive Individual Play Therapy comparison group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, and the non-treatment control group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, were utilized from the Kot (1995) study. The Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy comparison group was utilized from the Tyndall-Lind (1999) study. Children in all studies completed the Joseph Preschool and Primary Self-concept Screening Test and the Child Behavior Checklist. Mothers who received Intensive Filial Therapy training conducted pretest and posttest play sessions for the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Analyses of Covariance revealed the children in the experimental group significantly increased in self-concept, and significantly reduced overall behavior problems. A comparison of t-test scores of the pretests and posttests revealed mothers in the experimental group significantly increased communication of empathy to their children.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Smith, Nancy Renfer
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Efficacy of Intensive Individual Play Therapy for Children Diagnosed with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Description: This study was design to determine the efficacy of intensive individual play therapy as a method of intervention for children diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was designed to study the effectiveness of an intensive play therapy intervention in: a) reducing symptoms of childhood depression in children with IDDM; b) reducing symptoms of anxiety in children with IDDM; c) reducing the overall behavior difficulties in children with IDDM; d) increasing healthy adjustment in children with IDDM; e) increasing diabetic's children's adherence to their diabetic regime; and f) impacting these emotional and behavioral symptoms over time. The 15 children in the experimental group received 12, daily play therapy sessions while attending a summer camp for children with diabetes. The control group, consisting of 15 children who attended the diabetic summer camp, received no play therapy. Children and parents in both groups completed pretest, post-test and three-month follow-up data, consisting of: the Children's Depression Inventory, the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, the Filial Problems Checklist and the Diabetes Adaptation Scale. Analysis of covariance revealed that the children in the experimental group significantly improved their adaptation to their diabetes following intensive play therapy as reflected by the Diabetes Adaptation Scale. No other hypothesis were retained, although statistical trends noted increased improvement in the experimental group in the areas of behavior difficulties and adherence behavior. Possible explanations for these results include a lack of symptoms reported at the time of pretesting and the validity of these instruments for a chronically ill population. The results of this study indicate that intensive play therapy may be an effective intervention for children diagnosed with IDDM. Qualitative observations and progress noted in therapy reveal that young children with IDDM have the capability to address and resolve issues of anxiety, depression and other emotional issues ...
Date: August 2000
Creator: Jones, Elizabeth Murphy
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison Study of Individual and Group Play Therapy In Treating Kindergarten Children with Adjustment Problems

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of individual child-centered play therapy in the elementary school in: 1) enhancing the self-concept of kindergarten children who are experiencing adjustment difficulties; 2) decreasing the overall behavioral problems of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties 3) decreasing externalizing behavior problems such as aggression and delinquency of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 4) decreasing the internalizing behavior problems such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 5) increasing parental perception of change in the problematic behaviors of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; and 6) enhancing self-control in kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. A secondary objective was to compare the participants involved in individual child-centered play therapy with participants in a previous study who were involved in child-centered group play therapy on the above named dimensions. The experimental group, consisting of 14 kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties, received 10-12, 30-minute individual play therapy sessions in a 12 week period in their elementary school. The comparison group, utilized from the 1999 McGuire study, consisted of 15 children with adjustment problems and received 12-14, 45-minute group play therapy sessions in 14 weeks in their elementary school. The control group, consisting of 13 children experiencing adjustment problems, received no play therapy intervention over a 12 week period. An Analysis of Covariance revealed significant findings in 1 of the 6 hypotheses and one subscale hypothesis examining the effectiveness of individual play therapy versus the wait list control group. Specifically, children with adjustment problems in the experimental group exhibited a significant reduction in total behavior problems and a significant reduction in externalizing behavior problems as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Form (CBCL). Additionally, an Analysis of Covariance revealed significant findings in 1 of the 6 hypotheses examining the comparison of the effectiveness of ...
Date: May 2000
Creator: Rennie, Robyn Lynette
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy Training with Undergraduate Teacher Trainees; Child-Teacher Relationship Training

Description: This experimental research study investigated the effectiveness of the application of Child-Teacher Relationship training, adapted from child-centered play therapy procedures and skills training (filial therapy), with undergraduate teacher trainees. Specifically, this research determined if Child-Teacher Relationship training facilitated change in teacher trainees' interactions with children, parenting attitudes, and play therapy attitude knowledge and skills. The experimental group of teacher trainees (n=18) received 10 weekly ninety minute training sessions in child-centered play therapy skills and procedures and conducted 7 weekly special play times with children. The comparison group (n=20) received supplemental training in child guidance during the ten weeks that included parent training and alternatives to corporal punishment. Experimental and comparison group participants completed pre-test and post-test measures, consisting of the Adolescent and Adult Parenting Attitudes Inventory (AAPI-2), the Play Therapy Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills Survey (PTAKSS), and a videotaped special play time with a child which was rated using the Measurement of Empathy in Adult and Child Interactions (MEACI). Analysis of covariance on adjusted post test means revealed that the teacher trainees in the experimental group demonstrated statistically significant ("<.05) increases in empathy towards children, allowing the child self direction, communication of acceptance, and involvement as measured by the MEACI. Significant ("<.05) increases were also reported on teacher trainees in the experimental group on play therapy attitudes, knowledge, and skills as measured by the PTAKSS. The experimental group demonstrated growth in level of empathy and adult-child role subscales on the AAPI, and positive trends (.07) were reported on the AAPI expectations of children subscale.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Brown, Christopher J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effectiveness of a Child-Centered Self-Reflective Play Therapy Supervision Model

Description: This study investigated the effectiveness of a child-centered self-reflective play therapy supervision model with master's level counselor education graduate students. Specifically, this research determined if the self-reflective play therapy supervision model facilitated significant change in the master's level play therapists': (a) child-centered attitude; (b) knowledge of child-centered play therapy; and (c) confidence in applying play therapy skills. This study also measured change in the skills of: (d) tracking behavior, (e) reflecting content, (f) reflecting feelings, (g) facilitating decision-making and self-responsibility, (h) facilitating esteem-building and encouragement, (i) encouraging the child to lead, (j) setting limits, (k) ability to be congruent, (l) quality of non-verbal responses and (m) quality of verbal responses. The experimental group students (N=15) utilized a 15 week self-reflective play therapy supervision model. This model consisted of a manual that reviewed the rationale and utilization of six therapeutic responses of child-centered play therapy, self-assessment forms that were completed after reviewing weekly play therapy session videos and weekly group supervision. The control group (N=15) received supervision during the 15 weeks but did not use the manual or the self-assessment forms. Prior to working with their first client and again at the end of the semester practicum, the play therapy supervisees completed the Play Therapy Attitude-Knowledge-Skills Survey. Each supervisee submitted a pre-tape and a post-tape of a play therapy session during their semester practicum. Four doctoral students rated play therapy session video tapes using the Play Therapy Skills Assessment form. The play therapy session video tapes were assessed by objective raters. An independent t-test utilizing the gain score as the dependent variable revealed that play therapy supervisees in the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in their ability to implement the skill of tracking behavior, facilitating decision-making and self-responsibility and facilitating esteem-building and encouragement. In addition, the experimental group supervisees ...
Date: May 2000
Creator: Giordano, Maria A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship Among Stress, Anxiety, Self Concept, Social Support and Illness in Children

Description: This research study was designed to investigate the relationships of stress, anxiety, self concept, social support and illness in children and to examine the potential of specific cognitive mediating variables, self concept and anxiety, and an external mediating variable, social support and an interaction between self concept and social support, to significantly increase the efficiency of stress as a predictor of children's illness. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if stressful life events, anxiety, self concept, social support, sex and illness are related in children, (2) to determine if stressful life events are an adequate predictor of illness in children, (3) to determine if a combination of anxiety, self concept and social support will increase the predictive efficiency concerning illness in children, (4) to provide information that may help develop a theoretical base concerning stressful life events and illness in children, and (5) to provide information that may be beneficial with regard to future research involving stress, anxiety, self concept, social support, sex and illness in children.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Cowles, Janelle
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Group Counseling upon Visual Perception and its Relationship to Other Forms of Perception

Description: The study of perception of visual images and the influence of counseling upon them has received little if any attention. This study was designed to investigate this uncharted area and to demonstrate the effects of counseling upon visual perception. The primary function of this investigation was to seek answers to the following questions. Is it possible for group counseling to have an effect on one's perception of visual stimuli? Will a counseling experience which produces a change in a person' behavior also cause that person to perceive visual images in a different way than he perceived them before counseling? In other words, does a concomitant relationship exist between visual perception and other forms of perception?
Date: May 1969
Creator: Berryman, Berle Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of Certain Factors Related to Self-Concept, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitude toward Sex Education of a Group of Elementary Teachers

Description: The problem of this study was to determine the relationship between self-concept, expressed sexual knowledge, and attitude toward sex education of a group of experienced elementary teachers. A second dimension of the problem was to investigate the relationship of the three variables above with certain other factors that could possibly influence the effectiveness of the elementary teacher of sex education. These factors were age of the teacher, sex of the teacher ,grade level of teaching, educational level of the teacher, teaching experience, marital status of the teacher, number of siblings of the teacher, and church preference or affiliation of the teacher.
Date: June 1970
Creator: Hobbs, George W. (George William), 1932-
Partner: UNT Libraries